Schools, and Houses of Learning. 124

Schools, and Houses of Learning.

But touching Schools more lately advanced in this City, I read, That King Henry the Fifth, having suppressed the Priories Aliens, whereof some were about London; namely, One Hospital called Our Lady of Rouncival, by Charing-Cross; one other Hospital in Oldborn; one other without Creplegate, and the Fourth without Aldersgate; besides other that are now worn out of Memory, and whereof there is no Monument remaining, more than Rouncival, (converted to a Brotherhood) which continued till the Reign of Henry the Eighth, or Edward the Sixth. This, I say, and other of their Schools being broken up and ceased; King Henry the Sixth, in the 24th Year of his Reign, by Patent appointed, That there should be in London Grammar Schools, besides St. Paul's, at St. Martin's Le Grand, St. Mary Le Bow in Cheap, St. Dunstan's in the West, and St. Anthony's. And in the next Year, to wit, 1394, the said King ordained by Parliament, That Four other Grammar Schools should be erected; to wit, in the Parishes of St. Andrew in Oldborn, Alhallows the Great in Thamesstreet, St. Peter's upon Cornhill, and in the Hospital of St. Thomas of Acons in West Cheap. Since the which Time, as divers Schools, by Suppressing of Religious Houses (whereof they were Members in the Reign of Henry the Eighth) have been decayed; so again have some others been newly erected and founded for them. As namely, Paul's School, in place of an old ruined House, was builded in most ample manner, and largely endowed in the Year 1512, by John Collet, Doctor of Divinity, and Dean of Paul's, for 153 poor Mens Children; for which there was ordained a Master, Surmaster (or Usher) and a Chaplain.

Later Schools.

Priories Aliens.

Henry VI. appointed Grammar Schools.

Grammar Schools appointed by Parliament.

Paul's School new builded.

Again, in the Year 1553, after the Erection of Christ's Hospital, (in the late dissolved House of the Grey Friars) a great Number of poor Children being taken in, a School was ordained there at the Citizens Charges.

Free School in Christ's Hospital.

Also in the Year 1561, the Merchant-Taylors of London founded one notable Free Grammar-School, in the Parish of St. Lawrence Pountney, by Candlewick-Street; Richard Hills, late Master of that Company, having given 500l. towards the Purchase of an House called the Manor of the Rose, sometime the Duke of Buckingham's.

Free School founded by the Merchant Taylors.

Of these Schools, more will be spoken in a proper Chapter.]

As for the Meeting of Schoolmasters on Festival Days, at Festival Churches, and the Disputing of their Scholars Logically, &c. (whereof I have before spoken) the same was long since discontinued. But the Arguing of the School-boys about the Principles of Grammar, hath been continued even till our Time: For I my self, in my Youth, have yearly seen (on the Eve of St. Bartholomew the Apostle) the Scholars of divers Grammar-Schools repair unto the Churchyard of St. Bartholomew, the Priory in Smithfield, where (upon a Bank boarded about under a Tree) some one Scholar hath stepped up, and there hath opposed and answered, till he were by some better Scholar overcome and put down: And then the Overcomer taking the Place, did like as the first; and in the end, the best Opposers and Answerers had Rewards; which I observed not. But it made both good Schoolmasters, and also good Scholars, (diligently against such Times) to prepare themselves for the obtaining of this Garland.

The Schoolboys disputed.

Scholars disputed in St. Bartholomew's Churchyard.


I remember, there repaired to these Exercises (amongst others) the Masters and Scholars of the Free Schools of St. Paul's in London, of St. Peter's at Westminster, of St. Thomas Acons Hospital, and of St. Anthony's Hospital; whereof the last na- med commonly presented the best Scholars, and had the Prize in those Days.

This Priory of St. Bartholomew being surrendred to Henry the Eighth, those Disputations of Scholars in that Place surceased, and was again (only for a Year or twain) in the Reign of Edward the Sixth, revived in the Cloister of Christ's Hospital; where the best Scholars (then still of St. Anthony's School, howsoever the same be now fallen, both in Number and Estimation) were rewarded with Bows and Arrows of Silver, given to them by Sir Martin Bowes, Goldsmith.

Disputation of Scholars in Christ's Hopsital.

Nevertheless, howsoever the Encouragement failed, the Scholars of Paul's meeting with them of St. Anthony's, would call them St. Anthony's Pigs; and they again would call the other, Pigeons of Paul's; because many Pigeons were bred in Paul's Church, and St. Anthony was always figured with a Pig following him: And mindful of the former Usage, did for a long Season (disorderly in the open Street) provoke one another with, Salve: Salve tu quoque. Placet tibi mecum disputare? Placet. And so proceeding from this to Questions in Grammar, they usually fell from Words to Blows, with their Satchels full of Books, many times in so great Heaps, that they troubled the Streets and Passengers; so that finally they were restrained, with the Decay of St. Anthony's School.

Paul's Scholars.

Anthony's Pigs.

Pigeons of Paul's.

Out of this School have sprung divers famous Persons. Whereof altho' Time hath buried the Names of many, yet in mine own Remembrance may be numbred these following; Viz. Sir Thomas Moore, Knight, Lord Chancellor of England: Dr. Nicholas Heath, sometime Bishop of Rochester, after of Worcester, and lastly, Archbishop of York, and Lord Chancellor of England: Dr. John Whitgift, Bishop of Worcester, and after Archbishop of Canterbury, &c.

Persons of Note educated in S. Antony's School.

Let me add the Mention of a famous Combat of the Pen, Anno 1591, between Peter Bales and Daniel Johnson, both Masters in Writing, and both Teachers of Writing- Schools in London. Bales, who was Servant to Sir John Puckering, Knight, Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of England, (and whose School was in Blackfriars) made a General Challenge against all Englishmen and Strangers, without Exception; 1. For the best and fairest Writing of all kinds of Hands usual.: 2. For Secretary, and Clerklike Writing: And, 3. For the best Teaching. And the Reward to him that excelled the rest, to be a Pen of Gold of 20l. And if any accepted Peter Bales's Challenge, he required him to repair to the Old Baily, where he dwelt; and to lay down 10l. in ready Money, or to put in sufficient Sureties by Bond for the said Sum, for to be delivered to a Goldsmith, together with Bales's 10l. to be put into a Pen of Gold.

A Challenge to write for the Golden Pen.

MSS. Harlian.

J. S.

The Original Cause of this Challenge was this. The abovesaid Johnson had for an whole Year set up a Challenge in these Words: If any shall take Exception to this my Writing and Teaching; such I Challenge, to Write and Teach with them for the Golden Pen, or whatsoever shall rest in my Ability. By this Boast, Bales, who lived near him, was prejudiced in his School, and Johnson got most Scholars. Whereupon at length Bales thinking as good of himself, and to bring his School in Reputation, set up his Challenge as aforesaid. And Johnson, within an Hour after, very arrogantly accepted thereof; and that in most despiteful and disgraceful manner. So Persons were chosen, as indifferent Judges between both; viz. William Seager, alias Somerset, Herald at Arms, Anthony Dew and John Guilliams, Gentlemen, Clerks of the Office of the Petty Bag; George Chapman, Gent. and William Pank, Citi-