kaldakol (ON) noun

Literally ‘cold coals’; an extinguished hearth fire. Used to refer to an abandoned farm, especially one which was inhabited by a tenant who left it before his lease had expired at the moving days (cf. Jó Llb 7).

desertion of a farm OIce Llb 7
leaving too early ONorw FrL LlbA 2
letting the hearth fire go out OIce Llb 7

CV; Fritzner; Hertzberg; Páll Vídalin 1854 s.v. kaldakol

  • ‘kaldakol’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.

kalfr (ON) noun

calf ONorw GuL Kpb, Løb

  • ‘kalfr’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.

kalgarth (ODan) noun

cabbage garden ODan JyL 3
vegetable garden ODan JyL 3

  • ‘kalgarth’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.

kalla (OSw) kalle (ODan) kalla (ON) verb

Literally ‘to call’. Often used in reference to public announcements, such as convening assemblies, identifying offenders, and publicly declaring criminal activity or legal responsibility (cf. heta). Within legal proceedings, kalla often takes on more specific meanings, such as ‘to complain’ and ‘to sue’. Occasionally suggesting entitlement, reflected in translations such as ‘to claim’. There is considerable overlap between usages and translations.

announce OSw HL Äb
assert ONorw GuL Arb
call ODan ESjL 1−3
ODan JyL 1
ODan SkL 131, 158, 159
ODan VSjL 8–10, 66, 87
ONorw GuL Arb, Tfb, Leb
OSw HL Äb, Mb
OSw SdmL Kkb, Kgb, Bb, Mb, Rb
OSw YVgL Rlb
OSw ÖgL Kkb

call by a nickname ONorw GuL Mhb
call upon ODan ESjL 2

claim ODan ESjL 1−3
ODan JyL 1, 2
ODan SkL passim
ODan VSjL 1, 12, 16, 18, 20
ONorw GuL Løb, Arb
OSw YVgL Drb, Rlb, Jb, Föb
OSw ÄVgL Äb, Jb, Kva

complain ODan VSjL 5
deem ONorw GuL Leb
demand ODan SkL 8, 9, 235
make a claim ODan ESjL 1–3
ODan SkL 13

name OSw YVgL Frb, Äb, Rlb, Tb, Add
OSw ÄVgL Vs, Slb, Äb, Rlb, Tb

proclaim ODan VSjL 68
raise a claim ODan ESjL 1−3
ODan JyL 1, 2
ODan SkL 51, 56
ODan VSjL 1, 17

raise a complaint ODan VSjL 5
raise a demand ODan ESjL 3
ODan JyL 2
ODan VSjL 71, 77, 78, 82, 83

sue ODan JyL 2
summon ODan ESjL 1−3
ODan JyL 2
ODan SkL 18, 19, 71, 140
ODan VSjL 87
ONorw GuL Leb
OSw DL Bb, Rb
OSw YVgL Tb, Föb, Utgb
OSw ÄVgL Kkb, Rlb, Tb
OSw ÖgL Kkb

take action ODan JyL 2

  • ‘kalla’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.

kambstaðr (ON) noun

scar on the head ONorw GuL Mhb

  • ‘kambstaðr’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.

kampr (ON) noun

beard ONorw GuL Mhb

  • ‘kampr’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.

kanceler (ON) noun

Chancellor; a high-ranking official in the king’s court. Known in Norway from at least the beginning of the thirteenth century until the death of the last named chancellor in 1679. Duties of the kanceler are outlined in Hirðskrá, but they changed over time. Among these were the responsibilities of seglbevarer (‘keeper of the [royal] seal’), overseer of royal dispatches (including letters for landsvist ‘the right to reside in a realm or province’ and keeping copies of outgoing missives), management of royal incomes and registration of royal estates. For a time the kanceler was also head of the royal chapel clerics, though the position gradually lost its ecclesiastical duties after the Reformation. While most members of the chancery were stationary, the kanceler, as bearer of the royal seal, accompanied the king’s ambulatory court. After 1380, when Norway was ruled by foreign monarchs, the chancellor’s duties diminished and consisted mostly of issuing letters of peace (gridsbrev) and pardons (landsvistsbrev). From 1314 the Norwegian chancery operated primarily from Mariakirken in Oslo.

In Denmark the figure of chancellor first appears around the end of the twelfth century; in Sweden not until the end of the thirteenth century.

chancellor OFar Seyð 0

Kongsrud 2011; MSE s.v. chancery; ONP s.v. kanceler

  • ‘kanceler’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.

kapellan (OSw) kapellan (ODan) noun

chaplain ODan SkKL 1

  • ‘kapellan’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.

kardinali (ON) kardinal (ON) noun

cardinal OIce KRA 27, 28
ONorw FrL KrbB 17

  • ‘kardinali’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.

karina (OSw) noun

penance by fasting OSw DL Rb

  • ‘karina’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.

karl (OSw) karl (ODan) karl (OGu) karl (ON) kall (OSw) noun

The normal meaning of this word is ‘(old) man’, or as an alternative to bonde (q.v.), meaning man in general, householder, husband, or as ‘common man’, as opposed to the king, but in GL it is used in two specific instances, firstly to mean ‘grandfather’ in particular and secondly to mean ‘the head of the family’ in general. If a man’s son dies leaving daughters, they were to be adopted by their grandfather in a more or less formal manner. In UL and VmL, it is used as a title, signifying the ‘representative of the hundari’ and this title has been retained in the respective translations. It has not been excerpted in the OIce laws, being in general rather than particular usage.

grandfather OGu GL A 20
head of the family OGu GL A 20
householder ONorw FrL Intr 19
OSw DL Tjdb
OSw UL Blb
OSw VmL Jb, Bb

husband ONorw FrL Intr 24
man ODan SkL 34, 36
OGu GL A 20
ONorw GuL Løb, Arb, Mhb, Olb
OSw HL Kkb, Äb
OSw SdmL Kgb, Gb
OSw UL Kkb, Äb
OSw VmL Kkb, Äb, Jb
OSw YVgL Drb, Tb

representative of the hundari OSw UL Äb, Mb, Blb, Rb
OSw VmL Bb, Mb, Rb


Peel 2015, 132 note 20/16; Schlyter 1877, s.v. karl; SL GL, 266 note 5 to chapter 20

  • ‘karl’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.

karlaskr (ON) noun

man’s measure OIce Kab 26

  • ‘karlaskr’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.

karldyrr (ON) noun

main doorway OIce Grg Klþ 2, 4
OIce KRA 15

principal door ONorw GuL Olb

  • ‘karldyrr’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.

karlerfðir (pl.) (ON) noun

inheritance on the male side ONorw GuL Arb

  • ‘karlerfðir (pl.)’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.

karlgilder (OSw) kalgilder (OSw) kralgilder (OSw) adj.

of silver OSw UL Äb, Mb, Blb

  • ‘karlgilder’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.

karlklæði (ON) noun

men’s clothes ONorw GuL Mhb, Tjb

  • ‘karlklæði’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.

karlsvift (ON) karlsift (ON) noun

kinship traced through men OIce Grg Bat 113
male side ONorw GuL Mhb, Sab

  • ‘karlsvift’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.

karlsviftarmaðr (ON) noun

kinsman on the male side ONorw GuL Mhb

  • ‘karlsviftarmaðr’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.

karnaðr (ON) noun

bedfellow OIce Grg Vís 112

  • ‘karnaðr’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.

kasnavargher (OSw) kasnavargr (OGu) kaxnavargher (OSw) noun

Literally presumably ‘kindling-evildoer’, referring to an arsonist. In ÖgL it appears among the kunungx eþzsöre (see eþsöre), crimes against the King’s Peace, and is defined as an arsonist with the intent to kill, who could be punished by being himself burned alive and losing all property. The same punishment applied in UL and VmL, if the arson resulted in a killing, which, however, did not define a kasnavargher. DL and YVgL did not require deadly outcome, but the arsonist was still severely punished, in DL forty marker and in YVgL forfeiture of land (meaning perhaps the right to live in the province or realm, or on his landed property) and movables. In GL used exclusively as a punishable insult.

fire-wolf OSw ÖgL Eb
homicidal arsonist OSw DL Bb
OSw UL Blb
OSw VmL Bb (rubric only)

murdering arsonist OGu GL A 39
tinder-wolf OSw YVgL Rlb

Elmevik 1967, 9ff; KLNM, s.v. mordbrand; Lexikon des Mittelalters, s.v. brandstiftung; Peel 2015, 175 note 39/3; Schlyter 1877, s.v. kasna vargher; SL GL, 285 note 1 to chapter 39; SL ÖgL, 51 note 50; Wennström 1936, 270–74, 301

  • ‘kasnavargher’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.