The TEMPORAL GOVERNMENT. [The Apparel.]166


at Shoreditch, and conveyed him to Pawl's Church: where he offered his Banners [taken at the Victory of Bosworth over King Richard III.]

Thus much for LIVERIES of Citizens in ancient times, both in Triumphs and otherwise, may suffice: Whereby may be observed, that the Coverture of Mens Heads was then Hoods. For neither Cap or Hat is spoken of, except that John Welles, Maior of London, was said to wear a Hat in time of Triumph; but differing from the Hats lately taken in use, and now commonly worn for Noblemens Liveries. I read, that Thomas Earl of Lancaster, in the Reign of Edward II. gave at Christmas in Liveries to such as served him, 159 Broad Cloths; allowing to every Garment Furs, to Fur their Hoods. More near our time: There yet remain the Counterfeits and Pictures of Aldermen, and other that lived in the Reign of Henry VI. and Edward IV. namely, Alderman Darby, that dwelled in Fenchurch street, over against the Parish Church of St. Dionys, left his Picture, as of an Alderman, in a Gown of Scarlet on his Back, an Hood on his Head, &c. as is in that House (and elsewhere) to be seen.

Hoods anciently the Coverture of Mens Heads. No Caps, nor Hats.

Alderman Darby's Picture.

For a farther Monument of those late Times, Men may behold the Glass Windows of the Maior's Court in the Guildhall, above the Stairs. The Maior is there pictured, sitting in Habit party-coloured, and a Hood on his Head; his Sword-bearer before him with an Hat, or Cap of Maintenance: The Common Clerk and other Officers bare-headed, their Hoods on their Shoulders. And therefore I take it, that the use of square Bonnets worn by Noblemen, Gentlemen, Citizens and others, took beginning in this Realm by Henry VII and in his time: And of further Antiquity I can see no Counterfeit, or other Proof of use.

An ancient Picture of a Maior in Guildhall.

Square Bonnets.

Henry VIII. (towards his latter Reign) wore a round flat Cap of Scarlet, or of Velvet, with a Bruch of Jewel, and a Feather. Divers Gentlemen, Courtiers and other, did the like. The youthful Citizens also took them to the new Fashion of flat Caps, knit of Woolen Yarn, black; but so light, that they were forced to tie them under their Chins, for else the Wind would be master over them. The use of these flat round Caps so far encreased (being of less Price than the French Bonnet) that in short time some young Aldermen took the wearing of them. Sir John White wore it in his Maioralty; and was the first that left Example to his Followers.

K. Henry VIII. wore a round Cap.

A Maior falls into this Fashion.

But now the Spanish Felt, or the like Counterfeit, is most commonly of all Men, both Spiritual and Temporal, taken to use. So that the French Bonnet, or square Cap, and also the round or flat Cap, have for the most part given place to the Spanish Felt. But yet in London among the graver sort (I mean, the Liveries of Companies) remaineth a memory of the Hoods of old time, worn by their Predecessors.

Then came in the Spanish Felt.

These Hoods were worn, the Roundlets upon their Heads, the Skirts to hang behind in their Necks to keep them warm; the Tippet to lie on their Shoulder, or to wind about their Necks. These Hoods were in old time made in Colours according to their Gowns; which were of two Colours, as Red and Blew, or Red and Purple, Murrey, or as it pleased their Masters and Wardens to appoint to the Companies. But now of late time they have used their Gowns to be all of one Colour, and that of the saddest. But their Hoods being made the one half of the same Cloth their Gowns be on, the other half remaineth Red, as of old time. And so I end, as wanting time to travail further in this Work.

The Fashion of the Hoods.

The above-written Paragraphs, viz. The Days of the Attendance of the Fellowships on the Maior to St. Paul's: The Maior's Feast the 23d of Henry VIII. The Companies Licenses obtained by Letters Patents; and from whom their Liveries: The Liveries worn by the Maior and Citizens on Solemn Occasions: And the particular History of wearing the Hood: All these Paragraphs and Observations of Stow, wholly left out in the two former Editions, I have restored in this. But the Infirmity, Sickness and Death of this diligent Writer, preventing his proceeding farther in his History of the Government of the City, the next Continuer of his Book supplied the same in some measure. And much more is added in the present Edition.]

J. S.

The Order observed by the Lord Maior, the Aldermen and Sheriffs, for their Meetings and Wearing of their Apparel throughout the whole Year, according as formerly it hath been used.


The First Day of August (which is now turned to MIDSUMMER DAY) for the Election of the Sheriffs of London, &c.

A. M.

All this whole Order is taken from an old Book printed (by Order) by John Day, Anno 1568.

THE Lord Maior and the Aldermen, with the Sheriffs, meet at the Guild-Hall at Eight of the Clock in the Morning, apparelled in their Violet Gowns lined, and their Cloaks of Scarlet lined, without their Horses.

And when they have been together in the Council Chamber a certain time at their Pleasures, [concerning the nomination of certain Persons to be elected] the Lord Maior and the Aldermen come forth, and put on their Cloaks in the Orphans Court, and then go down in order to the Hustings Court. Where being set, Master Recorder standeth up [before the Bench and Companies for the same cause there assembled] and maketh his obeisance, first to my Lord, and then to the Commons, and declareth unto them the reason why they are assembled together: Shewing unto them, that it is for the Election of one of the Sheriffs of London, and the Shire of Middlesex for the Year next ensuing; and for the Confirmation of the other Sheriff, nominated by the Lord Maior according to his Prerogative.

J. S.

Their Morning Meeting at the Guildhall.

What is done in the Hustings Court after the Speech of Master Recorder.

But the Lord Maior and Aldermen go up into the Lord Maior's Court, and there remain, until the Sheriff be named and chosen, the door being shut to them [all the while.]

The naming and chusing of the Sheriff by Voice and Hands.

Then Mr. Sheriffs, Master Chamberlain, Master Common Serjeant, Master Town-Clerk, the two Secondaries, and the Counsellors of the City, and other Officers, continue still in the Hustings Court, to take and receive the Name of him, that shall seem (by their Judgments) freely, and with one consent, to be nominated and elected, and justly tried out, not only by Voice, but also by Hands, to be Sheriff for the Year following.

[Then the Commons go to the Election of Master Chamberlain; the two Bridge-masters; the Auditors of the City and Bridge-house Accounts; and the Surveyors for Beer and Ale, according to the accustomed manner.]

The election of Master Chamberlain and other Officers.

That done, the Sheriffs, Master Chamberlain, Master Common Serjeant, Master Town-Clerk, the two Secondaries, the Counsellors of the City, and the Wardens of the head Companies [Master Common Cryer going before them, bearing his Mace] carry up the Report to the Lord Maior and Aldermen, of their said Election.

The certifying of the Sheriffs Choice.

Which Report being received, the Lord Maior and Aldermen come down again to the Hustings Court. And there being in order set and placed, Master Recorder standeth up, as he did before, and maketh rehearsal of his Name whom they have nominated and chosen, asking them, whether it be their free Election, yea or nay? And they graunt, Yea, yea. Then Master Recorder gi-

Their coming down again to confirm the Election.