
[Orders about] The TEMPORAL GOVERNMENT. [Bakers.]  342 
[Orders about] The TEMPORAL GOVERNMENT. [Bakers.]
And if there be fewer Loaves than the number of Halfpence in the Sum the Meal was bought for, when the Charge is allowed, then let it be withdrawn from the Weight of each Loaf equally, so far until there result so many Loaves of equal Weight, as there are Halfpence in the number of the Sum the Meal was bought at, when the Charge is allowed.
 
If there shall be more Loaves than the number of Halfpence, let the Part exceeding be taken from the number of Loaves, and see how manieth part it will be of the number of Halfpence; and according to that Proportion, let the Weight of each Loaf be augmented. For Example sake, if there be 20 Halfpence, and 24 Loaves, every Loaf of the Weight of 40 Shillings, then the number of Loaves increaseth above the number of Halfpence, which are but 20; and it is the fifth Part, since five times four make twenty. Therefore the Weight of every Loaf increaseth by the fifth part of its Weight; and the Weight of the Loaf was 40 Shillings, whose fifth part is 8 Shillings. Therefore 20 Loaves shall be each Loaf of the Weight of 48 Shillings. And so each Loaf shall be of just Weight.
 
If there were more Halfpence than the number of Loaves, we must see the how manieth part was the number increasing, of the number of Loaves: and if it were a third part, a fourth part is to be lessened from every Loaf: and of were a fourth part, a fifth part is to be lessesend: and if it were a fifth part, a sixth part is to be lessened. For Example, if the number of Halfpence were 24, and the number of Loaves 20, then is the number increasing 4, as before, which is the fifth part of 20. Therefore each Loaf decreaseth of the sixth part of its Weight. If the Weight therefore shall be 40 Shillings, it shall be 33 Shillings and 4 Pence. And so the number of Loaves is equalled to the number of Halfpence, and the Weight is the same.
 
Thus there was formerly extraordinary Care taken in the City about Bread, and for ordering the Bakers in the making and selling of their Bread. For that Purpose there were four pincipal Halimotes in the Year, when all the City Bakers were bound to meet together. Whereof the first was to be kept after the Feast of St. Michael, for the Profit of the City and the Kingdom. That the Bakers being assembled together, take and know their new Sheriffs, and retain in their Memories the Statutes of the City belonging to the Bakers, and receive the Assay of Bread.

The Bakers had four Halimotes the Year.
Lib. Horn.
J. S.

The second Halimote was held after the Nativity of our Lord; that if there be any Transgression made in the first Term of the Year, it may be there without difficulty more fully amended.
 
The third Halimote was accustomed to be called together after the Close of Easter; as well for the coming of the King as of the Nobles of his Kingdom: lest there might seem to fall out a Want of this kind of Service; that is, in a convenient Supply of the City and Inhabitants with good Bread.
 
The fourth Halimote was after the Nativity of St. John Baptist; that what should be solemnly appointed by the Common Council and Providence of the City in the first three Terms, in this fourth Term might be profitably confirmed. So that the Goodness of so great a Work might not turn to Disprofit by Ignorance or by Negligence.
 
To these four Halimotes all the Bakers must come. And of they come not, nor excuse and essoin themselves reasonably, they forfeited to the Sheriff 21d.
 
Now further as to the Assay of Bread (whereof somewhat was said before) according to which the Price of Bread was to be set. At the Feast of St. Michael, in the 12 of Edw. II. were bought three Quarters of Breadcorn, to make an Assay of White Bread according to Custom, for 17s. 4d. ob. And 3s. 4d. was allowed for all Expences about making the same Bread. Whence the whole Sum ariseth to 20s. 8d. Subtracting thence 12d. for eight Ounces of Bran, there remains 19s. 8d. ob. the third part is 6s. 8d. ob. which make 157 Halfpence. And so many Loaves shall be made of Wastell, of an Halfpenny: and so many Loaves of Levat * Bread, of an Halfpenny: and so many Loaves of Bisse * , of an Halfpenny, of the whole Weight of the Bread forth coming of the said three Quarters of Breadcorn. The Weight of the whole Bread weighing together and at once 165l. 4s. 6d.

Assay of Bread.
*Levati.
*B ssi.

The Assay according to the Regale of England.


 2s.   68s  
 2s. 6d.   53s. 4d ob q.  
 3s.   48s.  
 3s. 6d.   42s.  
 4s.   36s.  
 4s. 6d.   30s.  
 5s.   27s. 8d. ob.  
 5s. 6d.   24s. 8d.  
When the Quarter of Breadcorn is sold for  6s.  The Wastell shall weigh.  22s. 8d.  
 6s. 6d.   20s. 11d.  
 7s.   19s. 1d.  
 7s. 6d.   18s. 3d ob.  
 8s.   17s.  
 8s. 6d.   16s.  
 9s.   15s.  
 9s. 6d.   14s. 4d ob q.  
 10s.   13s. 7d. q.  
 11s.   12s. 4d.  
 11s. 6d.   11s. 9d.  and soto 
 16s. 6d.   8s. 3d.  and lastly 
 20s.   6s. 8d.  
 
And we must know, that the Baker may gain in every Quarter 3d. with the Bran, and two Loaves of the Furnage, of the Price of 2d. And to his Servants three Halfpence; and for his two Boys three Farthings; and for the Seal an Halfpenny; and for Yest an Halfpenny; and for Candle a Farthing; and for Bushes three Pence; and for bolting * an Halfpenny.

The Bakers Gains.
*Pro bultella.

Note, That Coket Bread of the same Corn, and of the same bultel, or bolting, [shall weigh] more than Wastels by 2s. and of Corn of less Price, more by 5s.
 
Also, Bread of Artocope * shall weigh less then Wastel by 2s.

*Artocopi.

Also whole Bread, or Loaf of a Farthing, shall weigh Coket and half, &c.
 
In the Bakers Halimote were these particular Laws and Charges given to all the City Bakers.

Capitula dicenda Pistoribus in Halimoto suo.

Let two or four Loaves to be made for a Penny: And let the Baker make no kind of Bread of greater Price to sell, but only two or four Loaves to a Penny; and that according to the Assize set for the present Year.

Lib. Horn. fo. 199.

Let no Bran Loaf be made; nor being made of Bran, which is worse in breaking than [it appears] without.
 
Let every Baker have his Seal appearing in his Bread; so that it may be the better and more openly known, whose it is. And let this manner of sealing be as well in bisse [brown] Bread, as in white.
 
Let no Baker sell Bread in his own House, nor before his own Oven. * But let him have a Basket with his Bread in the King's Market. So that if his Bread shall not be competent according to

*Olibanum.

