1. Entry Form: Persons/Group
We record basic biographical data on all agents in this form (whether exiles or related to exiles). Agents can be individuals or groups (where sources describe a number of individuals as acting together).
Name Names are recorded in latinized form. Geographical epithets are recorded in anglicized form (though Locations, see below, will be recorded both in ancient and anglicized from). E.g. Liberius of Rome, Eusebius of Vercelli, Dionysius of Milan. If an individual is anonymous, we don’t use ‘Anonymous’ but the individual’s most immediate identification in relation to the exile case (e.g. ‘agens in rebus’, ‘friend of John Chrysostom’)

Groups are described either in English translation of the respective term in the original source  (e.g. ‘people’, ‘inhabitants’, ‘the poor’, ‘160 eastern bishops’, but see below ‘notes’) or with the term used in the original source where translation is not advisable (e.g. ‘agentes in rebus’).

Gender choice between male, female, mixed, unknown.
Dates of lifespan choice between unknown, approximate dates (circa, after, before), and concrete dates (start date: d/m/y; end date d/m/y) [this will allow calculating age of agents during exile]
Notes on dates of lifespan : so far, we have used this field to record uncertainties about dates, and corresponding source references to conflicting info; to record ancient source that gives date (if not drawn from PCBE or PLRE), to justify establishment of terminus ante, terminus post quem.
Reference PLRE or PCBE entry, if applicable
Biographical notes so far, we have used this field to give the original language description of groups (e.g. ‘pauperes’ ‘plebs’); to record alternative spellings of a name; further description of the agent in question as aids of identification, e.g. ‘deacon of Liberius of Rome’,’Roman emperor’ (this information is to some extent duplicated, as it is at times also entered in ‘exile case’, where the agent is an exile, or in ‘exile case relationships’, where the agent is a relation of an exile. It was decided to keep a note of this info also in this form, so agents can be more easily identified in the process of data entry. NB that not all this information pertains to the time of an agent’s exile or contact with an exile); to record the ancient source that gives identification (if not drawn from PCBE or PLRE)

 

 

 

 

  1. Entry Form: Exile Cases [NB we use ‘exile’ for the agent exiled and for the concept]
We record data pertaining to the exile of an agent in this form
Person/Group exiled this record is drawn from Form 1.
Date exiled choice between unknown, approximate dates (circa, after, before), and concrete dates (start date: d/m/y; end date d/m/y) [we do not distinguish between the date at which someone sought asylum, was exiled, and the date they actually left – it is unlikely that we will have many corresponding data, and have decided to record any in the notes. If someone took refuge in a church or after pronouncement of exile went to their home location, e.g., to settle personal affairs, we would record this under ‘location exile went to’]
Exile threat only choice betw. yes, no, unknown [if someone is only threatened with exile, but not exiled, or it is unknown]
Refuge from judicial proceedings choice betw. yes, no, unknown [if someone goes into exile to escape from secular or ecclesiastical justice, either to avoid a trial or to avoid implementation of a penalty]
Consequence of church/monastic asylum choice betw. yes, no, unknown [if someone fled to a religious institution and exile followed/was negotiated after this]
Circumstances of leaving free text [we record whether someone left e.g. ‘at night’ or whether departure was a public spectacle]:
Offences exiled for/accused of can be added to from expandable list described below [‘accused of’ refers to ‘refuge from judicial proceedings’]
Legal type of exile choice from deportatio, exilium, relegatio, unknown, other – other can be then specified in a free text field [more than one option possible here; we decided to only record Latin terminology here due to 1) time constraints and 2) fact that legal language for most part of the period covered is Latin. We will review whether it will be feasible to also enter Greek terminology later in the project]
Additional punishments can be added to from expandable list described below. If any other formal or informal punishment (e.g. scourging, imprisonment) is recorded.
Intended duration of exile Free text field
Actual Duration of exile Free text field
Notes on core legal details so far we have used this field to give reference to specific legal terms for exile used.
Deposed by synod? Choice betw yes, no, n/a
Synod deposed by can be added to from expandable list (see below)
Location exiled from can be added to from expandable list (see below)
Location of exile’s previous office “”
Location exiled to “”
Location exile went to [this includes locations visited en route to exile place]. We can record more than one for these, to map an exile’s itinerary. For each of these locations we record:
  • Date

 

  • Relationship of exile to the place
  • Type of place

 

  • Reason for leaving
  • choice between unknown, approximate dates (circa, after, before), and concrete dates (start date: d/m/y; end date d/m/y)
  • (e.g. whether an alien place or a place already connected to exile, such as former monastery): can be added to from expandable list
  • choice between city, region, province, hospice, monastery, fortress, oasis, domestic, tomb, quarry, other [other can be specified in free text field], n/a – more than one choice is possible here. described below
  • choice between escape, moved by authorities, recalled, n/a, other [other can be specified further in free text field]
Location exile returned to can be added to from expandable list (see below) . As under ‘location exile went to’ more locations can be recorded here, with dates, so that we can track an exile’s journey back.
Location of office after return can be added to from expandable list (see below) .
Notes [so far we have used this field to give further info on locations, e.g. what type of buildings exiles were living in; what underlies our assumptions for what reasons exiles were moved]
Notes Locations [so far we have used this field for example to discuss conflicting interpretation of exile locations in secondary literature]
Returned? Yes, no, unknown, n/a
Returned for reason to be added from expandable list (see below)
Returned by synod yes, no, n/a, unknown
Synod that returned to be added from expandable list (see below)
Notes on return [so far we have used this field to give additional information on context of recall]
Religious status before exile choice betw clercial, lay, ascetic, unknown, n/a
Religious status after exile: choice between clerical, lay, ascetic, unknown, n/a
Clerical or ascetic office before exile bishop, deacon, presbyter, abbot, other [can be specified in free text field], unknown, n/a
Clerical or ascetic office during exile bishop, deacon, presbyter, abbot, other [can be specified in free text field], unknown, n/a [for deposed clerics who consider themselves still clerics this category is irrelevant, and n/a will be ticked; this category is for those who clearly have a new office during exile]
Clerical or ascetic office after exile bishop, deacon, presbyter, abbot, other [can be specified in free text field], unknown, n/a
Enforced rank change? Yes, no, unknown, n/a [for deposed clerics who are made to take up another office; or for lay people who are forced to become clerics during exile]
Notes on clerical rank before and during exile [so far we have used this form to discuss conflicting info in sources about loss of office]
Religious affiliation before exile: to be added from expandable list (see below)
Religious affiliation during exile “”
Religious affiliation after exile: to be added from expandable list
Notes religious affiliation before and during exile  
Notes on return and religion after return  
Writings in exile? Choice betw. yes, no, n/a, unknown (default option)
Writings we record title (free text), date (unknown, approximate, before/after, concrete, notes [e.g. to justify choice of date]), whether extant (yes, no, partly, n/a), genre (free text), notes [to give reference to the editions of these writings]
Activities related to doctrine [e.g. visit of councils, holding of mass]: free text
Notes – so far we have used this field e.g. to explain chronological order of writings during exile
Died in exile? Choice between yes, no, n/a, unknown
Reason for death Free text
Venerated as a saint? We usually enter yes or no, but since veneration is a subjective phenomenon, this needs to stay as a free text field. [we enter, e.g., yes, but only by Orthodox church; or unclear, as only attested locally etc]
Date venerated as saint: unknown, approximate, before/after, concrete, notes
General Notes so far we have recorded general info here, e.g. on discussion whether something was really exile (e.g. Osius of Cordoba).
Sources Free text field in which we record all sources pertaining to one exile case. We reference from these sources throughout the database in other notes fields, as appropriate. At the end of the project we will compile a list of sources (with their abbreviations) recorded and the user will be able to search for these within this text field.
Notes on Sources [so far we have used this field to record e.g. discussion on authenticity of sources]

 

 

  1. Entry Form: Exile Case Relationships
We use this form to record data on social interactions of exiled agents. Names of exiled agents and agents they had social relationships/interactions with are drawn from form 1 and combined in this form.
Agent 1: Exiled individual or group

Agent 2: Individual or group exile person had relationship with

All following information defines the relationship Agent 2 had with Agent 1.

To describe social interactions we distinguish between interaction types and relationship quality (because e.g. a messenger could be a supporter, or an enemy)

Interaction Types – choices between (more than one choice possible)

  • involved in pronouncement of exile
  • responsible for exile (or exile threat)
  • responsible for moving exile to a different location
  • responsible for rank change
  • companion
  • messenger
  • host
  • guard
  • military escort
  • correspondent
    • writer of letter, receiver of letter
  • visitor
  • successor in post
  • person/group appealed to
  • responsible for return
  • responsible for cult development
  • responsible for relic transfer/return of body
  • commissioner of inscription for exile
  • pilgrim to cult site
  • hagiographer
  • receiver of benefaction from exile, with further description of benefaction type:

conversion, preaching, money, food, other (free text field)

  • giver of benefaction to exile, with further description of benefaction type (as for receiver)

other type of interaction (with other type of interaction to be entered into free text field)

Notes on interaction types: so far we have recorded further clarifications of interaction type (eg. for Turbo, guard, that he also inflicted violence), or further justification on interpretation of interaction (e.g. whether it is only ‘probable’)
Quality of Relationship (to be drawn from expandable list, which so far includes

  • None
  • support
  • allegiance [different from more concrete support, eg. friendship or member of community]
  • kinship
  • marriage
  • conflict
  • superior
  • violence
  • subordinate

Here, more than one quality of relationship for the same interaction can be chosen (because someone can be kin and a supporter, or an enemy).

For each social interaction we also record the social contact’s:
Religious Affiliation (at time of relationship with exile)-to be drawn from expandable list
Notes [so far we have used this field to record an individual’s previous religious affiliation, before time of contact with exile]
Office (at time of relationship with exile) – to be drawn from expandable list
Notes – so far we have recorded, for example, which offices an individual held after they were in contact with exile.
Location of contact of exile (at time of relationship with exile) – to be drawn from expandable list
Notes – so far we have used this to further qualify/justify a choice of location.
Date (start date and end date) of the social interaction – choice from unknown, approximate, concrete (d/m/y), notes
We record this prosopographical information here, rather than in form 1, because it can change from one incident of social relationship with an exile, to another (e.g. social contacts can move, so locations may be different from one contact to another, or they can change their religious affiliation).
 

We also record whether an exiled agent’s social relations changed their religious affiliation due to their contact:

Change of Religious Affiliation due to Relationship with Exile – choice betw yes and no
New Religious Affiliation – drawn from an expandable list
Notes on new religious affiliation – so far we have used this field to justify our interpretation of certain source passages.
Contemporary with exiled agent – choice from yes or no
General Notes (general on exile-case-relationships): we generally use this field to record source reference for the particular social interaction and to add further information on an exile’s social relations, e.g. on their activities; or to reference divergent interpretation on social relationships in the secondary literature.

 

 

  1. Entry Form: Relics
 
Name/Description

Location

Notes

 

 of place where relics are held

from expandable list, more than one location can be recorded

  1. Entry Form: Cult Sites
 
 Name/Description

Location

Notes

 

 [e.g. of church],

more than one location can be recorded

  1. Entry Form: Other Case Relationships
In this form we record what kind of relationships existed between individuals/groups that were in contact with an exiled agent. We record
 

the exile case that the relationship refers to

 

Drawn from form 2

the individuals/groups that were in contact with each other (as Person 1 and Person 2)
the interaction date (unknown, appr., concrete d/m/y), quality (support, conflict, allegiance etc) — All information defines the relationship Person 2 had with Person 1
Notes  

 

In addition to the six main forms the database also generates a number of growing central dropdown lists from which data in the individual forms can be entered, in order not to duplicate the same information. These include

 

Relationship of exile to a place – feeds into from 2 (for description see above, form 2) & notes
Office & notes – feeds into form 2 and form 3 [clerical offices in English (but with Latin term in notes), secular offices in Latin, except for ‘emperor’, ‘empress’]
Religious Affiliation – feeds into form 2 and 3  & notes We record the standard English translation of the original terminology, e.g. Arian. [this is for varieties of Christianity, but also other religions (pagans, Jews etc). We only include contemporary attribution, i.e. what is mentioned in sources and give reference to that source (more than one will be possible, so we can record conflicting attributions). We decided that it will be too time-consuming to go looking for descriptions of religious affiliation of particular individuals in all sources pertaining to this individual beyond those sources related to a specific exile case. We would include, however, sources that are easy to verify, i.e. those mentioned in PCBE and PLRE. We are aware that this means considerably reducing information about religious affiliation – mainly because ‘Nicene’ adherents would not often have self-identified as such]
Offence (feeds into form 2) & notes For description see above form 2
Punishment (feeds into form 2) & notes For description see above form 2
Quality of relationship (feeds into form 3 and 6) & notes For description see above form 3
Name of synod & date & notes (feeds into form 2) date is unknown, approximate, concrete d/m/y
Reason for return & notes (feeds into form 2)  
Locations (feeds into form 2, 3, 4, 5)

 

  • Longitude/latitude
 

 

[we use if possible Pleiades data, with Pleiades link. For regions/provinces we use central point]
  • Ancient place name
  • Modern place name:
Latinized

Anglicized

Notes [we record where geodata are drawn from if not Pleiades, alternative spellings, to justify interpretation of location]

 

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