Tower of LONDON. Occurrences. 82

Tower of LONDON. Occurrences.

But in the Year 1265, the said Citizens were fain to submit themselves to the King for it; and the Maior, Aldermen, and Sheriffs were sent to divers Prisons, and a Custos also was set over the City; to wit, Othon, Constable of the Tower, &c.

In the Year 1282, Leoline Prince of Wales, came down from the Mountain of Snowdon to Montgomery, and was taken at Bluith Castle. Where using reproachful Words against the Englishmen, Roger le Strange ran in upon him, and with the Sword wherewith he was girt cut off his Head, leaving his dead Body on the Ground. Sir Roger Mortimer caused the Head of this Leoline to be set upon the Tower of London, crowned with a Wreath of Ivy. Such was the End of Leoline, betrayed by the Men of Bluith; and this was the last Prince of the Britains Blood that bare Rule and Dominion in Wales.

Leoline Prince of Wales, his Head set on the Tower.

In the Year 1290, 18. Ed. I. divers Justices, as well of the Bench, as of the Assizes, were sent Prisoners to the Tower, which with great Sums of Money redeemed their Liberty. Viz.

Justices of the Bench sent to the Tower.

Sir Thomas Weyland had all his Goods, both moveable and unmoveable, confiscated, and himself banished. Sir Rafe Hengham, Chief Justice of the higher Bench, offered seven Thousand Marks. Sir John Lovetot, Justice of the lower Bench, three thousand Marks. Sir William Bromtone, Justice, six Thouand Marks, and proportionably of the rest. Of their Clerks for their Redemption; of Robert Littlebury, 1000 Marks; and of Roger of Leicester, 1000 Marks; and of a certain Clerk of the Courts called Adam de Stratton, 32000 Marks, of old Money and new; beside Jewels (without Number) and precious Vessels of Silver, which were found in his House, and a King's Crown, which some Men said was King John's. Moreover, the King constrained the Justices to swear, that (from thenceforth) they should take no Pension, Fee or Gift of any Man, except only a Breakfast or such like Present.

Adam. Meri. Chro. Dun. Rad. Bald. Sea. Chro.

Jo. Rouse.

Vid. the Summary.

Edward 2. the 14. of his Reign, appointed for Prisoners in the Tower, a Knight 2d. the Day, an Esquire 1d. the Day, to serve for their Dyet.

In the Year 1320, the King's Justices sat in the Tower for Tryal of Matters; whereupon, John Gisors, late Maior of London, and many others, fled the City, for fear to be charged of Things they had presumptuously done.

Justices sat in the Tower.

In the Year 1321, the Mortimers yielding themselves to the King, he sent them Prisoners to the Tower, where they remained long and were adjudged to be drawn and hanged.

Mortimers sent to the Tower.

But at length, Roger Mortimer of Wigmore, by giving his Keepers a sleepy Drink, escaped out of the Tower, and his Uncle Roger, being still kept there, dyed about five Years after.

Mortimer made an Escape out of the Tower.

In the Year 1326, the Citizens of London won the Tower, wrested the Keys out of the Constables Hands, and delivered all the Prisoners; and kept both the City and Tower, to the use of Isabel the Queen, and Edward her Son.

Citizens of London wrested the Keys of the Tower from the Constable.

In the Year 1330, Roger Mortimer, Earl of March, was taken and brought to the Tower, from whence he was drawn to the Elmes, and there hanged [on the common Gallows, where he hung two Days and two Nights by the King's Commandment, and then was Buried in the Gray Fryar's Church. He was condemned by his Peers, and yet never was brought to answer before them. For it was not then the Custom, after the Death of the Earls of Lancaster, Winchester, Gloucester, and Kent. Wherefore this Earl had that Law himself, which before he had appointed for others.]

Mortimer drawn from the Tower to the Elmes, and there hanged.

A. M.

In the Year 1344, King Edward the Third, in the 18. Year of his Reign, commanded Florences of Gold to be made, and coined in the Tower; that is to say, a Penny Piece of the Value of Six Shillings and Eight Pence; the Half Penny Piece of the Value of Three Shillings and Four Pence; and a Farthing Piece worth Twenty Pence. Percevall de Porte of Luke, being then Master of the Coin. And this is the first coyning of Gold in the Tower, whereof I have read; and also the first Coinage of Gold in England.

A Mint in the Tower, Florences of Gold Coined there.

One of Lucca Mint Masters.

I find also recorded, that the said King, in the same Year, ordained his Exchange of Money to be kept in Sernes Tower, a Part of the King's House in Buckles Bury. And here, to digress a little (by occasion offered) I find, that in times before passed, all great Sums were paid by Weight of Gold or Silver; as so many Pounds or Marks of Silver, or so many Pounds or Marks of Gold, cut into Blanks, and not stamped, as I could prove by many good Authorities, which I overpass. The smaller Sums also were paid in Starlings, which were Pence so called; for other Coins they had none.

The King's Exchange in Bucklesbury.

Pound Plates, called Blanks, delivered by Weight, Argent and Pecunia, after called Esterling.

The Antiquity of this Starling Penny usually in this Realm, is from the Reign of Henry the Second; notwithstanding the Saxon Coins (before the Conquest) were Pence of fine Silver, the full Weight, and somewhat better than the latter Starlings, as I have tryed by Conference of the Pence of Burghrede King of Mercia, ælfred, Edward, and Edelred, Kings of the West Saxons, Plegmond Archbishop of Canterbury, and others.

William the Conqueror's Penny also was fine Silver, of the Weight of the Easterling, and had on the one Side stamped an Armed Head, with a Beardless Face, (for the Normans wear no Beards) with a Scepter in his Hand. The Inscription in the Circumference was this, Le Rei Wilam. On the other Side, a Cross double to the Ring, between Four Rowels of Six Points.

Will. the Conqueror's Penny.

W. Malmsbury.

King Henry the first his Penny was of the like Weight, Fineness, Form of Face, Cross, &c.

Henry I. his Penny.

This Henry, in the Eighth Year of his Reign, ordained the Penny which was round, so to be quartered by the Cross, that they might easily be broken into Half Pence and Farthings.

In the First, Second, Third, Fourth, and Fifth of K. Richard the First his Reign, and afterwards, I find commonly Easterling Money mentioned, as yet oft-times the same is called Argent, as afore, and not otherwise.

R. Hovenden.

Easterling Money.

The first great Sum that I read of to be paid in Easterlings, was in the Fifth of Richard the First, when Robert Earl of Leicester, being Prisoner in France, proffered for his Ransom a Thousand Marks Easterlings; notwithstanding the Easterling Pence were long before.

The Weight of the Easterling Penny may appear by divers Statutes, namely of Weights and Measures, made in the 51. Year of Henry the Third, in these Words, Thirty two Grains of Wheat, Dry and Round, taken in the midst of the Ear, should be the Weight of a Starling Penny; Twenty of those Pence should weigh one Ounce, Twelve Ounces a Pound Troy. It followeth in the Statute, Eight Pound to make a Gallon of Wine, and Eight Gallons a Bushell of London Measure, &c. Notwithstanding which Statute, I find in the Eighth of Edward the First, Gregorie Rokesley, Maior of London, being chief Master or Minister of the King's Exchange or Mints, a new Coin being then appointed, the Pound of Easterling Money should contain (as afore) Twelve Ounces; to wit, fine Silver, such as was then made into Foyl, and was commonly called Silver of Gutherons Lane; Eleven Ounces, two Easterlings, and one Ferling or Farthing, and the other seventeen Pence half penny Farthing to be Lay [Alloy]. Also the Pound of Money ought to weigh twenty Shillings three Pence by Account. So that no Pound ought to be over twenty Shillings four Pence, nor less than twenty Shillings two pence by Account; the Ounce to weigh twenty Pence, the Penny Weight twenty four Grains.

Weight of Starling Pence 32 Grains of Wheat.