[Wardmote Court.] The TEMPORAL GOVERNMENT. [Other Courts.]384

[Wardmote Court.] The TEMPORAL GOVERNMENT. [Other Courts.]

two Inches and three quarters in the Meish for Flounders, from the Feast of Easter until the four and twentieth of August yearly; and until he shall have received Leave and License for his going forth in such manner as is herein after mentioned and provided for; and that the Meish of their said Smelt Nets be one full Inch wet and dry, and not otherwise, upon forfeiture of 40s. for every such Offence.]

He that would see more of this Court of Conservacy, and of the River of Thames, may betake himself to the First Book, and Seventh and Eighth Chapters, where divers things are set down relating thereto.

J. S.

Besides these chief and noted Courts of London, there be other Courts of less Note kept within the City, and belonging to it; as, The Wardmote Court, the Halmote Court, the Court of the Coroner, the Court of the Escheator; to which we add, the Court of the Tower, and the Court of St. Martins le Grand.

Other Courts held in London.



SO called, because it is held in every Ward on St. Thomas's Day, by the Aldermen thereof, who hath a Right to hold his Leet in his Ward, to make Inquisitions into all Defaults in the respective Ward by an Inquest. Which is impowered for an whole Year, to inquire into and present to the Alderman such Defaults. This Court is derived out of the Court of the Lord Maior, who sendeth a Precept to the Alderman to keep this Court. And so it is somewhat like the Hundred-Courts in the Country, which are derived from the County. In these Wardmote Courts also are chosen Common Councilmen, Constables, Scavengers, Beadles, Rakers for the repsective Wards. Thus necessary are these Courts for maintaining the good Government of the City. In London the Parishes are as Towns, and the Wards as Hundreds; and therefore Riens diens Gard was a good Challenge at Common Law.

Coke's Instit. P. 4. p. 249.



SO called, because it is that Court which every Company in London keep in their Halls, anciently called the Halmote, or Folkemote; for the Lord Coke makes them to be the same. Conventus Civium in Aulam publicam; i.e. the Meeting of Citizens in their public Hall.

Coke's Instit. P. 4. p. 249.

The Court of the CORONER.


THE Maior is Coroner within London, and this Court is held before him or his Deputy. This Court is to enquire concerning the Death of any Man when he is supposed to come to some untimely End, and that super visum Corporis, i.e. upon Sight of the Body; and likewise of the Escape of the Murderer: Also concerning Treasure Trouve, Deodands, and Wrecks of the Sea.

The Court of the ESCHEATOR.


THE Lord Maior is also Escheator within the City. And this Court is also held before him or his Deputy. All Original Writs of Diem clausit extremum, Mandamus, Devenerunt, Melius inquirend' &c. are directed to the Eschetor, to find an Office for the King after the Death of his Tenant, which held by Knights Service. The Escheator also may find an Office for Treason, Felony, &c.

Coke's Instit. P. 4. p. 225.

The Court of the TOWER.


THIS Court is held within the Verge of London, before the Steward, by Prescription of Debt, Trespass, or other Actions of any Sum greater or less.



ST. Martins le Grand is a Liberty distinct from the Government of London, and subject to the Deanry of Westminster. In this Liberty is a Court, which is a Court of Record, and kept every Wednesday weekly, for the Tryal of all Personal Actions, of what nature soever. And there is a Court-House and a Prison. The leading Process is a Capias against the Body, or an Attachment against the Goods. So that a Man's Goods may be arrested in his own House upon the first Process, if he be not taken. Which is according to the Practice of all antient Liberties or Franchises.

It shall not be omitted, that the Lord Coke in his Institutes hath a Discourse of the Courts in London, and their Jurisdictions. The Courts he sets down to be these. 1. The Court of Hustings. 2, 3. The two Courts of the Sheriffs. 4. The Court of Equity before the Lord Maior, commonly called the Court of Conscience. 5. The Court of Maior and Aldermen. 6. The Court of Orphans. 7. The Court of Common Council. 8. The Court of Wardmote. 9. The Court of Halmote. 10. The Court of Chamberlain for Apprentices. 11. The Court of Conservation of the Water and River of Thames. 12. The Court of the Coroner in London. 13. The Court of Escheator in London. 14. The Court of Policies and of Assurances in London. 15. The Court of the Tower of London. What are the Jurisdictions, Rights, and Powers of these Courts, and what else he observes of them, are best seen in the Institutes themselves.

The Courts and their Jurisdictions, according to the Ld. Coke's Instit. P. 4. Ca. 50 p. 247.

There is still one Court (and that a Court of eminent Note) held in the City, that remains to be declared; namely,]

The Court of the King's Commission of the Peace, of Oyer and Terminer, and Goal-Delivery for Newgate.


THIS Court is called the The King's Commission on the Peace of Oyer and Terminer, and Goal-delivery of Newgate for the City of London and County of Middlesex. Which Court is held at Justice-Hall in the Old-Bailey, commonly call'd the Sessions House, and generally eight times or oftner every Year.

The Court for Malefactors.

R. B.

The Judges are the Lord Maior, the Recorder, and other of his Majesty's Justices of the Peace of the City of London, the two Sheriffs of London being always present; and oftentimes the Judges (being always in these Commissions) come and sit to give their Assistance.

The Jurors for all Matters committed in London, are Citizens of London, chosen out of such Wards as are appointed for Juries according to the Months of the Year. And the Jurors for Crimes and Misdemeanours committed in Middlesex, are Freeholders of the said County, chosen out of the respective Hundreds in the said County.

In this Court are heard and determined all such Crimes and Misdemeanours as extend to Loss of Life, Corporeal Punishment, Fine, Amercement, &c. of which these following are the chief, viz. High Treason, Petty Treason, Murther, Felony, Burglary, Forgery, &c. Now to declare what these Crimes are, and to shew the Punish-