[Apprentices.] The TEMPORAL GOVERNMENT. [Their Condition.]330

[Apprentices.] The TEMPORAL GOVERNMENT. [Their Condition.]

in wearing any Apparell or other thing contrary to this Acte, with the allowance, appoyntment, or witting sufferaunce of hys Maister, or if the Maister knowing any of the sayd offences do not cause due punishment to be geuen for the first or second times: then the Maister shall for euery such offence or default forfaite 6s. 8d. to the vse of the poore of the parishe where the offendour shall then dwell, and to be payd to the Churchwardens, vpon proofe to be made before the Alderman of the Warde, or hys Deputie, or the Chamberlayne of this City, or any Warden of such offenders Company, or the Churchwardens of any such parishe. And that euery such Alderman, or hys Deputie, Chamberlayne of this City, or Warden of such Company, before or to whom such proofe shal be so made as is abouesayd, or shal be signified by such Churchwardens, shall haue authority in the name of the Lord Maior of this City for the time being, to commit to warde such Maister so offending and refusing or fayling to pay, till the forfaiture aboue limitted be truely payde. And that it shal be lawfull for anye person to make information and proofe of the sayd offences and defaultes to any the persons abouesayd.

And be it further ordayned and enacted, That euery Apprentise which shall be in any Dauncing-schoole, or Schoole of Fence, or Schoole or place of learning of Instruments, or learne or vse dauncing or masking: or which shall without hys Maisters knowlege haue any Chest, Presse, or other place to lay vp or kéep any Apparell or Goodes, sauing onely in hys Maisters House, or by his Maisters license and appoyntment; shall vpon like proofe as is aboue specified, be punished in such forme and according to such degrées for hys first and eftsoones offending, as is afore appoynted for Apprentises offending in wearing of forbidden Apparell agaynst their Maisters appoyntment. And the Maisters shall be likewise punished for allowing or witting any sufferance of hys Apprentises haunting or vsing any of the foresayd forbidden Schooles, Places, or Exercises, as in case of forbidden Apparell is also abouesayd.

Prouided alway, and be it enacted and declared, That euery seuerall offence agaynst this Acte, shalbe iudged an offending in any seuerall day, and not to be iudged two times offending for one onely thing in one day. And also that is sayd of Maisters is also ment and spoken of Maistresses: and what is sayd of Clothe is also ment of Kersey.

And be it enacted, That this present Acte, for so much as concerneth wearing Apparell aboue forbidden, shall be put in execution onely for offences to be committed agaynst this Acte, from and after the Feast of the holy Trinitie next comming, and not before. And for so much as concerneth resorting to the sayd Schooles and Exercises, shall be put in execution for all such offences from the last day of this present moneth of Maye.

Prouided alway, that this Acte for so much as concerneth resorting to Schooles or places of learning of Instruments, or dauncing, or Apparell, shall not extend to any Apprentise of the Company of Minstrels, learning, teaching, or vsing the same Facultie as his lawfull Act, any thing in this Acte to the contrary notwithstanding.

Yeauen at the said Citty the 21st day of May, 1582.
God saue the Queene.

But to speak here a few things more concerning those we call Apprentices, which are that Rank of Men that are brought up to be the Stay of the City, that is, to be the Citizens of it. For without serving a certain number of Years with some Freeman of the City, no Man, be he born in London, or of Parents Londoners, is admitted to be a Citizen or Freeman of London, to follow a Trade there. And that because it is so necessary,that he who shall take upon him to set up a Trade in the City, should first employ some competent Time in the learning thereof, and dwell with somebody that may teach him; as the Word Apprentice doth denote. For Polydore Virgil (who was a Stranger, and so unacquainted with our Language) mistook, when he derived Apprentice quasi pro Emptitio, as all one with one bought with Money, as the Roman Bondslaves were; but it is (as Sir Thomas Smith more truly and rightly shews) a French Word, and betokeneth a Learner: For Apprendre, in French, is to Learn. Whence Apprentice signifies a Scholar, or one that learns. And so he to whom he is bound, is called his Master, or his Teacher, not his Lord. Nor is it a Bondage, since there is a mutual Agreement and Covenant between both Parties, put into Writing, signed and sealed by both, and registred for more Assurance: And that only for a Time. The Sum whereof is, That the Master is to teach his Apprentice his Trade, and he to learn and obey his Master. But yet, during the Time, saith the said Smith, it is Vera Servitus, i.e. a true Servitude. He means surely hereby, not to equal Apprenticeship to the Roman Bondage of Slaves, but in respect of certain Points of Subjection and Hardship that resemble it. As, "That whatsoever the Apprentice gets of his own Labour, or of his Master's Occupation or Stock, he getteth to him whose Apprentice he is. He must not lie forth of his Master's Doors; he must not occupy any Stock of his own; nor marry without his Master's License. And he must do all servile Offices about the House, and be obedient to all his Master's Commandments. And shall suffer such Correction as his Master shall think meet; and is at his Master's clothing and nourishing." And thus, as he concludes afterwards (speaking of hired Servants) "the Necessity and Want of Bondmen hath made Men to use Freemen as Bondmen, to all servile Services; but yet more liberally and freely, and with a more Equality and Moderation, than in Time of Gentility, Slaves and Bondmen were wont to be used."

None to be a Citizen without serving an Apprenticeship.

J. S.

De Rep. Anglor.

The Condition of Apprentices.

Yet some there have been, that from such Representations of the State of an Apprentice, have falsely concluded it to be a real Bondage, as it is taken in the Civil Law. And this Conceit hath prevailed so much, that they have imagined, that as a Consequence from hence, it hath deprived a Gentleman born, of his Quality, and corrupted his Blood. So that no Apprentice might take place as a Gentleman, in whatever gentile Quality he was born, as the Apprenticeship left them under the Blemish of Bondage, and the Penalty of losing their Gentry. On this account it is, that the Citizens are so despised by the Country Gentry, and it is lookt upon as such a Disparagement for any of them to inter-marry with the Child of a Citizen. Hence also it comes to pass, that many Gentlemen in the Country utterly refuse to send up their younger Children to learn honest Trades to get Wealth, and improve their Fortunes by Merchandize, or other Traffic; chusing rather to keep them always inthe Country, to live idly, and to depend sometimes on their elder Brother, or on some small Annuity: Whereby not seldom they take naughty Courses for a Subsistence.

The false Conceit that Apprenticeship is Bondage.

Whereas in Truth, all this is built upon Mistake. For Apprenticeship is quite a different thing from Bondage or Slavery. Neither can a Man forfeit his Gentility, by the Laws of the English Heraldry, but by some particular, unworthy and dishonourable Acts of his own, (as Treason, Cowardice, &c.) as I have heard asserted by the late learned Sir Henry St. George, Kt. Garter. For we

An Apprentice different from a Slave.