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[Strangers] The TEMPORAL GOVERNMENT. [Settled in London.]299

[Strangers] The TEMPORAL GOVERNMENT. [Settled in London.]

Some further Account of the Strangers that settled in London. Their Trades. Manufactures of Bays: The Search and Sealing thereof. Their Numbers. Complaints against them. Their Friends. They lend the Queen Money. The State of the French Protestant Refugees, Anno 1687.

BEING thus entred into Discourse of the Strangers inhabiting London, I shall here take occasion to subjoin several other Matters, giving a more particular Account of them, as well as I can gather it up.

Besides the Freemen Inhabitants of this City, there are likewise a great Number of Strangers and Foreigners, that have chosen here to fix their Habitations. And they are of two sorts; either such as are Natives of England, and come of English Extraction, but not free of the City, nor of any of the Corporations; or such who themselves, or whose Ancestors came from other Parts and Dominions. These latter, making so considerable a Part of the City, both for Number and Wealth, may justly fall under some Cognizance in this Place.

Strangers and Foreigners.

J. S.

Many of these came antiently here, (besides those of Calais and the Parts adjacent, when they were lost) especially Italians and Genoeses, and French and Flemings, upon the account of Trade: But in the Days of King Edward VI. and Queen Elizabeth, for Religion and Trade too; and they chiefly from the Low Countries, and some Italians, French and Spanish. For these Nations also had received the Gospel. And because I have several things to relate of these Foreigners, I shall digest what I have to say of them under some Particulars. As, First, the Places where they generally fixed themselves. Secondly, their Occupations. Thirdly, their Numbers. And, Fourthly, the Reception and Entertainment they met with among the Citizens.

Italian, Spanish, French, Flemings.

They chose to live by one another, and consorted as much together as they could. And the Streets and Places where they chiefly inhabited, were either in the Suburbs, or in Priviledged Places. As St. Martins le Grand, Black Friars, Clerkenwel, Turnmil-street, St. John's-street, High Holborn, the Dutchy of Lancaster without Temple-Bar, St. Katharines, Holywel, Holywel-street, Norton Folgate, Shoreditch, Hoxton, White-chappel, Wapping, and Southwark. In the Liberties of the said St. Katherines is a Place called now Hangmans Gains, by a strange Corruption for Hammes and Guynes, where the poor Trades People of Hammes and Guynes were allotted to dwell, after Calais and those Places were taken from the English.

The Places and Streets where they dwelt.

For the Italian Merchants, whom the English Citizens could not well brook for their great Wealth, which they got here by their rich Silks and Damasks which they brought over: there were of them Florentines, Luccasses, Venetians, Genoeses, &c. and they chiefly resided in Broad-street Ward, in St. Bartholomew's near the Exchange, and Benet Fink.

Italian Merchants.

As for their Trades and Occupations, some of them followed the Calling of Merchants, others were Jewellers, Brokers, Weavers, Taylors, Shoe-makers, Stone-cutters, Hatband-makers, Potters, Painters, Schoolmasters, Physicians, Surgeons, Joyners, Butchers. And many were of no Trades at all, but lived of what they brought over with them. By these Foreigners divers Manufactures were set up in England. But the Queen thereby lost in her Customs.

Trades of the Foreigners.

The Strangers of the Low Countries brought in the making of Bays, that hath proved such an advantageous Commodity for our Merchants to transport: but these were chiefly made at Norwich and Colchester, and brought up to London. And they were made so well, and so strictly examined every Piece, that they carried a Reputation throughout the World. At Norwich there were eighteen Persons appointed on purpose for the Search, Sealing and Measuring of the Baytre; as the Maior and Aldermen of Norwich wrote to the Lord Treasurer. Whereby their Commodity held such Credit and Estimation, that they were vendible both in this Realm and in many Countries beyond the Seas, to the Benefit of the Queen's Customs, and the Relief of the poor Strangers, the Workers thereof, with many of the English Nation. The Manner and Order of their Search and Sealing was remarkable, as they sent it up Anno 1578, to London, in a Writing to this Tenor:

Manufacture of Bays.

The Order of searching them.

"First, There been three Governors which oversee the Woolls, left any Lambes Wooll be occupied: And they also visit the Racks in eche Howse, that it be of equal Length, to warp upon, and their Slays to be accordingly. And they also renew their Stamps so often as nede requireth."

Three Governors.

"There been two Serchers, by the name of Prynters, which do twice in the Week visit eche Baye-Wevers Howse, to view their Warps; and whether their Slays be full of Threds or not. And if they be found as they ought to be, then they set a Seal upon yt of Allowance; otherwise it is not received for a Baye, but is converted to a Blanket, and is finable. Also eche Wever is bound to make th' Owners Mark upon the Baye. Moreover, if Threds do breke in the Weving, and not tied again to a certain nombre, that is finable also."

Two Serchers.

"After they come from the Lome, they are brought as they be, to the first Howse called the Rawe Perse. Wher there belong to that Serch nine Persons, that view eche Baye for the true Workmanship of the Wever, and passeth undre Seal, and his Default, if eny be, is set upon the Seal, and is finable according to the Fault. And th' Owners Mark, and the Wevers Mark been sown up so close, that many times the Owner geveth Sentence upon his own Baye to him unknown, to his own Loss. But this is a general Rule, the Workman that maketh the Fault of Workmanship payeth the Fyne."

First House, nine Serchers.

"From thence they go to the Scowring and Fulling; and the Fuller is to stamp a Lead with his Mark thereupon, to th' Entent that if any Fault be in his Office, he doth allow the Owner the Fyne that shall be set upon that Default."


"From the Fuller to the Sherman, called the Rower, who in like manner by a Mark or Letter is known, and is t' aunswer his Default, if eny be made, to th' Owner, after it be found and judged by the Serchers."



© hriOnline, 2007
The Stuart London Project, Humanities Research Institute, The University of Sheffield,
34 Gell Street, Sheffield, S3 7QY