Cornhil Ward. Royal Exchange. 137

Cornhil Ward. Royal Exchange.

" justly and truly, according to the Trust and Confidence in them reposed. Which if they should break, there are Courts of Equity that can take order for remedy thereof. But forasmuch as the said Lady Gresham is to have the same during her Life, and the Employments are not to be made till after her Death: Therefore this Complaint is now made, before any Injury be offered. And as it is now causeless; so the said Lord Maior and Aldermen do assuredly persuade themselves, there shall not at any time be any Cause given, of their Parts, to complain against them.. Wherefore their most humble suite is, that the said Exchange may be by them enjoyed, according the said Will; and Act of Parliament."

This Lady Gresham dyed Anno 1596. as Sir Thomas did Anno 1579.

The Rents of this Royal Exchange; which the Lady Gresham enjoyed during her Life; with all Houses, Buildings, Vaults and Profits thereof, amounted to the yearly value of 751l. 5s. per annum, over all Charges and Reprizes.

Rents of the Exchange.

This Royal Exchange was burnt down in the great Fire; but is risen again in much greater Splendor than it was before; and the lively Effigies of Sir Thomas Gresham under one of the Piazzas is restored as it stood at first.

The Exchange burnt down.

This most magnificent Structure cost the City and Company of Mercers between them 80000l. as I have been told by a judicious Citizen that knew, and a Mercer. The Model was first shewn to King Charles II. who liked it well. But it was debated, whether they should build after this Model, for fear of launching too deep in the Expences. Several therefore were against it, but the Majority prevailed, having their Eye upon the Honour of the City, and supposing the Rents of the Shops above Stairs and below, would in time re-emburse them; which it appears now (too late) it will not: And so they are left in Debt for it.

The Charge of building the Exchange.

Mr. Thomas Blackmore.

There be Committees for this Exchange, and that other publick Building of Sir Thomas Gresham, called Gresham College: Who manage the Rents and Payments thereof. These Committees consist of the Lord Maior for the time being, and two Aldermen; and a certain number of the Company of Mercers, and the like of Citizens, commonly one of each of the eleven Companies.]

In the outward Structure of this Exchange are many Niches; wherein are fixed well wrought Statues of the Kings and Queens of this Land, as there were in the old Exchange, consumed by the great Fire. And as King Edward the Confessor then was the first Statue placed in the North East Corner, so now the first is Edward I. placed on the South East Corner: that so room might be left in the East side for the succeeding Kings of England, where some Niches are void for that purpose. Besides which are three or four others empty, being the places of Edward II. Richard II. Henry IV. and Richard III. These fine Stone Figures were given by the City, and some of the twelve Companies of London: Whereof that of King James I. was at the Charge of the Clothworkers. But it seems none of them had any mind to shew their Respects to those said Kings; two whereof took away the Cities Charter, and the two others were Usurpers. There be Inscriptions under the Statues, denoting what Kings and Queens they were, and the time of their access to the Crown. I shall only mention the Inscription under K.Charles I. being Historical. Who after he had lost his Head, the Zealots of those Times shewed their Rage and Ma- lice by climbing up where his Effigies stood, and throwing it down and breaking it, and causing to be writ under the Place where he stood, Exit Tyrannorum ultimus, &c. Now under the present Figure of him, (set up by the Grocers) to vindicate his Memory, (where he is represented holding his Sceptre not upright, but stretched downward towards the People,) is this Inscription.

The Statues of the Kings.

xxx Serenissimi ac Religiosissimi Principis CAROLI I. Angliæ, Scotiæ, Franciæ & Hib. Regis, Fidei Defensoris (bis Martyris, Corpore & Effigie) impiis Rebellium manibus ex hoc loco deturbata & confracta, Anno Domini MDCXLVIII. Restituta & hic demum collocata Anno Domini MDCLXXXIII.
Gloria Martyrii, qui te fregêre Rebelles,
Non potuere ipsum, quem voluere, DEUM.

To which I will subjoyn the Inscription under the Statues of King William and Queen Mary, those two most excellent Princes.

S. P. Q. Londinen. Opt. Principibus P.C. MDCXCV.

By which it appears they were set up by the City, of which they had deserved so passing well: Having restored to it its Charter and ancient Privileges.

The Statue of Queen Anne is the next that appears there.

And now lately that of King GEORGE her Successor, is erected.

Sept. 28. 1669. was the day the Exchange new built was opened for the Merchants again to meet in; where, was expected the King, but he did not come. But the Lord Maior, Sir Will. Turner came, and walked twice about it, and congratulated the Merchants their Change again. There was written upon it this Inscription:

The Exchange opened.

Hoc GRESHAMII Peristyllium,
Gentium Commerciis Sacrum,
Flammis extinctum 1666.
Augustius è cinere resurrexit 1669.
Willo Turnero Milite Prætore.

In the middle of the Exchange Walk, on a Pedestal stands a fair Stone Statue, representing King CHARLES II. in the Habit of a Roman Emperor, with a Laurel about his Head, and a Truncheon in his Hand: It was set up by the Merchants in Honour of that King, Anno 1684. Under him on the same Pedestal on the South side facing Cornhil, is this Inscription:

Statue of K. Charles II.

Patriæ Parti, Regum Optimo, Clementissimo, Augistissimo. Generis Humani Deliciis, Utriusq; Fortunæ Victori, Pacis Europæ Arbitro, Maris Domino & Vindici.
Societas Mercatorum Adventuror, Angliæ (quæ per CCCC jam propè annos, regia benignitate floret) Fidei intemeratæ, Gratitudinis æternæ Testimonium, venerabunda posuit.

On the top of this Insciption a Crown adorned with Palm Branches, Scepter, Sword and Trumpets of Fame. On the West side of the Pedestal a Boy winged, laying his right Hand upon the Crown set over the Arms of England, and holding in its left a Branch with two Roses, vix. of York and Lancaster. On the North side the like Boy with Wings, holding the Crown resting upon the Irish Harp. On the East side the winged Boy, holding the Armes of Scotland crowned: Having a Thistle with the Stalk in his right Hand.]