date ult. Febr. 35 H. VIII. Anciently they bore this Coat impaled with the Arms of Thomas à Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury; that is, First the Arms of the See of Canterbury, then three Choughs, Becket's Arms: And lastly, these Arms for the Brewers, viz. a Chevron charged with three Barrels, between as many Garbs; afterward they bore the Garbs Salteirwise, as at present.

Of various Matters relating to this Company of Brewers, I have met with these Notices, as they happened in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth; which I have collected out of some authentic Papers.

Matters relating to the Brewers.

In the Year 1580, or thereabouts, Sir Thomas Gorges sued to have the Office of Gauger of Beer; namely, to Survey the gauging and filling every Barrel: And for the defraying of the Charges, and of Officers to be employed, to have a Penny for gauging every Barrel of Beer and Ale; an Halfpenny for every half Barrel: and so for every Vessel after that Rate. And for inclining the Queen to grant this, he shewed in his Petition to the Lord Treasurer Burghley, that there was a Deceit to the Buyer of Beer and Ale, both in the Assize of the Vessels, and in the not filling them up. And that the Buyers, taken altogether, were deceived hereby 30000l. a Year: Which by this Expedient propounded, would be saved. And besides, it was promised that the Queen should have 200l. a Year for a Rent. And that a great number of prohibited Wares were daily transported out of the Realm by stealth, and so easily past, as they had done. And hereby her Majesties Customs would be encreased. Besides, he would engage to gain her 7 or 800l. yearly in the Assize of the Vessels, and filling of Beer and Ale, which was yearly served only to her Majesties House.

A Suit made for gauging Beer and Ale.

To which the Brewers made this Answer; "That tho' Vessels were well filled in the Brewhouse, yet such as were carried in Drayes, by that time they should be laid in the Buyers Cellars, would, by reason of spurging and working in the Carriage, want near a Gallon in every Barrel. So that the Surveying of the filling of them in the Brewhouse would bring small Profit to the Buyer. And Ale in London and many other Places, being put in Vessels that be open, as the Buyers may easily see, whether they be filled or not, the filling of them needs no such Survey of any other Person. That the Sizes of Vessels were limited by Statute, and well known to the most part of Buyers; and were continually lookt unto by the Clark of the Market, and by Maior's and other Head Officers of Cities and Corporate Towns, and within Liberties: who were authorized thereunto by Statutes, Charters and Grants. And the Defects might be easily perceived by the Buyer. So as there was no great need of a Surveyor in that behalf. And the Correction of the Assize of Beer and Ale, touching the Vessels and Measures, belonging to Head Officers in most Cities, Towns Corporate and Leets, was like to beget many sudden Complaints. That a Penny for gauging every Barrel of Beer and Ale would grow to a great Yearly Revenue. It was computed, there would be due for Beer Vessels in London only, 5000l. yearly. And it might be thought, that throughout the Realm it would make the Sum up 10000l. a Year at least." But this Business of having a Surveyor for Beer stuck still, and we shall hear more of it by and by.

The Brewers Answer therto.

In the Year 1585, a Dutch Man desired to have Licence to transport Beer. And it was allowed him by the Lord Treasurer, upon Agreement, to import so much Clap board, according to the Tuns of Beer he carried out.

Beer transported.

The Quantity of Beer brewed in London, about this time, viz. 1585, in a Year, by the Calculation that one made for the use of the Lord Treasurer, was thus computed. There were at least 26 Brewers in the City, Suburbs and Westminster, whereof the one half of them, Strangers, the other English. The most of every of them brewed six times a Week: and ordinarily they brewed 20 Quarters at every time: which yielded in Small Beer 100 Barrels at the least, and in Strong Beer 60 Barrels at the least. Every one with another of them did brew 420 Barrels weekly a piece. Which amounted to 2496 Barrels yearly. So the whole Number of the Brewers being 26, they did brew yearly 648960 Barrels. And by this Computation the Gentleman that sued to be General Surveyor for Gauging, at a Penny the Barrel, and so for every half Barrel proportionably, should receive in London and the Suburbs, 2028l. a Year.

Quantity of Beer brewed.

26 Brewers in London and Westminster.

Vessels of Beer and Ale were not gauged by any Statute before the 23 Hen. VIII. But the Defects thereof were punishable upon the Presentment of Juries and Ale-Conners, before the Justices Itinerants, Justices of Peace, the Clarks of the Market, Stewards of Leets out of Cities; and in Cities, by force of Charters. And in that Year [i.e. 23 H. VIII.] by an Act, Authority was given to the Wardens of the Coopers of London, to Search, View and Gauge all Vessels of Beer, Ale, and Soap in London and the Suburbs, within two Miles of London; and to take a Fee for the same. And like Authority was given to the Maiors, Sheriffs, Bailiffs, Constables or other Head-Officers out of London, for Vessels there. This was urged to the Treasurer of England Anno 1586, against any Common Gauger ever having any Authority of Gauging Vessels, or used before.

Who had the Power of gauging formerly.

Cap. 4. The Coopers to gauge.

But the Coopers were complained of; for that they by the Statute abovesaid, being to gauge Vessels for the full Contents by that Statute limited, and that those that held due Measure should be Sealed with a St. Andrew's Cross; they being in bargain with the Brewers, would set the Cross upon the Vessels as full Gauge, tho' they wanted one, two or three Gallons. And the Law had inflicted no Punishment on the Coopers, for not gauging or for untrue gauging; the Coopers being Judges of their own Work: And having liberty at their pleasure to Search and Gauge, but not commanded so to do.

Deceit of the Coopers.

Besides this Want of Measure, there were about this time divers other things charged upon the Brewers: Which I will here set down, together with their Apology and Vindication of themselves. They were charged for their Malt and Hops, which they used. As that they brewed with ill Malt: and in the End of the Year they commonly brewed with Wyvel Malt, being the Bottom and Sweepings of their Garners, to make room to bring in new Corn. It was also bruited, that they put in Darnel, Rosin, Lime and Chalk, and such like; which making the Drinkers thirsty, they might drink the more. And that for Cheapness, when Hops were dear, they put into their Drink, Broom, Bay-berries, Ivy-berries, and such like things. But their Surveyor never found this upon Examination to be true.

Complaints against the Brewers.

Item, it was charged upon them, that with one Mashe they used to make two Brewings. But that also was hardly true, by reason it would taint their Beer, and lose that which would be good enough to utter to most Customers.

Item, that they boiled not their Liquor, as it was done in private Houses, to save Fewel, and to make the more Beer with the less Malt. And such Beer was soon stale. But they answered,