[Merchants.] The TEMPORAL GOVERNMENT.291


Remarks concerning the Merchants of London. Their Numbers in King Edward's and Queen Elizabeth's Days. Their Voyages Northward for Discovery of foreign Regions, and settling Traffic. Their Commodities, Beer, Sea-Coal, Iron Ordnance. A Register for Policies, Charter Parties, &c. Foreign Merchants: Laws concerning them. Complained of for returning Monies out of the Land by Exchange. Bound to Employment here. Ill Will to Strangers: Their Manufactures. Reasons offered to the Parliament against Naturalizing Aliens.

AND here, by way of Appendix, I shall add a few Collections concerning the Merchants of London in general, and then more particularly concerning the Merchants Strangers, and such as are foreign born, wherein the City hath always much abounded.

Divers Remarks concerning the Merchants of London.

J. S.

In the Reign of King Edward VI. there were but few English Merchants Adventurers, and a great want of Shipping to convey our Commodities abroad, and bring in Returns for them. A notable Merchant in those Days wrote thus in a Letter to a Statesman then, (viz. Sir William Cecyl) "I think there is never a City in Christendom, having the occupying that this City hath, that is so slenderly provided of Ships, having the Sea coming to it, as this hath. And, that he had heard of late much complaining for English Ships to lade Goods into Spain, and other Places; and none were to be had. And that he had seen thirty seven Hoyes laden with Wood and Timber, go at one Tide out of Rye, and never an English Mariner among them."

Few Merchants in King Edward VIth's Days.

The number of Merchants in London in the beginning of Queen Elizabeth, viz. when Alderman Lodge was Maior, (which was Anno 1561.) were in all 327. Whereof the Company of Mercers afforded 99. And these were the Names of the chief, Sir Thomas Leigh, Sir Thomas Gresham, Mr. Alderman Martin, Mr. Alderman Baskerfield, Sir Roland Hill, Vincent Randal, Lyonel Ducket. Of the Grocers were 57. Whereof the chief were, Sir John Lyon, Mr. Alderman White, Mr. Alderman Lodge, Lord Maior, Mr. Edward Jackman, Alderman. Of the Drapers 29. Whereof the chief were, Sir William Chester, Mr. Alderman Champion. Of the Haberdashers 51. Whereof the chief were, Sir William Hawarde, Alderman Woodroff. Of the Merchant-Taylers 25. Whereof the chief were, Sir Thomas White, Sir John York, Sir William Harper, Alderman Row, Richard Hills. Of the Skinners 16. Of the Fishmongers 12. Of the Clothworkers 13. Whereof was Alderman Hayward. Of the Ironmongers 6. Whereof was Alderman Chamberlain. Of the Salters 2. Of the Girdlers 2. Of the Bowyers 1. Of the Leathersellers 9. Of the Armourers 1.

Merchants in Queen Elizabeth's Days.

The Traffic of the Merchants to the Parts of the World at a greater Distance, was first to Russia. Which began in the latter End of King Edward VI. Wherein divers of the Court were Adventurers with the Merchants of London.

Traffic first to Russia.

In the Year 1563. in March, a Voyage was undertaken to Maderabombo, set forth by some Merchants, some Mariners, and some of the Court, to encourage foreign Trade; viz. the Earl of Pembroke, the Lord Robert Dudley, the Lord Admiral, and Sir William Cecyl, Knt. Secretary of State, Sir William Garret, Sir William Chester, Sir Thomas Lodge, Benjamin Genson, Edward Castlyn, Merchants, John Hawkyns, William Wynter, Mariners. The Ships that went in this Adventure, the Complement of Men in each, and the Charge of their Ordinance, Tackle and Apparel, were as follow:

Voyage to Maderabombo.

Ships.Men.Ordinance, &c.
The Jesus of Lubeck80 
The Salomon35600 l.
The Tyger 20200 l.
The Swallow15120 l.
 150920 l.

The Wares and Victuals for the Negroes, with their Apparel, and Habiliments of War, amounted to the charge of 1190l.

The Sum of the whole Charge (over and beside the Adventure of the Jesus of Lubeck accounted for) 3300l.

In the Year 1576. certain Moscovy Merchants, (with whom several of the Court were also Adventurers) sent Martin Furbisher, or Frobusher, in a Voyage to discover a Passage by Sea North-Westward to Cathay. Which Voyage cost 1600l. Wherein Michael Lock was one of the chief Adventurers, and Treasurer. From this Voyage was brought home 200 Weight of Ewr by Furbisher, for Experiment, which was molten and tried by one Jonas Schutz, an Almain, and John Baptista Agnello, an Italian, and three Englishmen; and there proceeded thence in Silver 6 Ounces, 7 Penny-weight, and 13 Grains; and of the same Ewr in Gold 5 Penny-weight and 5 Grains. Which both in Silver and Gold amounted to 47s. 6d. Sterling, at 5s. the Ounce Silver, and 3s. the Penny-weight Gold, according to the Account brought in to the Muscovy-House. So that at that Rate a Tun of the said Ewr would make in Money 23l. 15s. all Charges deducted. Hence upon the View of this Account they found, that for every 8l. to be disbursed by the Adventurers, they would gain 5l. Which arose upon every 100l. gain clear above the Sum of 60l. And a Writing was delivered in to Secretary Walsingham, one of the Adventurers, to the same Import. And hereupon Sir William Wynter certified several honourable Adventurers, as well as Walsingham, upon the Information given him that Furbisher had found a Mine of Gold worth 60l. the Tun, from whence the foresaid Ewr was taken.

Voyage of Furbisher to find out the North-West Passage.

Upon which a second Voyage was undertaken by the said Furbisher in the Year 1577. which cost above 4000l. to fetch Ewr from this Gold Mine. And a third Anno 1578. made upon the Foundation of some Writings of the Value of the Ewr brought the second Voyage, (however that Ewr proved not good.) And their Honours gave Orders for this Voyage by their Letters written to the Commissioners. Which Voyage cost 15000l. Yet after all, these Voyages turned not to the

His second and third Voyage.