The TEMPORAL GOVERNMENT. [Tallow Chandlers.]210

The TEMPORAL GOVERNMENT. [Tallow Chandlers.]

and much used in the Times of Superstition, became yet to be incorporated in Anno 1484. it being the second Year of King Richard III.

[Their Arms granted by Thomas Holland, Clarencieux.]


[ Click here to view Image of coat of arms, Tallow-chandlers' Company   ]

THE Company of the TALLOW CHANDLERS, were a Society of great Antiquity, living in good formality among Men, and loving agreement with themselves: they became to be incorporated in the second Year of King Edward IV. and from him successively to King James I.

The Arms and Crest given to John Prior, John Thirloe, William Blakeman, and Richard Greencroft, Wardens, and to other notable Men of the Fellowship and Occupation of Tallow Chandlers of London, Freemen, and to their Successors for ever (having no Arms before) by John Smart, alias Garter, under his Hand and Seal of his Office, bearing Date Sept. 24. Anno Dom. 1456. 35 Hen. VI. The Motto, Delight in God, and he shall give thee they Hearts Desire. The Crest is an Angel holding John Baptist's Head in a Charger, with a Glory about it. The Arms, Crest, and Supporters were allowed and granted by William Camden, Clarencieux, with this Motto, Quæ arguuntur, à Lumine manifestantur. And confirmed in the Visitation, 1634. when this Company produced an ancient Patent for these Arms, but another Crest, granted to them by John Smart aforesaid.

J. S.

This Company of Tallow Chandlers in former Times dealt not only in Candles, but in Oil, Vinegar, Butter, Hops, Sope, &c. They were in the 3d of Hen. VIII. appointed to search Oils; and had a Power to destroy such as were mingled and corrupt. Which was by them executed for a time; and much Oil thereby destroyed, that might have been employed to good Use. But for that no Fee was granted for the Execution, it was neglected.

The Tallow Chandlers search Oils.

In Queen Elizabeth's Reign, about the Year 1576, and before, Abuses and Deceits were daily used and increased in this Trade. Concerning which the chief of the Company had divers Conferences in their Common Hall: And about the said Year 1576, they agreed that Roger Tyler, one of the Wardens, and in good Credit among them, as well for his honest Dealing, as for his Skill in this his Trade, should sue in Name of the whole Company, to her Majesty for a new Grant, to search and destroy corrupt Wares, &c. And hereupon they petitioned the Queen, that whereas much counterfeit Vinegar was made of corrupt Beer and Ale, and the same coloured and mingled with unwholsome Dredges, as well within the Liberty of London, as also in St. Katharine's, Whitechappel, Shoreditch, St. John's, Clerkenwel, and other such like Places, the same being corrupt were unmeet to be used; and yet the same was sold into the City for good and perfect: the People thereby deceived, besides the fear of great Infection to be bred therewith: And also Firkins of Salt Butter, mingled and packed up with old musty Butter in divers parts of the Firkins: And the like Abuse used in Oil and Hope: For Reformation whereof, the Master and Wardens of Tallow Chandlers of London, who did retail these things, and finding daily these Deceits, were moved in Conscience to procure Redress: Did most humbly beseech the Queen's Majesty to grant them Authority to have the perusing of these things, with the Assistance of the Lord Maior and the Head Officers, for the reforming of these Deceits, and for the seeing these things to be good and perfect from henceforth.

They petition the Queen for redressing Deceits in the Trade.

The Dredges used for colouring Vinegar were Elder-berries, Privet-berries, Torne-sole, and such other like Dredges. The musty and moldy Butter was packed in the heart of the Vessels of Butter. The Sallet Oils were mingled with Lisbon Oil. The old and musty Hops were packed in the heart of the Sacks of Hops, and great Quantity or red Sand mingled with the same, to make them weigh more. Which mingling was done in Flanders.

Deceits used in Vinegar, Oil, Butter, and Hops.

The Queen's Letters Patents to this Company bore Date at Westminster the 15th of April, in the 19th Year of her Reign: Naming, appointing and authorizing the Master, Wardens, and Commonalty of the Art and Mystery of Tallow-Chandlers of London, and their Successors and Deputies, to be Searchers, Examiners, Viewers and Triers of all Sope, Vinegar, Butter, Hops and Oils. And this Office of searching the Premisses was granted within London, Southwark, St. Katharine's, Whitechappel, Shoreditch, Westminster, St. John's, Clerkenwel, and St. Giles in the Fields. And Prohibition was given that no Man should put to Sale any of the Premisses before they were searched, upon pain of Forfeiture: the one Moiety of the Forfeitures to the Queen, and the other to the Searchers. And for the Payment of the Searchers there was an Imposition upon every Barrel of good Sope, 2d. and so proportionably; upon a Tun of Vinegar, 8d. upon a Barrel of Butter, 2d. upon a Tun of Sevil Oil, 8d. upon a Sack of Hops, 8d. and so upon less Quantities proportionably: with a Clause of Revocation of these Letters Patents for Misuser.

The Queen's Patents to them.

But the Lord Maior and Court of Aldermen, October 1583, resisted the Execution of this Patent, and made a Declaration, why it ought to be stayed, and utterly void; and that by common Law, and also by Act of Parliament, viz. the Statute of 12 Edw. IV. cap 8. "Item, whereas the Governours, that is, the Maiors, Bailiffs, and other like Governours of every City, Burgh, and Town of Substance within this Realm, &c." By vertue of which Law the Lord Maior's learned Counsel urged, that of common Right, and by the Laws of the Realm, the surveying of all Victuals, and the Correction and Punishment of the Offenders and Breakers of the Assize of the same, are to be presented, and amerced in the Law-Days, Leets, and Views of Frank-Pledge. And that the Lords of the said Courts are inheritable to the same Amerciaments. But by this Charter made to the Tallow Chandlers, they are to be disinherited for ever. And in all the Places mentioned in the Patent, where the Tallow Chandlers have their Power of searching, the Lords of the Liberty have Leets or Law Days. To whom by reason of the same Liberty, the Scrutiny and Search of the Premisses do justly and of Right pertain. In Southwark, the Lord Maior and Commons have a Leet, or Law-Day. In Westminster, the Dean and Chapter. In St. Katharines, the Master and Confreres. In White Chappel, the Lord Wentworth. In Shoreditch, the Dean and Chapter of Paul's. In Clerkenwel, the Queen. In St. Giles in the Fields, and in High Holbourn, the Lord Mountjoy. So that there was no Place left, where the Tallow Chandlers might exercise the said Office of

The Lord Maior opposeth this Patent.