[Merchants Strangers.] The TEMPORAL GOVERNMENT.295

[Merchants Strangers.] The TEMPORAL GOVERNMENT.

Retail, and to employ the Money coming of that Sale, within the same Ports where they did arrive, upon Commodities and Merchandize of this Realm, their reasonable Cost and Expences always excepted and deducted, upon pain of Forfeitures; and by no means to make over such Monies by Exchange, and finally, to restrain the abovesaid Abuses. Of this Matter of Employment more will be said by and by.

Anthony Guidotti, an Italian Merchant, towards the beginning of King Edward VI. his Reign, did good Service to England, by his Wisdom and Dexterity in managing State-Business, in setting forward a Peace between England and France. For taking divers private Journeys from the Constable of France to the Council in England (which he seemed to do at first upon his own Head) it came at last to this Point, that four Commissioners were appointed to treat, and after long Debate, it ended in a Treaty, and that in a Peace, Anno 1549; and for a Reward, in April 1550, Guidotti was recompenced with a Knighthood and a Thousand Crowns, and a Hundred Crowns Pension; and his Son with Two Hundred and Fifty Crowns Pension.

An Italian Merchant, the Cause of a Peace between England and France.

Among the Foreigners, that for the Liberty of their Religion planted themselves in England under King Edward VI. many were Italians and Genoese, having a Congregation in London, and most of them Merchants, who brought over, and traded in Silks, Velvets, and Damasks, and got great Wealth thereby.

Italian Merchants plant themselves in London under King Edward: And under Q. Elizabeth.

In Queen Elizabeth's Reign, about 1572, were of Note Francisco Galliaraetto, Cæsar Adelmar, (whence the Family of the Cæsar's of Hertfordshire, still flourishing) Acerbo, and Benedict Spinola, who had so much Favour granted him, as to obtain divers Licenses for the passing of Cloths and Kersies with English Custom.

There have been from time to time many Acts made (besides that mentioned before) for the Regulation of the Trade of Merchants Aliens, and Strangers, and that the Nation might receive Benefit and Advantage from it; as, That they should dwell in no other Place but in an Englishman's House, and he to be their Host, and to have the Sales of all such Goods as they should bring into the Realm; and he, the said Host, to see the Money received for such Commodities, to be employed upon the Commodities of the Realm. That they should have appointed them by the Maior, Sheriffs, Bailiffs, and Constables, their Host, whither they were to resort, and to no other Place; and he to be appointed the Surveyor or Broker of all such Merchandizes by them brought into the Relam, and the same to be registred by him; and for his pains and travail therein, to have for every 20s. 2d. That neither they, their Servants or Factors, should ride into the Country, or any part of the Realm, to buy any Wool, Cloth, Lead, Tin, or any other Commodities; because they used to sell the same again within the Realm to other Merchant Strangers, to the hindrance of the King's Subjects; and by riding from Place to Place, and from Haven to Haven, they might understand the State of the same, with all such Landing-Places as were meet for any Enemies to land at. That no Merchant Stranger, or Denizon, might buy any Wools, Wolsels, Leather, Lead, Tin, or any other Commodity throughout our Realms and Lands by Covin or Collusion, to abate the Prices of the same Merchandizes: For by their riding and sending into the Country, they came to know the Value of any the English Commodities, whereby the Merchants that were wont to serve them of the same, could scarce be offered the Monies it cost in the Country, to the hindrance of the said Merchants, and decay of the Commodities. That where any Contract was made with any Lombard or other Merchant Stranger, and any Bond thereof past between them, that if he should break and escape out of the Realm without Agreement made with his Creditors, then if any Merchant of the Company acknowledged himself bound by the manner, the Company should answer the Debt. For in former times, divers Merchants Strangers, as well of the Stylyard as others, having by their Credit here gotten great sums of Money and Wares into their Hands of divers Subjects of this Realm, suddenly broke and played Bankrupts, and thereupon departed the Realm, whereby none of their Creditors knew where to seek any part of his Debts. That Merchants Strangers, being Victuallers, should put in good Assurance for the employing of their Money received for the Victuals. That none of them should lodge in their House any other Merchant Stranger than of their own Country, upon pain of forfeiting 40l. And in the Reign of King Henry VII. not to lodge in their House any Merchant Stranger, either of his own Country, or other, upon the same Penalty. For with these they used to buy, sell, barter and exchange, as commonly and freely as English Merchants did. By which means they coloured one anothers Goods, and hindred the Sale of our Country Commodities. That they should make such Exchange to the Court of Rome or elsewhere, and to be bound personally in the Court of Chancery by Recognizance, to buy within nine Months after such Exchange, and make like Merchandizes in this Realm, as should amount to the said Sum, of so much as was exchanged, upon forfeiture of the same. Lastly, That where they daily brought in Wheat, Corn, Merchandizes, &c. for the which they received Gold and Silver, and carried the same out of the Realm without any Employment upon any kind of Merchandize of this Realm, to the damage and impoverishing of the same, and diminishing the King's Coin; therefore none should carry away any Beer, Wheat, Corn, or any other Merchandize from any Creek or Port, but that it should be lawful to seize the same as Forfeit.

Laws for Merchant Strangers.

Ann. 5 H. 4. ca 9. 4 H 5. ca. 5 18 H. 6. ca. 4. 17 E. 4. ca. 1. 3 H. 7. ca. 7.

Ann. 18 H. 6. c. 4 17 E. 4. c. 1. 1 H. 7. c. 2. 3 H. 7. c. 7.

Ann. 1. R. 3. c. 11. 27 E. 3. c. 3.

Ann. 3 H. 7. c. 7. 27 E. 6. c. 4.

Ann. 25 E. 3. c. 23.

Ann. 27 H. 6. ca. 3.

Ann. 1 R. 3. c. 11. 1 H. 7. c. 10.

Ann. 5 H. 4. ca. 4. 9 H. 4. c. 8. 9 H. 6. c. 4. 1 H. 7. c. 10.

Ann. 27 H. 7. c. 3. 2 H. 6. c. 6.

These old Laws were revived in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth. About the 14th Year of whose Reign a great Quarrel arose against the Merchants Strangers, and continued a great while after, that they did not Employ the Money they received of the Commodities they brought into the Land, in purchasing therewith other Goods of our own Growth and Manufacture; but that they returned their Monies by Bills of Exchange, or otherwise, abroad; and so emptied the Land of its Treasure. William Bird of the Custom-House, informed the Lord Treasurer An. 1572, that it was reported, that some Merchants Strangers brought in Wares for 8000 or 10000l. or more a Year, and did not make Employment for 200l. of the same in the Commodities of the Realm. Which was contrary to the good Policy of the Realm, and a great damage to her Majesty: For hereby the Queen's Revenues were sunk, and the Lord Treasurer was informed from the Customers, that the Queen's Officers had no such Knowledge of the Strangers Goods and Wares brought from beyond Sea, as heretofore they used to have. Whereby her Highness Customs and Subsidies Outward were much decreased. And they prayed him to take Order, that the Merchant Strangers should deliver (as heretofore they had done) a Bill or Content of all such Goods and Merchandizes as they should from time to time bring into the Port of London: whereby their Employments made, and their Bonds taken for the same, might the better be seen unto for her Majesty's Service.

Quarrel with them for Non-Employment.