bait (OGu) noun

pasture OGu GL A 35

Citation
  • ‘bait’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/439
    (10/20/2021)

bakarf (OSw) bak arver (OSw) noun

ascendant inheritance OSw UL Äb
inheritance from descendants OSw DL Gb
reversionary inheritance OSw HL Äb
OSw YVgL Äb

Citation
  • ‘bakarf’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/440
    (10/20/2021)

bakhærbærghi (OSw) noun

bake-house OSw YVgL Kkb

Citation
  • ‘bakhærbærghi’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/441
    (10/20/2021)

bakkastokkar (pl.) (ON) noun

building berth ONorw GuL Mhb, Leb

Citation
  • ‘bakkastokkar (pl.)’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/442
    (10/20/2021)

bakmæli (ON) noun

Back-speech, backbiting, slander. Described in Grg Misc 237 as a situation where two men slander each other with no witnesses and subsequently one of them boasts of this. The penalty for backbiting was lesser outlawry.


backbiting OIce Grg Misc 237
Refs:

CV; ONP

Citation
  • ‘bakmæli’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/443
    (10/20/2021)

bakvaþi (OSw) noun

accidental killing through a backwards blow OSw UL Mb
OSw VmL Mb

Citation
  • ‘bakvaþi’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/444
    (10/20/2021)

bal (OSw) noun

pyre OSw HL Blb
stake OSw SdmL Mb

Citation
  • ‘bal’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/445
    (10/20/2021)

balker (OSw) noun

Most significantly used of a part of a law relating to a specific subject, often subdivided into chapters (cf. flokker). Mostly, and in ON only, appearing in compounds (cf. ON -bölkr, OSw -balker).


book OSw HL För
section OSw UL Blb
OSw VmL Bb

section of a fence OSw YVgL Kkb, Utgb
OSw ÄVgL Kkb

{balker} OSw HL Blb

Citation
  • ‘balker’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/446
    (10/20/2021)

ban (OSw) ban (ODan) bann (OGu) bann (ON) bann (OSw) noun

ban ODan SkL 121
excommunication ODan SkKL 6, 7, 11
OGu GL A 7–9
OIce KRA 6, 31
ONorw GuL Krb
OSw DL Kkb
OSw SdmL Kkb
OSw UL Kkb
OSw VmL Kkb
OSw YVgL Add
OSw ÖgL Kkb

prohibition ONorw FrL Leb 1
ONorw GuL Leb

Citation
  • ‘ban’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/447
    (10/20/2021)

banaman (OSw) noun

slayer OSw SdmL Mb, Tjdb

Citation
  • ‘banaman’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/448
    (10/20/2021)

banaorþ (OSw) banorþ (OSw) noun

case of killing OSw YVgL Drb
crime OSw YVgL Drb
OSw ÄVgL Md

homicide OSw ÄVgL Md
killing OSw YVgL Drb
OSw ÄVgL Md

murderer OSw DL Mb

Citation
  • ‘banaorþ’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/449
    (10/20/2021)

banaráð (ON) noun

advice leading to death OIce Mah 11

Citation
  • ‘banaráð’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/450
    (10/20/2021)

banasak (OSw) banesak (ODan) noun

accusation of homicide OSw ÄVgL Slb
accusation of killing OSw YVgL Frb
case of killing ODan SkL 118, 119, 121
homicide case ODan JyL 2

Citation
  • ‘banasak’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/451
    (10/20/2021)

banavapn (OSw) noun

killing-weapon OSw SdmL Mb

Citation
  • ‘banavapn’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/452
    (10/20/2021)

band (OSw) band (ODan) band (OGu) noun

Appears in legally significant phrases such as ODan band ok stok ‘ropes and iron’ and bast ok band ‘ropes and bonds’ of lawful or unlawful detention, and OSw YVgL Add binda fullum bandum ‘bind someone with full ropes’ of violent abduction in breach of the king’s peace.


binding ODan JyL 2
binding relationship OSw UL Kkb
OSw VmL Kkb

bond OSw UL Mb
OSw VmL Mb

bonds ODan ESjL 3
captive OSw HL Mb
leash OGu GL A 19
pair OGu GL A 65
rope ODan SkL 136, 163
strap ODan VSjL 87
Expressions:

band hail (OGu)

having unbroken ties OGu GL A 26

band ok stok (ODan)

ropes and iron ODan SkL 138

bast ok band (ODan)

bonds and ropes ODan JyL 2 SkL 144

tied and bound ODan SkL 112

binda fullum bandum (OSw)

bind someone with full ropes OSw YVgL Add

Citation
  • ‘band’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/453
    (10/20/2021)

banda (OGu) noun

The literal meaning seems to be one of an enclosure (see vebönd). In GL, however, it was a defined area of protection (griþ, q.v.): the ‘circle of peace’ or ‘security circle’ that a killer could draw to shield himself from revenge. The killer had to go and stay in the rectory or churchyard of one of the three asylum churches (at Fardhem, Tingstäde or Atlingbo) for forty days, together with his closest male relatives (father, son and brother). These would presumably have also been under suspicion. They would have been protected from attack by the imposition of a wergild (vereldi) (see værgæld) of forty marks in coin (ten marks of silver), just under half a full wergild. The killer was then to draw up a circle in which he was immune from revenge attacks, encompassing three farms, with the permission of the owners, and a church. This temporary circle (vatubanda, q.v.) was converted to a permanent one during the general period of peace and security next after Easter. During the following year, others were to negotiate compensation with the wronged family, making the offer annually over three years. If not accepted, the offer was placed with the assembly and the accused was free to go, with full wergild now payable for his life. If no offer was made, or the killer left his circle (other than to go on pilgrimage), he was outlawed, unless he paid full wergild (twenty-four marks in silver) and an extra twelve marks in silver. A Gotlander killed in his circle was compensated with half a wergild (twelve marks in silver). The exact provisions in GL seem to be unique in Scandinavian laws, but the later town law of Visby shows similarities in respect of asylum, which may be the result either of direct influence or of a common concept and there are similar provisions in Grg, in particular for outlaws attempting to leave the country. Despite being outlaws, they had asylum at certain homesteads, roads and docks. On roads it is prescribed that, when passing other parties, they are to move off the road ‘to such a distance that they could not be hit by the point of a spear’. A parallel, although not necessarily a precursor, is to be found in the Mosaic laws as exhibited in the Pentateuch (Exodus 21 v. 13; Num. 35 vv. 6−8, 11−15; Deut. 4 vv. 41−43, 19 vv. 2−4) and it was thus a very old concept, which seems to have been retained as a relic in GL. For example, the Oklunda inscription in Östergötland, dated to the ninth or tenth century, indicates that a particular killer sought refuge in a holy place (vi, q.v.) prior to making a settlement over the killing. In ÖgL there is a reference to a killer being protected from attack by the killer’s relatives in a churchyard and as early as ÄVgL killing in a church is recorded as a despicable crime, so the protection offered by holy places seems to have been a continuum.

The bandavereldi (q.v.) was the particular man price payable for killing someone within their circle of peace.


peace circle OGu GL A 9, 13, 14
Refs:

Hasselberg 1953, 277; KLNM s.v. drab; Olsen 1966, 64−65; Peel 2015, 111−13 notes to 13/7−13/23−24; Ruthström 1988, 64−75; Schlyter 1877, s.v. banda; SL GL, 254−58; Wennström 1946, 188

Citation
  • ‘banda’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/455
    (10/20/2021)

bandavereldi (OGu) banduvereldi (OGu) noun

wergild within the peace circle OGu GL A 16

Citation
  • ‘bandavereldi’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/456
    (10/20/2021)

bandhail (OGu) adj.

fully tied OGu GL A 26

Citation
  • ‘bandhail’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/457
    (10/20/2021)

bandi (OGu) noun

band (of withy) OGu GL A 26

Citation
  • ‘bandi’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/458
    (10/20/2021)

banesar (ODan) banasár (ON) noun

death wound OIce Grg Vís 107
mortal wound OIce Llb 58
OIce KRA 26

wound ODan SkL 119

Citation
  • ‘banesar’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/459
    (10/20/2021)