College of Heralds. Heraldo-Memoriale. 143

College of Heralds. Heraldo-Memoriale.

Sir William Segar, Garter, wrote a Book entitled, Honour Military and Civil.

Sir W. Segar.

Sir Richard St. George, Clarencieux, another Learned Man of this Office. This Gentleman was Consort with the great Antiquarians of those Times, Sir Robert Cotton, Camden, Spelman, and others; and was one of those that endeavoured to revive the College or Society of the studious of Antiquity, and their learned Meetings, that had been for some Time omitted. Of him Weaver makes mention with Honour; and particularly, that he was ready to give him his Assistance, in his Book of Ancient Funeral Monuments that he was writing.

Sir Rich. St. George.

John Hart, Chester Herald, wrote a Book of the English Orthography.

To these may be added, Vincent, Brook, Lant, Sandford, and the elaborate Antiquarian, Sir William Dugdale; and lastly, Elias Ashmole, Esq; Windsor Herald.

But instead of all, Camden, Clarencieux, surnamed The Learned, is an eternal Monument of Honour to this Society. Who, besides his Modesty, and Simplicity of Manners that adorned his great Learning, left Two most incomparable Books to Posterity; his Britannia, and his Annals of Queen Elizabeth. To which his Remains may be added, set forth after his Death by John Philpot, Somerset Herald. Who also may be reckoned among the Learned of this College; being the Author of an History of the County and Families of Kent, called Villare Cantianum.

Camden Clarencieux.

Joh. Philpot.

Mr. Gybbon, a learned Pursuivant, (lately deceased) hath diligently collected out of the English and Scotch Authors, and other foreign Writers, a large Account of the great and important Services of the Heralds in former Times. Which Collections (communicated by himself to me) he entitled Heraldo-Memoriale; which had been worthy to have been here inserted, had it not been too large. Yet the Sum I shall digest as briefly as I can; by shewing thence, How ancient Heraldry hath been; Their Retaining to Princes: Their Employments in War and Peace, and in Proclaiming and Publishing weighty Things: The great Esteem of them, with their Rewards; and other Accidents that have happened to them.

Gybbon's Heraldo Memoriale.

And first, as for their Antiquity; They were in Request among the Ancient Græcians. Homer, in his Second Book, speaks of Nine Heralds in the Græcian Army. And the Romans made great Use of them: And as in Messages of War, and the like, so in Funerals, it was a Custom among them, That the Heralds dismissed the Mourners with the word Ilicet, or Ire licet; i.e. You may withdraw. And this Ceremony is taken notice of by the Describer of the Funeral Solemnity of the Lord Henry de la Tour, Marshal General of the Field and Armies of LEWIS the XIVth of France.

Heralds ancient.

They have immediately retained to Kings and Princes; and have gone abroad with them to their Wars, and in their Progresses; and have been dispatched by them to other Princes upon important Messages, and especially upon warlike Occasions. The chiefest Nobility also have had their Heralds. The Earl of Northumberland sent an Herald, named Northumberland, to King Richard II. (ultimo Reg.) for a safe Conduct, to come and commune with him. The Duke of Bedford had his Herald, named Bedford; whom he sent after the Crowning of Charles VII. of France, to defy him. The same sent the same Herald, Anno 1433, from Laigny, to the Lord Gaucourt, to offer him Battel; which was warily refused. The Duke of Gloucester and Earl of Pembroke had his Herald, named Pembroke; whom he sent Anno 1436, to defy the Duke of Burgundy. Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, had Suffolk Herald, and Marteon Pursuivant. The Marquis of Dorset kept Grooby Herald. Arthur Plantagenet, Viscount Lisle, had Lisle Pursuivant. Baron Hastings had Hastings Pursuivant. And Sir John Chandois and Sir John Falstolph had their Heralds; and so had Cardinal Woolsey, according to Stow.

Retain to Kings, and great Nobles.


Wever, p. 683.

The French King contemporary with our King Henry V. had his King at Arms, named Montjoy. The Duke of Burgundy, about the Time, had Toison d'Or, his King at Arms. And the Scotch King hath his King of Arms, stiled Lion. And they have commonly been about Princes in their Courts: And it is noted by the Historian, as a strange Piece of Negligence in King Lewis XI. of France, That he had oftentimes neither Officers of Arms, nor Trumpeters in his Court: And therefore (when he had Occasion for an Herald) sent a Varlet, or Yeoman in a Coat of Arms, made of a Trumpet Banner, to K. Edward IV.

Stow's Chron.

They have been chiefly made use of in great Wars, between Princes in Hostility, for carrying Messages, Defiances, &c. Henry King of Castile sends an Herald to the Black Prince, to know why he invaded his Kingdom.

Employed in War.

Montjoy, King of Arms, sent from Roan from the French King, and Thirty five of his Council, to assure K. Henry V. he should have Battel given him. And King Henry gave him a great Reward, as well as a gallant Answer.

Again, they sent an Herald to the said King, in a scoffing way, to demand what Ransom he was willing to give. To which he returned a stay'd and sober Answer. This was before the Battel of Agincourt, Anno 1403.

After they were broken and defeated, K. Henry perceiving they began to rally, sent an Herald to them; assuring them, That if they persisted, he would not only slay all the Prisoners already taken, but all such as he should take hereafter.

After the Battel, Montjoy, and Four other Heralds, came to know the Number of the Prisoners, and to desire Burial of the Dead. And the King granted their Request, and feasted them.

Messages previous to War, and Defiances, were used to be done by Heralds.

Denunciation of War between Princes, was by Heralds.

Denounce War.

The French King's Marshal, Bonciquaut, by an Herald, denounced War against Pope Benedict the XIIIth, upon his Refusal to surrender the Popedom.

A French Herald at Arms, Anno 1635, sent from Paris to Flanders, by Sound of Trumpet denounced and proclaimed War against the King of Spain, and all his Dominions. This Herald fixed up, and left the Defiance in all the Towns as he passed.

Howel's Ep. p. 204.

Henry V. in the Third of his Reign, sent Antelope Pursuivant at Arms from Southampton, to the French King; to demand Restitution of what he detained wrongfully from him.

Windsor Herald was sent, Anno 1418, to summon Roan.

Edward IV. sent an Officer at Arms, a Norman born, to defy the French King, Lewis the XIth, Anno 1474.

The Duke of Bedford sends Bedford his Herald to defy Charles VII. the French King. And Humphry Duke of Glocester, by his Herald, defies the Duke of Burgundy.

The Emperor's Herald defies Francis, the first King of France: And giving his Master all his Titles, of Castile, Leon, Arragon, Naples, &c. in a long Roll, K. Francis commanded his Heralds to receive the Challenge, and repeat France as many times, as the other had Kingdoms and petty Titles.

Heyl. Geogr. p. 104.