This York-Place, or House, was occupied or enjoyed in King James the First his Time, by Thomas Vicount Brackly, Lord Ellesmere, Lord Chancellor, and by Francis Vicount St. Albans, sometime Lord Chancellor after him. In 2. Jac. 1. an Exchange of it was made by Toby Matthew, Archbishop of York, who was seized in Fee simple, in Right of his Archbishoprick, of the said Mansion-House, and of divers other Messuages and Tenements situtate within the Parish of St. Martin in the Fields. These he granted to King James the First; and the said King granted to the said Archbishop the Manour or Lordship of Brighton, with the Lands in Melborn, the Manour of Acomb, or Acom, and Holgate; and all the Lands, Tenements, and Hereditaments in Acomb, Holgate, Clifton, Skelton, Wiggington, Botham, &c. the Manour of Santon, and Lands in Eastrop, &c. and the Manour or Grange of Beck hay, with all Rights, Members, and Appurtinances thereof; which would be more profitble and commodious unto the Archbishop and his Successors, than the said Mansion-House. For that the Archbishop, nor his Predecessors, had not, for many Years past, the Use of the said Mansion-House; and the other Premises yielded them very little Profit. And farther, the said Mansion-House was like to be burdensome, and a Charge to the said Archbishop and his Successors: Which was the Reason used in the Act of Parliament for the said Exchange; viz. That it would be for the Benefit of the Archbishop and his Successors; and therefore it was of the King's Grace and Favour to the said Church and See, to make this Conveyance and Assurance.]

An Exchange of York-House by Archbishop Matthew.

Then was there an Hospital of St. Mary Rouncival, by Charing-Cross ( a Cell to the Priory and Convent of Rouncivall in Navar, in Pampelione Diocess) where a Fraternity was founded in the Fifteenth of Edward the Fourth; but now the same is suppressed, and turned into Tenements.

Hospital of St. Mary Rouncivall.

Near unto this Hospiral was an Hermitage, with a Chapel of St. Katharine, over-against Charing-Cross; which Cross, builded of Stone, was of old Time a fair Piece of Work, there made by Commandment of Edward the First, in the 21st Year of his Reign, in Memory of Helenor his deceased Queen, as is before declared.

Hermitage, with a Chapel of St. Katharine.


West from this Cross stood sometime an Hospital of St. James, consisting of two Hides of Land, with the Appurtenances, in the Parish of St. Margaret in Westminster, and founded by the Citizens of London, before the Time of any Man's Memory, for fourteen Sisters, Maidens, that were leperous, living chastly and honestly in Divine Service.

Hospital of St. James, for Leperous Sisters.

Afterwards, divers Citizens of London gave 56l. Rent thereunto, and then were adjoined eight Brethren to minister Divine Service there.

And eight Brethren.

After this also, sundry devout Men of London gave to this Hospital four Hides of Land in the Field of Westminster; and in Hendon, Calcote, and Hamsted, * eight Acres of Land and Wood, &c. King Edward the First confirm'd those Gifts, and granted a Fair, to be kept on the Eve of St. James, the Day, the Morrow, and four Days following, in the eighteenth of his Reign.

*Eighty Acres. 1st Edit.

St. James's Fair for seven Days.

This Hospital was surrender'd to Henry the Eighth, the 23d of his Reign; the Sisters being compounded with, were allowed Pensions for the Term of their Lives, and the King builded there a goodly Manour, annexing thereunto a Park, closed about with a Wall of Brick, now called St. James's Park, serving indifferently to the said Manour, and to the Manour or Palace of Whitehall.


St. James's Park.

And this Place now, since the Burning down of Whitehall, is become the Royal Palace of our Kings, and their chief Residence.

J. S.

Some Distance hence, between St. James's and Hide-Park, is kept May Fair, yearly, where young People did use to resort; and by the Temptations they met with here, did commit much Sin and Disorder. Here they spent their Time and Money on Drunkenness, Fornication, Gaming, and Lewdness. Whereby were occasioned oftentimes Quarels, Tumults, and Shedding of Blood. Whereupon in the Month of November, 1708, the Grand Jury of Westminster, for the Body of the County of Middlesex, made a Presentment to this Import, "That being sensible of their Duty, to make Presentment of such Matters and Things as were publick Enormities and Inconveniencies, and being encouraged by the Example of the worthy Magistracy of the City of London, in their late Proceedings against Bartholomew-Fair; did present, as a publick Nusance and Inconvenience, the yearly riotous and tumultuous Assembly in a Place called Brook-Field, in the Parish of St. Martin in the Fields, in this County, called May-Fair. In which Place many loose, idle, and disorderly Persons, did Rendezvous and draw and allure young Persons, Servants, and others, to meet there, to game, and commit Lewdness, and disorderly Practices, to the great Corruption and Debauchery of their Vertue and Morals; and in which many and great Riots, Tumults, Breaches of the Peace, open and notorious Lewdness, and Murder itself had been committed; and were like to be committed again, if not prevented by some wise and prudent Method: And for that the said Fair being so near her Majesty's Palaces, and might be very dangerous to her Majesty's Royal Person and Government, by seditious and unreasonable Men; taking thereby Occasion to execute their most wicked and treasonable Designs. Wherefore, and because the said Fair, as it was then used, both actually was, and had so fatal a Tendency to the Corruption of her Majesty's Subjects, Violation of her Peace, and the Danger of her Person; they humbly conceived it worthy the Care of those in Power and Authority to rectify the same.]"

May Fair.

The Disorders there.

Presented by the Grand Jury.

South from Charing-Cross, on the right Hand, are divers fair Houses, lately builded before the Park: Then a large Tilt-yard for Noblemen and others, to exercise themselves in Justing, Turneying, and Fighting at the Barriers.

Tilt-Yard at Westminster.

On the left Hand from Charing-Cross be also divers fair Tenements lately builded, 'till ye come to a large Plot of Ground enclosed with Brick, and is called Scotland, where great Buildings have been for Receipt of the Kings of Scotland, and other Estates of that Country. For, Margaret Queen of Scots, and Sister to King Henry the Eighth, had her abiding there, when she came into England, after the Death of her Husband, as the King of Scotland had in former Times, when they came to the Parliament of England.

Scotland, a Plot of Ground so called.

This was first given by King Edgar, a Saxon King, (who reigned about the Year 959.) to Keneth, or Kynald, King of Scotland; from whom he had received Homage for that Kingdom, and enjoined the said King Keneth, once every Year to repair unto him in England, for the making of Laws, which in those Days was done by the Noblemen and Peers. To which End the said King Edgar gave that King this Piece of Ground, lying beside the new Palace of Westminster, for his Residence when he came up; upon which this Keneth built an House: Which by him and his Posterity was enjoyed until the Reign of K. Henry the Second, in whose Time, upon the Rebellion of William, then King of Scots, it was resumed into the King of England's Hands. After that, the House went to Decay; but the Ground where it stood, is called Scotland to this Day.

Given by King Edgar to King Keneth.

J. S.

K. Edw. 6. Title to Scotland, printed An. 1548.