Tower of LONDON. Wall and Bulwark. 79

Tower of LONDON. Wall and Bulwark.

To which may be added his Reparations and Strengthnings of the Garner or Storehouse, the great Tower, and the Chapel therein, and likewise the Church of St. Peters in the Tower. Concerning the fitting up and beautifying of which he sent Letters to those that had the Care of his Works in the Tower: What that King ordered to be done about the Storehouse, and about the great Tower, appears by this Order following:

Reparation of the White Tower by Hen. III.

J. S.

Rex Custodibus Operationis Turris London. Salutem. Precipimus vobis, quod Cernerium infra eandem Turrim reparari & bene emendari faciatis per totum ubi recesse fuerit: Et omnes Gutteras plumbeas Magne Turris a summitate ejusdem Turris, per quas Aqua pluvial. descendere debet, usque ad terram extendere faciatis & descendere. Ita quod Murus dict. Turris per aquam pluvie distillantem, qui de novo est de albatus, nullo modo possit deperire, nec de facili prorumpere. Sed fieri faciatis super eandem Turrim in parte Australi superius versus Austrum imas aluras do bono & forti maremio, & per totum bene plumbari; per quas Gentes videre possint usque ad pedem ejusdem Turris, & ascendere & melius descendere, si necesse fuerit. Dealbari etiam faciatis totam Capellam Sancti Johannis Evangeliste in eadem Turri, &c. Et dealbari faciatis totum veterem murum circa sepedictum Turrim. Et Custum, quod ad hoc posueritis per visum & Testimonium Legalium hominum computabitur, vobis ad Saccarium. Teste Rege apud Windles. Decimo die Decembr.

Rot. Liberat. An. 35 H. III. M. 20.

An. Dom. 1241.

G. Holmes.

"The Import of which in English is, That the King commanded the Keepers of the Tower Work to repair the Garner within the said Tower, and well amend it throughout, where-ever it needed. And also concerning all the Leaden Gutters of the Great Tower, from the Top of the said Tower; through which the Rain Water must fall down, to lengthen them, and to make them come down even to the Ground. So that the Wall of the said Tower, lately whitened anew, may by no means decay, nor easily break out, by reason of the Rain Water dropping down. But to make upon the said Towers Alures [I confess my Ignorance what they were] of good and strong Timber, and throughout to be well Leaded; by which People might see even to the Foot of the said Tower, and better to go up and down, if need be. Also to whiten the whole Chapel of St. John Evangelist in the same Tower, &c. And to whiten the whole old Wall about the often mentioned Tower, &c." This Great Tower, I conclude, was that we call the White Tower; and so named, perhaps, ever since this Whiting of it.]

More of Henry III. his Dealings against the Citizens of London, we may read in the aforesaid Author, in 1245. 1248. 1249. 1253. 1255. 1256, &c.

Mat. Paris.

But concerning the said Wall and Bulwark, the same was finished, though not in his Time. For I read, That Edward I. in the Year 1274, and the second of his Reign, commanded the Treasurer and Chamberlain of the Exchequer, to deliver out of his Treasury unto Giles of Andwarp, 200 Marks of the Fines taken of divers Merchants, or Usurers of London (for so be the Words of the Record) toward the Work of the Ditch, then new made about the said Bulwark; now called the Lion Tower.

Ditch made about the Bulwark, without the West Gate of the Tower.

I find also recorded, that Henry III. in the 46th of his Reign, wrote to Edward of Westminster, commanding him, That he should buy certain Perie Plants, and set the same in the Place without his Tower of Lonon [within the Wall of the said City; which of late he had caused to be enclosed with a Mud Wall, as may appear by this that followeth; The Maior and Commonalty of London were fined for throwing down the said Earthen Wall against the Tower of London the 9th of Edward II.]

Hen. III. his Orchard by the Tower.

2d Edition.

Edward IV. in place whereof builded a Wall of Brick: He fortified the Tower, and made it strong.

But now for the Lion Tower, and Lions in England, the Original, as I have read, was thus:

The Lions in the Tower.

Henry I. builded the Manor of Woodstock, with a Park, which he walled about with Stone seven Miles in compass, destroying for the same divers Villages, Churches and Chapels; and this was the first Park in England: The Words of the Record are these following. He appointed therein (beside great Store of Deer) divers strange Beasts, to be kept and nourished, such as were brought to him from far Countries; as Lions, Leopards, Linxes, Porpentines, and such other: For such was his Estimation among Outlandish Princes, that few would willingly offend him.

First Park in England.

Lions in Woodstock Park.

More I read, that in the Year 1235. Frederick the Emperor sent to Henry III. three Leopards, in token of his Regal Shield of Arms, wherein three Leopards were pictured; since which time, those Lions, and others, have been kept in a Part of this Bulwark, now called the Lion Tower, and their Keeper there lodged. King Edward II. in the Twelfth Year of his Reign, commanded the Sheriffs of London to pay the Keeper of the King's Leopards in the Tower of London, 6d. the Day, for the Sustenance of the Leopards; and Three Halfpence a Day for Diet of the said Keeper, out of the Fee Farm of the said City.

Lions sent to Hen. III. and kept in the Tower.

More, the 16th of Edward III. one Lion, one Lioness, one Leopard, and two Cattes Lions, in the said Tower, were committed to the Custody of Robert, the Son of John Bowre.

Edward IV. fortified the Tower of London, and enclosed with Brick (as is aforesaid) a certain Piece of Ground, taken out of the Tower Hill, West from the Lion Tower, now called the Bulwark. His Officers also, in the Fifth of his Reign, set upon the said Hill both Scaffold and Gallows, for the Execution of Offenders; whereupon the Maior and his Brethren complained to the King; and were answered, that the same was not done in Derogation of the Cities Liberties; and therefore caused Proclamation to be made, &c. as shall be shewed in Tower Street.

Edward IV. builded Bulwarks without the Tower.

Scaffold and Gallows first set on Tower Hill.

Richard III. repaired and builded this Tower somewhat. [For I find in an old Ledger Book of that King, that in the Year 1484, a Commission was directed to Tho. Daniel, (Surveyor, as it seems, of the King's Works) to take and seize for Use within this Realm as many Masons, Bricklayers, and other Workmen, as should be thought necessary for the hasty Expedition of the King's Works within the Tower of London, and Palace of Westminster.]

Richard III. repaired the Tower.

Workmen taken up for that Purpose.

J. S.

Henry the 8th, in 1532, repaired the White Tower, and other Parts thereof.

White Tower repaired by Hen. VIII.

In the Year 1548, the second of Edward the Sixth, on the 22d of November, in the Night, a Frenchman, who lodged in the round Bulwark, betwixt the West Gate and the Postern, or Draw Bridge, called the Warders Gate, by setting Fire on a Barrel of Gunpowder, blew up the said Bulwark, burnt himself, and no more Persons. This Bulwark was again forthwith new Builded.

A Bulwark of the Tower blown up.

And here, because I have (by Occasion) spoken of the West Gate of this Tower; the same (as the most principal) is used for the Receipt and Delivery of all Kinds of Carriages; without the which Gate be divers Bulwarks and Gates turning towards the North, &c. Then near within this West Gate, opening to the South, is a strong Postern for Passengers, by the Ward House over a Draw Bridge let down for that Purpose. Next, on the same South side, toward the East, is a large Water Gate, for Receipt of Boats and small Vessels, partly under a Stone Bridge from the River Thames. Beyond it is a small Postern, with a Draw-Bridge seldom let down, but for the Receipt of some great Persons Prisoners. Then towards

Gates and Posterns of the Tower.