TOWER of London. The Mint. 97

TOWER of London. The Mint.

Arms of Ireland. The Fourth, the same with the first; with this Motto about them, QUEM DEUS CONJUNXIT, NEMO SEPARET.

These last mentioned Kings and Queens coined several Pieces of Gold, all which (some few excepted) bare the same Stamp and Inscriptions as did their Silver Money. For I find that King James, in the 11th Year of his Reign, came himself in Person to the Star- Chamber, where he had appointed the Mint Men to meet. And there (for the better keeping of the Gold Coins within the Realm) he raised the Prices thereof; ordering the Piece called the Unity, which went before but for 20s. to be current now for 22s.; the double Crown, and all other Pieces, to increase in like Proportion. The Motto of this Piece of Gold was, FACIAM EOS IN GENTEM UNAM.

King Charles the First coined the same Pieces, both of Gold and Silver, as his Father K. James had done before. His Effigies was a half Face, looking to the sinister Hand. The Arms the same; but the Motto was, CHRISTO AUSPICE REGNO.

K. Charles I. his Coin.

Some short Time after the Martyrdom of this King, in the Year 1649, when England was voted by the Rump Parliament, a Free State, there was Money coined in the Tower, both of Gold and Silver; viz. 20s. Pieces of Gold; and of Silver, Pieces of 5s. Pieces of 2s. 6d; Shillings, Sixpences, Groats, Half Groats, and Pence. All which Pieces had upon one side the Cross of England, in a single Escotcheon; and on the other side the English Cross in one Escotcheon, and the Irish Harp in another; not impaled, but joined together in two several Escotcheons. On that side that had the Cross of England, there was engraven, THE COMMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND: And on the other side, where the Arms of England and Ireland were in two Escotcheons, was engraven, GOD WITH US.

England voted a free State; and new Stamps for Money.

Also about the Year 1643, and 1644, King Charles I. was forced to coin Money at Oxford, and other Places, for the Supply of his Armies at that Time.

Money coined at Oxford.

After the Restoration of King Charles the Second, which was in the Year 1660, and the 13th of his Reign, all the forementioned Money (called States, or Commonwealth Money) was called in, and other Money coined.

The Money coined by King Charles the Second, of Gold, were Pieces called Guineas, (as made of Gold from that Place) of 20s. Half Guineas at 10s. and some double Guineas of 40s. Which soon after went, the Guinea for 21s. 6d. and the other in Proportion: Near which Value they now pass current.

K. Charles II. his Money.

Of Silver also he coined, Crowns, Half-Crowns, Shillings, Sixpences, and so lower. All which Pieces, both of Gold and Silver, were not stamped as his Predecessors (Kings and Queens) Monies were, but done by an Engine called a Mill, and so called Milled Money; and to prevent Clipping, or other defacing, were jagged on the outward Rim: And besides, Crowns and Half-Crown Pieces have DECUS ET TUTAMEN inscribed round the Edges.

Milled Money.

These Coins (both of Gold and Silver) have on one side the King's Effigies, with a Half Face looking to the dexter Hand; and about the Effigies, CAROLUS II. DEI GRATIA. And on the other side, Four Escotcheons placed in Form of a Cross, whose base Points meet in the Centre of the Piece, and Four Sceptres from thence also issuing; in which Four Escotcheons are the Arms of the Four Kingdoms, viz. England, Scotland, France, and Ireland; and about them, MAGNæ BRITANNIæ FRA. ET HIBERNIæ REX; and the Date of the Year.

King James the Second coined also the same Pieces both of Gold and Silver, bearing the like Inscription, only the Name altered, and the Face looking towards the sinister Hand.

K. James IId's Money.

King William and Queen Mary coined the same Pieces both of Gold and Silver, with the like Inscriptions, the Names only altered; the Faces (which are two) both looking towards the dexter Hand; with the Arms of England on the Reverse.

K. William and Q. Mary's Money.

In the Centre of the Arms, an In-Escotcheon of Pretence, Billette, a Lyon Rampant.

But after the Death of Queen Mary, the Coin had only the Effigies of the King.

Queen Anne succeeding, her Effigies in her Coin looked toward the Left Hand: All her Money likewise Milled; with the like Bearings on the Reverse.

Q. Ann's Coin.

King George's Coin is also Milled. In the Reverse, the Arms of the Kingdoms, as before; with an In-Escotcheon of the Arms of his most Illustrious and Ancient Family.

K. George's.

All Coins current in England, as well Gold as Silver, are several, and of a different Value; but all reduced to Pounds, Shillings, and Pence: Only (in relation to the Necessity of the Poor, and Exchange of great Money) a small Piece of Brass, Copper, or Tin, called a Farthing, (being the fourth Part of a Penny) and a Halfpenny, (which is the Value of two Farthings) have been permitted to be coined; but no Man is compelled to receive them for Payment of Debt, or Rent; which cannot be said of any Nation, or State in the World besides.

Only Gold and Silver current Coin.

No Money, in any Mint, is made of pure Gold or Silver, as being too flexible; and therefore allayed with Copper. The Standard of Crown Gold, is 22 Carrats of fine Gold, and 2 Carrats of Allay, in the Pound Weight Troy; which is divided into 44 Parts and a half; each Part is to pass for 30s. and the Half Part for 10s.

No Money made made of pure Gold or Silver.

The Allay of some Gold Coins is all Silver, as the Guinea Gold; which renders the Gold Coin, some more white, some more yellow.

The Allay.

The Standard for Sterling Silver, is 11 Ounces and 2 Penny weight of fine Silver, and 18 Penny weight Allay of Copper out of the Fire. So that 12 Ounces of pure Silver, without any Allay, is worth 3l. 4s. 6d. and the Ounce is 5s. 4 ½d. But with Allay, it is worth but 3l. and the Ounce 5s.

The Standard.

The Moniers divide theinto
Pd Troy12 Ounces
Ounce20 Penny Wt
Penny Wt24 Grains
Grain20 Mites
Mite24 Droits
Droit20 Perits
Perit24 Blanks