Introduction

LMNL

A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law (LMNL) is a multilingual reference work designed to make terminology from several medieval legal texts more accessible to English-speaking audiences. It contains over 6000 Nordic headwords, more than 9000 English equivalents and approximately 13,200 cross-references. It is intended to function as a general lexicon of medieval Nordic legal terminology in use before the national laws. Where possible the editors have combined related terms in multiple languages under the same headword in order to highlight similarities throughout the Nordic region during the Middle Ages. The LMNL differs from other reference works, and in particular other lexica, by its presentation of related terms from multiple languages within a single entry in a manner similar to the Kulturhistoriskt lexikon för nordisk medeltid (KLNM). Around a quarter of the entries feature a brief text articulating how the term fits into the legal landscape. Creation of the LMNL has been made possible in large part due to a generous project grant from the Swedish Research Council (2014–2017) and the gracious cooperation of members of the ongoing Medieval Nordic Laws (MNL) project begun at the University of Aberdeen in 2009. Draft English translations supplied by them, along with a small number of published translations (see table below), form the basis of this lexicon. Additional support was provided by the Royal Swedish Academy of Letters, which supplied funding for translations and revisions of some MNL laws and for the LMNL colloquium held in Stockholm in November 2015.

Material

LMNL is built upon 25 legal texts, mainly provincial laws, written in Old Swedish, Old Icelandic, Old Norwegian, Old Danish, Old Gutnish and Old Faroese. Material for the lexicon was taken from editions used in the latest English translations of the oldest medieval Nordic laws, many of which were produced as part of the Medieval Nordic Laws project. With such a large textual corpus and a relatively short timeframe in which to work, it was deemed most feasible to collect Nordic legal terms and phrases and present them with the English equivalents selected by the translators of the texts in which those terms appear. Modern English equivalents throughout the LMNL are therefore largely taken directly from draft and published translations with minimal interpretation by the editors. Editorial interventions generally consist of minor adjustments in cases where idiomatic translations would be confusing when removed from their contexts. Equivalents in subsequent published translations will possibly vary somewhat from those presented here. Medieval terms have been drawn from editions utilized by the translators. The following table is a list of texts cited, their common abbreviations and bibliographic information on the editions and translations used for the LMNL.

BorgL

Borgartingsloven

Halvorsen, Eyvind Fjeld and Magnus Rindal, eds. 2008. De eldste østlandske kristenrettene. Oslo: Riksarkivet. [Version 1, AM 78 4to]

L. Collinson (draft trans.)

DL

Dalalagen

Schlyter, C. J., ed. 1841. Codex iuris Vestmannici: Westmanna-lagen. SSGL. Vol. 5. Lund: Berlingska boktryckeriet.

I. Larsson (draft trans.)

EidsL

Eidsivatingsloven

Halvorsen, Eyvind Fjeld and Magnus Rindal, eds. 2008. De eldste østlandske kristenrettene. Oslo: Riksarkivet. [Longer version, AM 68 4to]

L. Collinson (draft trans.)

ESjL

Eriks sjællandske lov

Skautrup, Peter, ed. 1936. Eriks sjællandske lov, text 1–2. DGL. Vol. 5. Copenhagen: Gyldendal.

Tamm, Ditlev and Helle Vogt, trans. 2016. The Danish Medieval Laws: The Laws of Scania, Zealand and Jutland. London: Routledge.

FrL

Frostatingsloven

Keyser, R and P. A. Munch, eds. 1846. Norges gamle Love indtil 1387. Vol. 1. Christiania: Grøndahl.

A. Mindrebø and J. S. Love (draft trans.)

GL

Gutalagen

Pipping, Hugo, ed. 1905–07. Guta lag och Guta saga jämte ordbok. Samfund til Udgivelse af gammel nordisk Litteratur 33. Copenhagen: Møller.

Peel, Christine, trans. 2015. Guta Lag and Guta Saga. The Law and History of the Gotlanders. London: Routledge.

Grg

Grágás

Vilhjálmur Finsen, ed. 1852 (repr. 1974). Grágás: Konungsbók. Odense: Odense Universitetsforlag.

Dennis, Andrew, Peter Foote and Richard Perkins, trans. 1980–2000. Laws of Early Iceland: Grágás; The Codex Regius of Grágás with material from other manuscripts. 2 vols. Winnipeg: Univ. of Manitoba.

GS

Gutasagan

Pipping, Hugo, ed. 1905–07. Guta lag och Guta saga jämte ordbok. Samfund til Udgivelse af gammel nordisk Litteratur 33. Copenhagen: Møller.

Peel, Christine, trans. 2015. Guta Lag and Guta Saga. The Law and History of the Gotlanders. London: Routledge.

GuL

Gulatingsloven

Keyser, R and P. A. Munch, eds. 1846. Norges gamle Love indtil 1387. Vol. I. Christiania: Grøndahl.

E. Simensen (draft trans.)

HL

Hälsingelagen

Schlyter, C. J., ed. 1844. Codex iuris Helsingici: Helsinge-lagen. SSGL. Vol. 6. Lund: Berlingska boktryckeriet.

S. Brink (draft trans.)

Jónsbók

Schulman, Jana K, ed. and trans. 2010. Jónsbók. The Laws of Later Iceland. Saarbrücken: AQ-Verlag.

Js

Járnsíða

Haraldur Bernharðsson, Magnús Lyngdal Magnússon and Már Jónsson, eds. 2005. Járnsíða og Kristinréttur Árna Þorlákssonar. Reykjavík: Sögufélagið.

J. S. Love (draft trans.)

JyL

Jyske lov

Skautrup, Peter, ed. 1933. Jyske lov, text 1: NkS 295 8o. DGL Vol. 2. Copenhagen: Gyldendal.

Tamm, Ditlev and Helle Vogt, trans. 2016. The Danish Medieval Laws: The Laws of Scania, Zealand and Jutland. London: Routledge.

KRA

Kristinréttr Árna Þorlákssonar

Haraldur Bernharðsson, Magnús Lyngdal Magnússon and Már Jónsson, eds. 2005. Járnsíða og Kristinréttur Árna Þorlákssonar. Reykjavík: Sögufélagið.

J. S. Love (draft trans.)

SdmL

Södermannalagen

Schlyter, C. J., ed. 1838. Codex iuris Sudermannici: Södermanna-lagen. SSGL. Vol. 4. Lund: Berlingska boktryckeriet.

U. Djärv (draft trans.)

Seyð

Seyðabrævið

Poulsen, Jóhan Hendrik W. and Ulf Zachariasen, eds. Michael Barnes and David R. Margolin, trans. 1971. Seyðabrævið. Tórshavn: Føroya Fróðskaparfelag.

SkKL

Skånske kirkelov

Aakjær, Svend and Erik Kroman, eds. 1933. Skånske lov: Anders Sunesøns parafrase, skånske kirkelov. DGL Vol. 1, bk. 2. Copenhagen: Gyldendal.

Tamm, Ditlev and Helle Vogt, trans. 2016. The Danish Medieval Laws: The Laws of Scania, Zealand and Jutland. London: Routledge.

SkL

Skånske lov

Brøndum-Nielsen, Johs and Svend Aakjær, eds. 1933. Skånske lov, text 1–3. DGL. Vol. 1, bk. 1. Copenhagen: Gyldendal.

Tamm, Ditlev and Helle Vogt, trans. 2016. The Danish Medieval Laws: The Laws of Scania, Zealand and Jutland. London: Routledge.

SmL

Smålandslagen (Tiohärads lag)

Schlyter, C. J., ed. 1844. Codicis iuris Smalandici pars de re ecclesiastica: Kristnu-balken af Smålands-lagen. SSGL. Vol. 6. Lund: Berlingska boktryckeriet.

S. Fridell (draft trans.)

UL

Upplandslagen

Schlyter, C. J., ed. 1834. Codex iuris Uplandici: Uplands-lagen. SSGL. Vol. 3. Stockholm: P. A. Norstedt & Söner.

C. Peel (draft trans.)

VmL

Västmannalagen

Schlyter, C. J., ed. 1841. Codex iuris Vestmannici: Westmanna-lagen. SSGL. Vol. 5. Lund: Berlingska boktryckeriet.

C. Peel (draft trans.)

VSjL

Valdemars sjællandske lov

Kroman, Erik, ed. 1941. Valdemars sjællandske lov, ældre og yngre redaktion. DGL. Vol. 8. Copenhagen: Gyldendal.

Tamm, Ditlev and Helle Vogt, trans. 2016. The Danish Medieval Laws: The Laws of Scania, Zealand and Jutland. London: Routledge.

YVgL

Yngre Västgötalagen

Schlyter, C. J. and H. S. Collin, eds. 1827. Codex iuris vestrogotici: Westgöta-lagen. SSGL. Vol. 1. Stockholm: Z. Hæggström.

T. Lindkvist (draft trans.)

ÄVgL

Äldre Västgötalagen

Schlyter, C. J. and H. S. Collin, eds. 1827. Codex iuris vestrogotici: Westgöta-lagen. SSGL. Vol. 1. Stockholm: Z. Hæggström.

T. Lindkvist (draft trans.)

ÖgL

Östgötalagen

Schlyter, C. J., ed. 1830. Codex iuris Ostrogotici: Östgöta-lagen. SSGL. Vol. 2. Stockholm: P. A. Norstedt & Söner.

J. Benham (draft trans.)

Headword selection

Contents of the LMNL represent only a selection of material from the available medieval legal texts. Four of the editors were given the discretion to determine which terms were legally relevant and merited inclusion in the lexicon. Central legal concepts have been included, as have an expanded set of terms deemed germane to the legal culture of the period. These lists were subsequently brought together to form the core of the lexicon. Not all terms were considered equally necessary by every editor, but all selected terms have been retained in the lexicon with the understanding that some terms may have a more legal significance in one text than in another. Therefore not every term included has been excerpted from all sources used in the LMNL. It is hoped that further material can be included in subsequent editions of the LMNL.

Principles for lemmatization

The LMNL is intended to illustrate how cognate terms function across the breadth of the medieval Nordic region. To accomplish this, closely related terms have often been gathered under a single headword. A distinction has been drawn between words with the same meaning that differ merely in the form of a prefix or suffix (which are gathered under one headword) and those that are a combination of distinct elements forming words with the same meaning (which have been treated separately). Thus lyte (ODan) and áljótr (ON) are treated together under the headword lyti (OSw), while arvi (OSw) and arftaki (OSw) are kept separate despite both meaning ‘heir’. Certain linguistic distinctions, such as nominal gender and verbal prefixes, have been ignored, as with the OGu and ON terms for ‘to gamble’ (dufla), which can be found under fordoble (ODan). Extensive cross-references throughout the LMNL ensure that subordinated headword forms and variants remain accessible. Grammatical description has been limited to part of speech for Nordic headwords and in distinguishing homonyms within the English>Nordic section.

Entry content

Each entry contains English equivalents and textual references as found in most dictionaries treating historical languages. The headword line lists forms of the excerpted term, including some of the most common spelling variants. Entries in the lexicon are lemmatized and organized according to the Old Swedish form of the headword, if there is one, as the Old Swedish laws form the bulk of the source material within the LMNL. Otherwise the terms are alphabetized according to the Nordic language abbreviation.

Sample entry

Headword forms

Normalized headword forms have been adopted from the most comprehensive dictionaries currently available to enable consultation of earlier and ongoing lexicographic efforts. The forms of the Old Swedish and Old Gutnish headwords have been taken more or less directly from Schlyter’s Ordbok till Samlingen af Sweriges gamla lagar, and Old Danish headwords follow the online Gammeldansk Ordbog wherever possible. Old Icelandic, Old Norwegian and Old Faroese entries are listed under the normalized Old Norse (ON) given in the Dictionary of Old Norse Prose.   Some negative adjective forms are given their own headword (e.g. ogipter, ólýstr), and certain participial verbal forms are here treated as adjectives. Some headwords with multiple common forms are listed as alternatives to facilitate easier seaching. Alternative forms were selected by editorial discretion and are not intended to be comprehensive.

Grammar

Grammatical analysis has been limited to part of speech for Nordic headwords. No grammatical information for terms is presented in the English>Nordic section except to distinguish homonyms.

Explanatory articles

Approximately one quarter of the headwords have also been furnished with explanatory articles. They are intended to provide concise supplementary information about the legal concept the term represents, and readers are encouraged to consult the bibliographic references for more detailed analysis. Articles were composed by the LMNL editors with assistance and commentary of external experts. Article content varies in scope depending on the amount of identified scholarship on the term. Certain articles offer brief explanations of the contexts in which a term is found (e.g. ON halsbók), while others (e.g. OSw sökia) give a preliminary semantic analysis. Still others (e.g. OSw laghmaþer) provide historical or comparative background relating to the term as it is used across regions and time periods.

English equivalents

English equivalents are taken more or less directly from published or draft translations without exclusion. In some cases English synonyms have been employed by individual translators to render the same medieval word or phrase, and the parts of speech of the English will not always correspond to those of the Nordic originals. Likewise an English equivalent may be applied to multiple Nordic terms. The editors have elected to leave the majority of these as an accumulation of equivalents in alphabetical order to illustrate the (at times extensive) semantic range of the legal terms (cf. OSw and OSw sak), and therefore the editors have made minimal attempts to evaluate the choices of the translators. In a few rare cases (e.g. OSw agnabaker) the draft translations currently have no English equivalent, and the medieval term is here given within {}.

Phrases/expressions/combinations

Phrases throughout the LMNL have been excerpted at the discretion of the editors with no bound set of criteria beyond legal relevance. Most phrases presented here are set phrases with a technical legal definition or idioms with a meaning specific to legal contexts. Phrases are not a primary focus of LMNL, and those given represent only a selection of possible legal expressions present in the medieval laws. English equivalents and textual references for phrases are presented in the same manner as for individual headwords.

Textual references

Textual references are given for each English equivalent, most of which have been taken verbatim from published or draft translations. Textual references listed beside the equivalents for each headword are intended to be illustrative rather than comprehensive. These textual references have been divided by language grouping; OSw for laws written in Old Swedish, ODan for Old Danish, OFar for Old Faroese, OGu for Old Gutnish, OIce for Old Icelandic and ONorw for Old Norwegian. These are further divided by text and section or chapter number (see abbreviations below). Terms which appear frequently within one or more laws and have a common English equivalent (e.g. OSw bonde ‘householder’) often give only the abbreviation for the work in which the term appears.

See also

In many entries cross-references are given to assist readers in locating synonyms or related terms.

References

A list of references to published works discussing the headword. In most cases author or editor name and year are given and are keyed to the bibliography.

English>Nordic section 

The English>Nordic section of the LMNL is a mirror of the Nordic>English section. It is intended as a limited index to give users an overview of the range of medieval terms covered by an individual English equivalent. For instance, the English equivalent ‘fine’ could represent ON áfang, OGu alagh and OSw bot as well as several similar terms.  

Appendices and bibliography

Six appendices have been supplied by the editors to provide information about groups of terms clustering around general medieval Nordic legal concepts. They are intended to give a more meaningful description of the terms together than would be allowed by articles distributed throughout the lexicon. These appendices cover:

  • Appendix A: Administrative and judicial divisions

  • Appendix B: Agriculture and forestry

  • Appendix C: Borders, boundaries and boundary markers

  • Appendix D: Currency and weights & measures

  • Appendix E: Kinship

  • Appendix F: Calendar of Church Feast and Fast Days

A bibliography has also been appended. It is intended to serve as a selective list of primary and secondary works treating the legal texts covered by the LMNL. An emphasis has been placed on recent titles to demonstrate how research has progressed since the publication of the Kulturhistorisk leksikon. Many of the works cited are those which informed the explanatory articles throughout the LMNL.

Abbreviations

Many abbreviations for individual sections or books in the laws, particularly Swedish laws, refer to accepted modern titles rather than to the medieval ones, which were often lacking. For example, the abbreviation Rb stands for Sw Rättegångsbalken, rather than OSw þingmalabalker (‘The Legal Procedure Section’ in English).

Cited sources

BorgL

 

The Borgarting Law (Norw Borgartingsloven)

DL

 

The Dala Law (Sw Dalalagen, often called Äldre Västmannalagen (ÄVmL) ‘The Older Västmanna Law’)

 

Bb

The book concerning building and community (Sw Byggningabalken, OSw bygningabalker)

 

Eb

The book concerning the King’s oath (Sw Edsöresbalken, OSw kunungs eþsöre)

 

Gb

The book concerning matrimony (Sw Giftermålsbalken, OSw giptninga balker)

 

Kkb

The book concerning Christian law (Sw Kyrkobalken, OSw kristnubalker)

 

Mb

The book concerning personal and property rights (Sw Manhelgdsbalken, OSw manhælghisbalker)

 

Rb

The book concerning the legal process (Sw Rättegångsbalken, OSw þingbalker)

 

Tjdb

The book concerning theft (Sw Tjuvnadsbalken, OSw um þiufnaþ)

EidsL

 

The Eidsivathing Law (Norw Eidsivatingsloven)

ESjL

 

Erik’s Law of Zealand (Dan Eriks sjællandske lov)

FrL

 

The Frostathing Law (Norw Frostatingsloven)

 

ArbA

The first book concerning inheritance (Norw Den fyrste arvebolken)

 

ArbB

The second book concerning inheritance (Norw Den andre arvebolken)

 

Bvb

The book concerning offences and oaths (Norw Brotsverksbolken)

 

Intr

Introduction (Norw Innleiing)

 

Jkb

The book concerning land purchase (Norw Jordkaupebolken)

 

KrbA

The first book concerning Church Law (Norw Den fyrste kristendomsbolken)

 

KrbB

The second book concerning Church Law (Norw Den andre kristendomsbolken)

 

Kvb

The book concerning women (Norw Kvinnebolken)

 

Leb

The book concerning the naval levy (Norw Leidangsbolken)

 

LlbA

The first book concerning tenancy (Norw Den fyrste landsleigebolken)

 

LlbB

The second book concerning tenancy (Norw Den andre landsleigebolken)

 

Mhb

On inviolability of the person (Norw Mannhelgebolken)

 

R

Amendments (Norw Rettarbøter)

 

Rgb

The book concerning the legal process (Norw Rettargangsbolken)

 

Sab

The book concerning wergild (Norw Sakøyrebolken)

 

Tfb

The book concerning summons to a thing assembly (Norw Tingfarebolken)

 

Var

A book on various topics/miscellaneous matters (Norw Bolk om ymse emne)

GL

 

The Law of the Gotlanders (Sw Gutalagen)

Grg

 

‘The Grey Goose’ Laws of the Icelandic Commonwealth (ON Grágás)

 

Arþ

Inheritance section (ON Arfa þáttr)

 

Bat

The wergild ring list (ON Baugatal)

 

Feþ

Betrothals section (ON Festa þáttr)

 

Fjl

On hire of property (ON Um fjárleigur)

 

Hrs

On commune obligations (ON Um hreppaskil)

 

Klb

Christian Laws section (ON Kristinna laga þáttr)

 

Lbþ

Land claims section (ON Landbrigða þáttr)

 

Lrþ

The Law Council section (ON Lögréttu þáttr)

 

Lsþ

The Lawspeaker’s section (ON Lögsögumanns þáttr)

 

Misc

‘Miscellaneous articles’

 

Ómb

Dependents section (ON Ómaga bálkr)

 

Rsþ

Searches section (ON Rannsókna þáttr)

 

Tíg

On tithe payment (ON Um tíundargjald)

 

Vís

Treatment of homicide (ON Vígslóði)

 

Þsþ

Assembly procedures section (ON Þingskapa þáttr)

GS

 

The Saga of the Gotlanders (Sw Gutasagan)

GuL

 

The Gulathing Law (Norw Gulatingsloven)

 

Arb

The book concerning inheritance (Norw Arvebolken)

 

Kpb

The book concerning trade (Norw Kjøpebolken)

 

Krb

The Church Law (Norw Kristendomsbolken, Kristenretten)

 

Kvb

The book concerning matrimony (Norw Kvinnebortgiftingsbolken)

 

Kvr

The rules about whaling (Norw Kvalretten)

 

Leb

The book concerning the naval levy (Norw Leidangsbolken)

 

Llb

The book concerning tenancy (Norw Landsleigebolken)

 

Løb

The book concerning freedmen (Norw Løysingsbolken)

 

Mhb

On inviolability of the person (Norw Mannhelgebolken)

 

Reb

Amendments (Norw Rettarbøter)

 

Sab

The book concerning wergild (Norw Bjarne Mårssons saktal)

 

Tfb

The book concerning summons to a thing assembly (Norw Tingfarebolken)

 

Tjb

The book concerning theft (Norw Tjuvebolken)

 

Trm

The Peace Pledge (Norw Trygdemålet)

 

Olb

The book concerning redemption of odal land (Norw Odelsløysingsbolken)

HL

 

The Law of the Hälsingar (Sw Hälsingelagen)

 

Blb

The book concerning building and community (Sw Byalagsbalken, OSw viþerbobalker)

 

För

Praefatio (Sw Förord, OSw ‘Praefatio’)

 

Jb

The book concerning land (Sw Jordabalken, OSw jorþarbalker)

 

Kgb

The King’s book (Sw Konungabalken, OSw kunungsbalker)

 

Kkb

The book concerning Church and Christian Law (Sw Kyrkobalken, OSw kirkiubalker)

 

Kmb

The book concerning trade (Sw Köpmålabalken, OSw köpmalabalker)

 

Mb

The book concerning personal and property rights (Sw Manhelgdsbalken, OSw manhælghisbalker)

 

Rb

The book concerning legal process (Sw Rättegångsbalken, OSw þingmalabalker)

 

Äb

The book concerning inheritance (Sw Ärvdabalken, OSw ærfþarbalker)

 

‘Jón’s Book’ The Laws of Later Iceland (1280) (ON Jónsbók)

 

Fml

Maritime law (ON Farmannalög)

 

HT

Of the Holy Faith (ON Um helga trú)

 

Kab

Trade (ON Kaupabálkr)

 

Kge

Marriage and inheritance (ON Kvenna giptingar með erfðum (includes Framfærslubálkr (Maintenance of dependents))

 

Lbb

Land claims (ON Landsbrigðabálkr)

 

Llb

Tenancy (ON Landsleigubálkr (includes Rekabálkr (Drift rights))

 

MagBref

Letter of King Magnús (ON bréf Magnúss konungs)

 

Mah

Personal rights (ON Mannhelgi)

 

Sg

Payment of tax (ON Um skatt greizlu)

 

Þfb

Assembly attendance (ON Þingfararbálkr)

 

Þjb

Theft (ON Þjófabálkr)

Js

 

‘Ironside’ The National Law of Iceland issued in 1271 by King Magnús Lagabætir of Norway (ON Járnsíða)

 

Ert

The inheritance list (ON Erfðatal)

 

Kab

Trade section (ON Kaupabálkr)

 

Kdb

Christianity section (ON Kristindómsbálkr)

 

Kvg

Marriages (ON Kvennagiftingar)

 

Lbb

Land-claims section (ON Landabrigðabálkur)

 

Mah

Personal rights (ON Mannhelgi)

 

Rkb

Drift rights section (ON Rekabálkur)

 

Þfb

Assembly procedures section (ON Þingfararbálkur)

 

Þjb

Theft section (ON Þjófabálkur)

JyL

 

The Law of Jutland (Dan Jyske lov)

KRA

 

The Church Law of Árni Þorláksson (1275) (ON Kristinréttr Árna Þorlákssonar Skálholtsbiskups)

SdmL

 

The Laws of the Suþermæn (Sw Södermannalagen)

 

Bb

The village community section (Sw Byggningabalken, OSw bygningabalker)

 

Conf

Confirmatio (Sw Konung Magnus Erikssons stadfästelse, OSw ‘Confirmatio Regis Magni’)

 

För

Prologus (Sw Förord, OSw ‘Prologus’)

 

Gb

The marriage section (Sw Giftermålsbalken, OSw giptninga balker)

 

Jb

The land section (Sw Jordabalken, OSw jorþarbalker)

 

Kgb

The King’s section (Sw Konungabalken, OSw kunungsbalker)

 

Kkb

The Church section (Sw Kyrkobalken, OSw kirkiubalker)

 

Kmb

The trade section (Sw Köpmålabalken, OSw köpmalabalker)

 

Mb

The personal security section (Sw Manhelgdsbalken, OSw manhælghisbalker)

 

Rb

The assembly procedure section (Sw Rättegångsbalken, OSw þingmalabalker)

 

Till

Additamenta (Sw Tillägg, OSw ‘Additamenta’)

 

Tjdb

The theft section (Sw Tjuvnadsbalken, OSw þiufnaþabalker)

 

Äb

The Inheritance section (Sw Ärvdabalken, OSw ærfþarbalker)

Seyð

 

The Sheep Letter (1298) (OFar Seyðabrævið)

SkKL

 

The Church Law of Scania (Dan Skånske kirkelov, Sw Skånska kyrkrätten)

SkL

 

The Law of Scania (Dan Skånske lov, Sw Skånelagen)

SmL

 

The Småland Law (Sw Smålandslagen or Tiohärads lag)

UL

 

The Law of Uppland (Sw Upplandslagen)

 

Add

Supplements (OSw ‘Additamenta’)

 

Blb

The village community book (Sw Byalagsbalken, OSw Wiþærbo balkær)

 

För

Foreword (Sw Förord OSw ‘Praefatio’)

 

Jb

The land book (Sw Jordabalken, OSw Jorþæ balkær)

 

Kgb

The King’s book (Sw Konungabalken, OSw Kununx balkær)

 

Kkb

The Christian book (Sw Kyrkobalken, OSw Kirkiu balkær)

 

Kmb

The trading book (Sw Köpmålabalken, OSw Kiöpmalæ balkær)

 

Mb

The personal security book (Sw Manhelgdsbalken, OSw Manhælghis balkær)

 

Rb

The legal process book (Sw Rättegångsbalken, OSw Þingmalæ balkær)

 

StfBM

King Birger Magnusson’s Charter of Ratification (Sw Konung Birger Magnussons stadfästelsebrev, OSw ‘Confirmatio’)

 

Äb

The inheritance book (Sw Ärvdabalken OSw Ærfþæ balkær)

VgL

 

The Laws of the Västgötar (Sw Västgötalagen)

VmL

 

The Law of Västmanland (Sw Västmannalagen)

 

Bb

The settlement book (OSw Bygninga balkær)

 

För

Foreword (Sw Förord, OSw ‘Praefatio’)

 

Jb

The land book (Sw Jordabalken, OSw Jorþa balkær)

 

Kgb

The King’s book (Sw Konungabalken, OSw Konongs balkær)

 

Kkb

The Christian book (Sw Kyrkobalken, OSw Kristno balkær)

 

Kmb

The trading book (Sw Köpmålabalken, OSw Köpmala balkær)

 

Mb

The personal security book (Sw Manhelgdsbalken, OSw Manhælghis balkær)

 

Rb

The legal process book (Sw Rättegångsbalken, OSw Þingmala balkær)

 

Äb

The inheritance book (Sw Ärvdabalken, OSw Ærfda balkær)

VSjL

 

Valdemar’s Law of Zealand (Dan Valdemars sjællandske lov)

YVgL

 

The Younger Law of the Västgötar (Sw Yngre Västgötalagen)

 

Add

Additamenta (Sw Tillägg, OSw ‘Additamenta’)

 

Drb

The book concerning manslaughter (Sw Dråparebalken, OSw draparibalker)

 

Frb

The book concerning peace (Sw Fredsbalken, OSw friþbalker)

 

Föb

The book concerning illegal appropriation (Sw Förnämesbalken, OSw fornæmisbalker)

 

Gb

The book concerning matrimony (Sw Giftermålsbalken, OSw giptarbalker)

 

Jb

The book concerning land (Sw Jordabalken, OSw jorþarbalker)

 

Kkb

The book concerning the Church (Sw Kyrkobalken, OSw kirkiubalker)

 

Kvab

The book concerning mills (Sw: Kvarnbalken, OSw mylnobolker)

 

Rlb

The book concerning lawlessness (Sw Rättlösabalken, OSw rætlosubolker)

 

Tb

The book concerning theft (Sw Tjuvabalken, OSw þiuvabalker)

 

Urb

Outlaw cases (Sw Urbotamål, OSw urbotamal)

 

Utgb

The book concerning fences(Sw Utgärdabalken, OSw utgærþabolker)

 

Vs

The book concerning accidental wounds (Sw Balken om vådasår, OSw af vaþasarum bolker)

 

Äb

The book concerning inheritance (Sw Ärvdabalken, OSw arvabolker)

ÄVgL

 

The Older Law of the Västgötar (Sw Äldre Västgötalagen)

 

Föb

The book concerning illegal appropriation (Sw Förnämesbalken, OSw fornæmisbalker)

 

Fös

Cases concerning illegal appropriation (Sw Förnämessaker, OSw fornæmissakir)

 

Gb

The book concerning matrimony (Sw Giftermålsbalken, OSw giptarbalker)

 

Jb

The book concerning land (Sw Jordabalken, OSw jorþarbalker)

 

Kkb

The book concerning the Church (Sw Kyrkobalken, OSw kirkiubalker)

 

Kva

How a mill is built (Sw Huru kvarn skall byggas, OSw huru mylnu skal göra)

 

Lek

About a player's  rights (Sw Lekarerätten, OSw lekararætter)

 

Md

About manslaughter (Sw Om mandråp, OSw af mandrapi)

 

Rlb

The book concerning lawlessness (Sw Rättlösabalken, OSw rætlosubolker)

 

Slb

The book concerning fighting (Sw Slagsmålsbalken, OSw bardagha)

 

Smb

The book concerning wounds (Sw Balken om såramål, OSw af saramalum bolker)

 

Tb

The book concerning theft (Sw Tjuvabalken, OSw þiuvabalker)

 

Urb

Outlaw cases (Sw Urbotamål, OSw urbotamal)

 

Vs

About wounds by accident (Sw Om vådasår, OSw af vaþasarum)

 

Äb

The book concerning inheritance (Sw Ärvdabalken, OSw ærfþarbalker)

ÖgL

 

The Law of the Östgötar (Sw Östgötalagen)

 

Db

The book of killings (Sw Dråpsbalken, OSw drapabalker)

 

Eb

The king’s sworn peace (Sw Edsöresbalken, OSw kunungs eþsöre)

 

Kkb

The church book (Sw Kyrkobalken, OSw kristnubalker)

 

Vm

Cases of accidents and cases of wounds, adultery, rapine and theft (Sw Vådamålsbalken, OSw vaþamal ok saramal, hor, ran ok styld)

Other Abbreviations

ASun

Liber legis Scaniae

Dan: Anders Sunesens parafrase af Skånske Lov

Bj

The law for trading places and towns

ON: Bjarkeyjarréttr

BjR

The law for trading places and towns

Sw: Bjärköarätten

Dan

Danish

KrL

King Kristoffer’s Law of the Realm

Sw: Kristoffers landslag

MEL

King Magnus Eriksson’s Law of the Realm

Sw: Magnus Erikssons landslag

MESt

King Magnus Eriksson’s Town Law

Sw: Magnus Erikssons stadslag

MLL

King Magnus the Law-Mender's Law of the Realm

Norw: Magnus Håkonsson Lagabøters landslov

ONorw: Magnus lagabætrs landslög

Norw

Norwegian

ODan

Old Danish

OFar

Old Faroese

OGu

Old Gutnish

OIce

Old Icelandic

ON

Old Norse

ONorw

Old Norwegian

OSw

Old Swedish

SjKL

The Church Law for Zealand

Dan: Sjællandske kirkelov

SkSt

The Town Law of Scania

Dan: Skånske stadsret

Sw: Skånska stadsrätten

Sw

Swedish

VSjL yr

King Valdemar’s Younger Law for Zealand (younger redaction?)

Dan: Valdemars sjællandske lov

VSjL ær

King Valdemar’s Older Law for Zealand (older redaction?)

Dan: Valdemars sjællandske lov

VSt

The Town Law of Visby

Sw: Visby stadslag

 

Further notes

A note on English spelling: All English equivalents of Nordic terms drawn from published and draft translations have been normalized to reflect British spelling conventions, regardless of how they appear in their source. An attempt has been made to standardize language usage and style throughout this work, but various portions have been compiled by multiple authors and reflect their individual preferences.

Medieval Swedish law codes are often referred to by the accepted groupings of Göta laws (Äldre Västgötalagen, Yngre Västgötalagen, Östgötalagen, Smålandslagen) and Svea laws (Dalalagen, Hälsingelagen, Södermannalagen, Upplandslagen, Västmannalagen).

Alphabetical order of the headwords generally follows the principles of the Dictionary of Old Norse Prose:

a, á, b, c, d, ð, e, é, f, g, h, i, í, j, k, l, m, n, o, ó, p, q, r, s, t, u, ú, v, x, y, ý, z, þ, æ, ö, ø, ǿ

Research group

Principal investigators

Inger Larsson, professor em., Swedish language, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Stockholm University.

Stefan Brink, Sixth Century Professor of and Chair in Scandinavian Studies at University of Aberdeen.

Editors

Ulrika Djärv, PhD in Scandinavian Languages, Lexicography, Stockholm University. Postdoctoral position at Department of Scandinavian Languages, Stockholm University.

Jeffrey S. Love, PhD in Anglo-Saxon, Norse and Celtic. Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. Postdoctoral position at The Arnamagnæan Institute. Institute for Nordic Research, University of Copenhagen.

Christine Peel, PhD in Scandinavian Studies (Old Gutnish), University College London. LMNL Computer recording system advisor.

Erik Simensen, associate professor (em.), Nordic languages, esp. Norwegian, Department of Linguistics and Scandinavian Studies, University of Oslo. Chief editor of Norrøn ordbok [Dictionary of Old Norse], latest edition published in 2008.

Historical consultant

Thomas Lindkvist, professor em., medievalist, Department of Historical Studies, University of Gothenburg.