næmd (OSw) nævnd (ODan) næfnd (OSw) næmpd (OSw) noun

A group of men, often twelve (cf. næmdarmaþer), appointed to deal with and decide in legal matters. Its origin is debated, and may vary within the Nordic area. The Danish material suggests ecclesiastical incentive to replace formal evidence such as compurgators and ordeals with truth-seeking procedures. Certain variations may indicate a gradual change over time: they were appointed either for each case (ODan ESjL, SkL) or for a fixed period (ODan JyL), and they acquitted or convicted the accused either unanimously (OSw ÄVgL, YVgL) or by majority decision (OSw YVgL). There was a næmd for various judicial/administrative levels such as hæraþ (q.v.) and land (q.v.). Difficult to distinguish from næmdarmaþer (q.v.) and næmd maþer (cf. næmna), and frequently appearing alongside these as well as in mixed forms, such as mæn af næmpþ (YVgL Gb).


{næmd} OSw HL Kgb, Äb
board OSw ÖgL Rb
commission OSw DL Rb
OSw MEL Kgb

deputation OSw DL Kkb
jury OSw BjR
OSw DL Rb
OSw KrL Kgb Kmb Rb Eb DbI DbII SmbI SmbII Add
OSw MEL Kgb Rb Eb SmbI
OSw MESt Kmb Skb Eb DbII SmbI
OSw ÖgL Kkb, Eb, Db, Vm, Rb, Bb

nominated men ODan ESjL 1−3
ODan SkBL
ODan SkKL 7
ODan SkL 66, 108, 146, 147, 177, 180, 217, 218, 221, 226, 230
ODan VSjL passim
OSw ÄVgL Smb, Gb, Rlb
OSw YVgL Kkb, Frb, Gb, Rlb, Tb, Föb, Utgb, Add

panel OSw DL Eb, Rb
OSw SdmL Kkb, Kgb, Jb, Bb, Kmb, Rb, Till
OSw SmL
OSw UL StfBM, Kkb, Kgb, Mb, Jb, Kmb, Rb, Add. 13
OSw VmL Kkb, Kgb, Jb, Kmb, Bb, Rb

representatives OSw UL Kgb, Kmb
OSw VmL Kkb, Kgb, Kmb

Expressions:

nævnd i kyn (ODan)

men of the kin ODan JyL 2, 3

Refs:

Andersen 2014; KLNM s.v. nämnd; Lund s.v. næfnd; Schlyter s.v. næmd, Schlyter (bihang) s.v. næmd; SL ÄVgL, 69 note 33; Tamm and Vogt, eds, 2016, 309; Åqvist 1989, 176–336

Citation
  • ‘næmd’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.

  • http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/3841
    (05/22/2024)