[Smithfield Paved, Faringdon Ward without. and Railed.]240

[Smithfield Paved, Faringdon Ward without. and Railed.]

them to fight in Smithfield, the Master being well beloved, was so cherished by his Friends; and plied with Wine, that being therewith overcome, was also unluckily slain by his Servant. For that false Servant (for he falsly accused his Master) lived not long unpunished; for he was after hanged at Teyborn, for Felony.

Let all such false Accusers note this for Example, and look for no better end, without speedy Repentance.

The same Year, Thomas Fitz-Thomas, Prior of Kilmaine, appeached Sir James Butler, Earl of Ormond, of Treasons. Which had a Day assigned them to fight in Smithfield. The Lists were made, and the Field prepared; but when it came to the Point, the King commanded they should not fight, and took the Quarrel into his Hands.

In the Year 1467. the 7th of Edward IV. the Bastard of Burgoigne challenged the Lord Scales, Brother to the Queen, to fight with him, both on Horseback and on Foot. The King therefore caused Lists to be prepared in Smithfield, the length of 120 Taylors Yards, and ten Foot; and in breadth 80 Yards and 20 Foot *; double barred, five Foot between the Bars, the Timber Work whereof cost 200 Marks, besides the fair and costly Galleries, prepared for the Ladies, and others. At the which Martial Exercise, the King and Nobility were present. The first Day they ran together with Spears, and departed with equal Honour.

*One computes this 379 Foot in length, 260 in breadth.

The next Day they turneyed on Horseback; the Lord Scales's Horse having on his Chafron a long spear Pike of Steel, and as the two Champions coaped together, the same Horse thrust his Pike into the Nostrils of the Bastard's Horse; so that for very pain, he mounted so high, that he fell on the one side with his Master; and the Lord Scales rode about him with his Sword drawn, till the King commanded the Marshal to help up the Bastard; who said, I cannot hold by the Clouds; for though my Horse fail me, I will not fail an Incounter Companion. But the King would not suffer them to do any more that Day.

The next Morrow they came into the Lists on Foot, with two Pole Axes, and fought valiantly; but at last the point of the Pole Axe of the Lord Scales, entred into the side of the Bastard's Helm, and by force might have placed him on his Knees. But the King cast down his Warder, and the Marshal severed them. The Bastard required that he might perform his Enterprize; but the King gave Judgment, as the Bastard relinquished his Challenge, &c. And this may suffice for Justs in Smithfield.

But yet we may not part with Smithfield so: For, as it hath been a Place for such honourable Justs and Triumphs, by reason it was a soft Ground, and unpaved: So was it a Market Place for Cattle, Hay, Straw, and other necessary Provisions. And likewise (once in the Year) at Bartholomewtide, a general Fair, commonly called Bartholomew Fair, hath usually been kept in that Place. But in regard that it was continually subject to the iniquity of Weather, and being a Place of such goodly extendure, deserved to be much better respected; it pleased the King's Majesty, with the Advice of his honourable Lords of the Councel, to write graciously to the Lord Maior, and the Aldermen his Brethren, that Smithfield might be sufficiently paved; which would be the only means to have it kept in far cleaner Condition. And as no Motion (to any good End and Intent) can be made to the City, but they as gladly embrace, and willingly pursue it; even so this honourable Motion found as acceptable Entertainment, and it was very speedily proceeded withal. Some voluntary Contributions in the several Parishes (what each Man would willingly give) was bestowed on the Work; but indeed, hardly deserving any Report. Notwithstanding, on the 4th day of February, An. 1614. the City began the intended Labour; and before Bartholomewtide, then next ensuing, to the Credit and Honour of the City for ever, it was fully finished; and Bartholomew Fair there kept, without breaking any of the paved Ground, but the Booths discreetly ordered, to stand fast upon the Pavement. The Citizens Charge thereof, (as I have been credibly told by Master Arthur Strangewaies) amounting well near to Sixteen hundred Pounds.]

Smithfield being continually subject to extremity of Weather, by an honorable Motion made, it was paved all over, An. 1614.

A. M.

Batholomew Fair kept in much better manner, than ever formerly it hath been.

Where, besides the paving of this Place all over, and levelling it (which being in such a rude foul Condition, it was before thought impossible to be done) it was greatly raised and mounted in the middle; whereby it became a very fair, clean, and spatious Walk: And divers Conveyances were made for the Water, from the new Channels, made by the reason of the Pavement. It was also strongly railed on all Sides. And the middle Part had also substantial Rails round about, for the better Safety of Passengers, and for the Security of such as should walk there, from the danger of Coaches, Carts, Horses, Oxen, and other Cattle, of which Smithfield is seldom empty. And that, if Occasion were, it might serve for a Market Place; because Newgate Market, Cheapside, Leadenhall, and Grasschurch street (where the Markets in those times were kept) were unmeasurably pestered with increase and multitude of Market Folks, Carts, and other Annoyances attending them; to the great Vexation of the Inhabitants, and Trouble of Passengers. So that the Magistrates of the City, did seriously take it into their Consideration, how to make some new convenient Market Place, for the general Service of the City.

Smithfield railed and made and made convenient.

J. S.

This Field, as it had antiently been (as was said before) a Place of Honourable Exercises of Justs and Turnements, so loose serving Men would commonly meet here, and make Uproars and Quarrels; insomuch that it was many Years called Ruffians Hall, being the usual Rendevous of Ruffians and Quarrellers, during the time that Swords and Bucklers were used: When every Serving Man carried a Buckler at his Back, which hung by the Hilt or Pomel of his Sword, hanging before him.

Russians Hall.

E. Henry.

And now for a long time, the Fair kept here, instead of three Days, hath lasted a Fortnight; and became of little other Use, than for idle Youth, and loose People, to resort to, and to spend their Money in Vanity; and (that which was worse) in Debaucheries, Drunkeness, Whoredom, and in seeing and hearing Things not fit for Christian Eyes and Ears: Many of the Houses and Booths here, serving only to allure Men and Women to such Purposes of Impiety. Therefore the Magistracy often intending, fully, at last, resolved in the Year 1708. to reduce the Fair to that space of Time only, according to which it was at the first granted; that is, to three Days: And accordingly an Order was made. And at a Court of Common Council, in June, the said Year, when some Petitions were offered for revoking the former Order, upon certain Inconveniences; as the great falling of the Rents of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, and of the great Losses that many of the Inhabitants in and

Order of Common Council, concerning this Fair, Anno 1708.