[Confirmation] The TEMPORAL GOVERNMENT. [of the Charters.]350

[Confirmation] The TEMPORAL GOVERNMENT. [of the Charters.]

they preserve themselves, and issue out when they see Occasion to defend themselves.]

Divers were the Privelges, Liberties, and Favours granted by all these Charters. The brief Contents of each were as follow. King William I. called the Conqueror, confirmed the antient Liberties of the City. And by a Charter demised and granted to the Citizens the said City and Sheriffwick thereof. And afterward confirmed the same in Parliament. Which how strange soever a Parliament seemed to be then, the Words of the Record are, Auctoritate Parliamenti Wilhelmus demisit tunc Civibus London. totam dictam Civitatem, & Vicecomitatum London, cum omnibus Appendiciis, &c. Henry I. Son to William, confirmed the Liberties of the City of London, and granted to them their Heirs and Successors for ever, the Sheriffwic of Middlesex, at the Farm of 300l. per Annum. So that the Citizens shall appoint Sheriffs whom they please from among themselves. This was the better to enable the City to keep the Peace. For many Murders, Rapins and Violences being committed in the City, the Offenders would thereupon fly into Middlesex; and the Citizens having no Power or Jurisdiction before in that County, the Guilty by that means escap'd unpunished. 3. King Stephen, by his Magna Charta, among other things, confirmed the Liberties of the City, which they not only had in the time of William the Conqueror, William Rufus, and Henry I. but those they enjoyed before, viz. in the time of Edward the Confessor. 4. Henry II. did the same: And so did, 5. King Richard I. his Son; who by Letters Patents granted the Citizens all their said Customs, and all other Liberties and free Customs, which they had in the time of King Henry, Grandfather to King Henry his Father; whensoever they were best and most free Customs. 6. King John in the first of his Reign, by a particular Charter, confirmed to the Citizens and their Heirs, the free Election of their Maior and Sheriffs, with a Power to displace and remove the Sheriffs at their own Pleasure. 7. King Henry the Third, by his Charter ratified and confirmed to the Citizens and their Heirs, the Sheriffwicks of London and Middlesex, for the ancient Fee of 300l. per Annum. Which was the original Rent in King Henry the First's Time. And after the Citizens should present their Sheriffs, so chosen by them, at the Exchequer.

The Privileges and Favours granted by these Charters.

Rights and Liberties, print. 682.

Libr. K in Archiv. Lond.

MSS. Civitat. Lond.

The said Charters of King Henry I. King John, and King Henry III. have by Inpeximus's been confirmed, by all the successive Kings, under the Great Seal of England, one of the greatest Obligation of the Kings to their People. They were confirmed afterwards by Parliament; and especially the great Charter of King John; wherein there was a Clause for all the ancient Liberties and free Customs of London, as well by Land as by Water. This Charter was ratified and confirmed by several Parliaments in King Henry the Third's time; and particularly in the Parliament of the Fifty second of Henry III.

Confirmation of these Charters by successive Kings;

And by Parliaments.

And tho' King Edward I. his Son, in some Displeasure, took away their Charter, and kept the Liberties of the City for many Years in his own Hands, and constituted Keepers or Custodes over the City, without the Citizens Choice; yet at last, in the 26th of his Reign, became gracious Lord to them, and he restored them their Liberties, by this Brief signifying the same to the Officers of his Exchequer.

K. Edward I.

K. Edward's Restitution of the City's Liberties.

EDWARD by the Grace of God, &c. To his Treasurers and Barons of the Exchequer, Greeting. Whereas for the good Service that our beloved Citizens of London have hitherto done us, by our Letters Patents we have rendred and restored to the same our foresaid City, together with the Maioralty, all theirLiberties; (Which City, Maioralty, and Liberties, we had long since caused to be taken into our Hands) to be had and held to the same Citizens, according to their Will, as freely and intirely as they had and held them on the Day of the said taking them away, as is contained more fully in our said Letters. We command you, that ye permit the same Citizens, to use and enjoy the Liberties which they have reasonably used on the Day of the foresaid taking, before you in the Exchequer beforesaid, according to the Tenor of our foresaid Letters. Witness My self at York the 28th Day of May on the 26th Year of our Reign.

Greatest Black Book, fo. 24.

By which Brief Henry de Galys was chosen for Maior, and admitted by the King at Fulham, on the Morrow after the Brief given. This was Anno 1298.

Moreover, King Edward III. in his first Year, did by his Charter grant and confirm, as a perpetual Law for him and his Heirs for ever, that since Magna Charta of the Liberties of England, it was contained, that the City of London should enjoy her ancient Liberties and Customs: And because the said Citizens had at the time of the said Charter, and in the time of St. Edward the Confessor and William the Conqueror, and his other Progenitors, divers Liberties and Customs, as well by the Charters of his Progenitors, as without Charters by ancient Customs; he granted and confirmed to the Citizens, their Heirs and Successors, that they should enjoy their Liberties and Customs. And because these Liberties had been oftentimes impeached, and some of them forejudged in the tempestuous time of Edward II. and other preceding Kings, contrary to Magna Charta: Therefore both the King and the Lords and Commons, did set a Brand upon such illegal Proceedings; and by their solemn Act did publickly condemn them as Usurpations, to prevent the same in Ages to come; and also to put a mark of Infamy upon the Name of Henry de Stanton, and his Fellow Justices, who in the Quo Warranto 14 Ed. II. refused to do the City Justice. And further, by the same Authority it was enacted, that the Liberty of the City should not be taken into the hand of the said King Edward III. or his Heirs, for any personal Trespass or Judgment of any Minister of the said City; nor that a Custos should be set over the City upon such like Occasion; but the Minister that transgressed should be punished according to the Quality of his Offence.

K. Edw III.

Placit Coron. coram D. Rege apud Ebor. Term. Stat. Trinitat. 1 Ed. 3. penes Camerar. in Scaccar. reman.

Rights and Privileges p. 11.

And when King Richard II. endeavoured to shake the antient Government of the City, the Commons considering the high Consequences that would unavoidably affect the whole Kingdom by the Invasion of the Liberties of the City, they presently took the Alarm, and thereupon petitioned the King, That for the greater Quiet and maintenance of Peace between his liege People and for common Profit, his Citizens of his City of London should be in the then present Parliament entirely restored to their Franchises and free Usages: And that it might please his most dread Highness of his epsecial Grace to grant and confirm to his said Citizens and their Successors, by his Letters Patents, all their Liberties and free Usages, as intirely and fully as they or their Predecessors enjoyed them, in the time of any of his most noble Progenitors, with the Clause of Licet usi non fuerint vel abusi fuerint, i.e. Although they used them not, or misused them: As also with the Franchises which they enjoyed from his most gracious Grant or Confirmation, notwithstanding any Statutes, Judgments given, Ordinances or Charters late made or granted to the contrary, as well in the time of any of his said Progenitors, as in his own Reign. Because the Restraint of their Liberties and frank Usages had several ways be-

King Rich. II.

Ex Rotul. Partent. apud Westm. die Lun. & prox. ante Fest. Omn. Sanct. Regni Regis Rich. II. post Conquest 7. N. 37. Jones Rep. f. 240.