Online Froissart


The concise Middle French > Modern English Glossary provided here is derived from Peter Ainsworth's edition of the first third of Book III of the Chroniques, based on Besançon ms. 865, ff. 201-274, for Editions Droz, Textes Littéraires Français (Geneva, 2007). It provides a 'quick-and-easy' guide to meanings in English of many of the words found in manuscript versions of Froissart's Chronicles, though spellings obviously vary from one witness to the next. Other, more sophisticated lexicological and lexicographical tools are described immediately below.

Links to the Dictionnaire du Moyen Français

Dictionnaire du Moyen Français (1330-1500)

1. Searches initiated from the Online Froissart. Readers working within the Online Froissart on a manuscript transcription and wishing to look up a particular word should switch under "Settings" to Global Viewing Mode "DMF", then click on the word under investigation. This takes the reader to the online Dictionnaire du Moyen Français lemmatiser which tries to identify the appropriate dictionary entry. A high percentage of accuracy (89%+) is experienced when using this tool, but there are inevitably occasions when the DMF has difficulty assigning a word to the correct lemma (and therefore dictionary entry), especially where homonyms or grammatical words are involved.

2. Searches initiated from the Dictionnaire du Moyen Français (1330-1500). Work done under a joint British Academy-CNRS award by Gilles Souvay (Laboratoire ATILF, Université de Lorraine), Peter Ainsworth and Godfried Croenen links the Dictionnaire du Moyen Français and Online Froissart in a second way. Researchers can click on the DMF link displayed above and type a word form into the blank field (e.g. 'aime'). The 'attestations dans les bases' box in the yellowed area below should then be checked, and 'Rechercher' pressed. After a few seconds the results of the search are displayed. Under 'Plus d'hypothèses' there is a section labelled 'Attestation dans les bases du DMF'. The rubric 'OFP' covers all 46 instances of the form 'aime' identified by the lemmatiser in the Online Froissart's transcriptions. When one clicks on '46' these are immediately displayed, listed vertically in a separate window within the Online Froissart and highlighted in yellow.

French Text Description
Aaise, aise at ease, content
Abateis battle, combat
Abbis clothing, garments
Abillement equipment, disposition, attire
Abonnéz established and agreed frontiers
Aboucher to reach, to complete (a tunnel)
Abstraindre (s' -), abstraigny to refrain; abstraint, forced, restrained
Accidence eventuality, fortunate event
Accointable affable
Accointance familiarity, friendship
Acertes for certain
Acesmement equipment
Acesmer, acesméz to equip, equipped
Acharier, achariéz to transport
Achoison occasion, opportunity
Acointer, accointer to become acquainted with, to address; s'- de, to acquaint oneself with
Adjourner to become light, of the day
Adjousté brought together, gathered
Adjouster to give credence to
Adommaiger to harm, hurt
Adonc so, then, whereupon
Adonner (s' -) to present oneself
Adournemens d'assaulx siege engines
Advitaillier to provide, supply
Advoultire adultery
Adrecié, -iee engaged, enlisted
Adrecier (s' -) to address
Adresce means, measure
Advenir See Avenir
Advironner to surround
Advis opinion, advice; getter son advis, to decide
Adviser, aviser (adviséz) to look at, consider; to decide on; adviséz, wise, cautious; s'adviser, to decide
Afebloié weakened
Afferir il afferoit, to suit, befit
Affillés keen, sharp
Afoibloié weakened
Ainçois que before
Aise See Aaise
Alan, alans large dog used to hunt wild boar
Alee walkway, underground passage
Aloer, alouer to use up, spend
Amenrir to lessen, lower
Amiabloient were amiable to
Amoienner to settle
Amont (d' -) from on high
Amourer (q'n de q'ch) to enamour; s'- , to fall in love with
Anglesche supporter (for the time being or long-term) of the English
Anglet corner
Annoy difficulty, trouble
Annuit tonight
Aplouvoir to come in abundance
Apointier (lances) to wield
Apparant obvious, manifest
Apparant appearance
Appareillier to make preparations; to trim (fingernails); to decorate, adorn
Appendences dependencies
Appert enterprising, brave
Appert, il - (from apparoir) it appears
Apperteté courage, worthiness
Appertise skill, military exploit showing great flair
Ardoir to burn (down); ars, arse, burnt
Arguer (- de) to reason
Armerés worthy to bear arms
Arroy escort, retinue; watch; sans arroy, in disarray; en bon arroy, with pomp and circumstance
Ars, arse See Ardoir
Article clause, principle, rule
Artillerie projectiles (e.g. darts) launched at enemies
Assegnéz carried, distributed
Assentir (- à) to give one's consent, assent to
Asseoir to serve (a dish)
Asseur safe; estre - de, to feel encouraged, reassured by; to be sure that
Asséz rather, quite; enough; for a long time, a lot
Assouvir to accomplish, complete
Astraccion lineage, birth
Atant, a tant so, immediately, whereupon; see Jusques atant que
Atouchier to touch, feel
Attincter to provide, equip, outfit (lances)
Attrempeement temperately, gently
Aucques about, almost, to a certain extent
Aucun(e) some
Aucunefoiz sometimes, from time to time
Ausques somewhat
Autel(e) the same as, comparable to
Aval below, at the end, throughout, down
Avaler to lower (a drawbridge)
Avant before, ahead, in front, further; moult - , long gone; plus - , more; further ahead; si - , so far ahead; comprehensively; up to that point
Avantaige (d' -) See Aventaige (d'-)
Avecques ce que in addition to; accompanied by
Avenir, advenir to achieve, succeed; to occur, happen; avenir, a venire future, (time) to come; to put forward, voice (a reservation); advenir de, to result from, to be the case
Aventaige, avantaige, (d' -) immediately, in succession; to their advantage
Aventure event; danger, peril, risk en - de; prospect; venture; matter; par -, d'- , by chance; a l'- , at random
Aviser See Adviser
Avoir os , 1st person singular preterite of avoir
Avoir goods, profit; wealth, loot
Avugle blind, blinded by
Bacinet, bacinés bassinet, light helmet with (hinged) visor
Baillier (bailla, baillierent, bailliéz) to give, yield, cede (something to someone), hand over
Bailli, baillif governor, royal officer
Ban proclamation or convocation through banns
Banerés bannerets, knights leading a company and carrying a banner
Banniere almost square standard or banner of a knight who leads a company and has been promoted to the rank of banneret, thus having the right to bear the banner; lever banniere, standard-bearer
Barre wooden stake forming a barricade or defensive enclosure
Barriere(s) fortification made from heavy wooden beams, built in front of the main gate of a fortress
Bas bottom; se metre - , to be contrite, penitent, apologetic; tout - , in a whisper (sotto voce)
Bascot Basque, soldier of fortune (used as a title or nickname); See Index
Bastide fortification (quite elaborate but generally wooden and temporary
Bataille body of troops; battle; chevauchier en - , advance in battle order, in group formation
Baus beams, pieces of wood
Bellante aunt by marriage
Bende border, frontier (sometimes also refers to seacoast)
Bequer, bequoit to peck (at)
Besans bezants, a Byzantine gold coin
Besoigne affair, matter
Besoignier to busy oneself
Besoing need, desperate situation, necessity
Bien ester - de, to enjoy the favour of
Bien(s) quality(-ies), moral(s); good deeds; earnings; biens, harvest, crop
Bobant, bobent pride; ostentation, arrogance, presumption, vanity
Boce (maladie de - ) bubo, plague sore
Bon a la bonne main, on the right(hand) side
Bonde coast, coastal region
Bouge bag, purse
Bourc, bourch bastard (used as a title or sobriquet); See Index
Bourdeur liar, deceiver
Bourdes lies, tricks
Bouter to put; se - , to launch oneself (on, against)
Bransler to tremble, collapse
Brouillis conflict, trouble
Captal (Provençal word) captain; See Index
Carraque from the Arabic 'karaka', carrack or nef, large vessel characterised by a rounded hull with tall aft- and forecastles; capable of travelling the high seas
Catir (se) to hide (oneself)
Cauteleusement through trickery, cunning
Ceans here, inside
Cerchier to look for
Certain reliable, faithful, loyal, trustworthy
Certes (a certes), acertes seriously, really
Chaalit wood, bed frame
Champ field; sur les - , on the battlefield; in the fields
Char flesh
Charge military personnel placed under the command of a captain; avoir en - , to be charged with
Chastellerie castellany (territory over which a castellan exercises jurisdiction)
Chastier, chastieroit to punish, chastise
Chaucie street, road
Cheoir to arrive, reach; to occur, happen; to fall; - en, to incur, to walk into, get caught up in (a morally condemnable situation); - par pieces, to fall to pieces
Chevance property, possessions, goods, fortune, wealth
Chevauchee, chevauchie (mounted) military expedition
Chevauchier, chevauchay, chevauchant to travel (through a country, place) on horseback
Chevir to overcome; to get out of danger; to resolve a problem
Cheÿ 3rd person singular preterite of cheoir
Chief head; ou - , on the head; par mon - , by my faith; rank; ester - de, to command, lead, be in charge of; venire a (un mauvais) - , to come to (a sticky end); au - de, at the end of; master, person who governs, commands
Chiennes firedogs
Chier dear, expensive; avoir plus - , to prefer
Clorre to close
Coiement silently, peacefully
Coingnie long-handled axe with narrow blade used by butchers etc
Collacion consultation, discussion
Com, comme how; - que, in whichever way
Combien, - que although
Commune commons, commonalty
Commun, - e common, general
Compaigne company, band (of mercenaries, armed men)
Competer to fall within the jurisdiction of
Conduit, sauf - safe passage, passport
Conduit underground passage
Conferméz strengthened, reinforced
Conforté rescued, reassured
Conjoÿr to welcome; rejoice, celebrate with
Conjoïssable affable
Conquerre to conquer
Conqués, -éz, conqueste conquest (of a country or fortified town, can also be used when referring to goods, loot)
Conscience conscience; intention or will
Conseil opinion; council (royal or otherwise); avoir - , to decide
Constraindre to confine, restrict
Conte (le), contes (li) count (French), earl (English)
Compte report; faire - de, to pay attention to
Contemplacion reflection; a la - de, at the request of
Contempt contempt, disdain
Contenement disposition
Contenir (se) to conduct oneself
Contenter (se) to be content
Contraire hostile, opposed to; unfavourable, against the will of
Contraire the opposite of; objection; something in opposition to something or someone; porter - a, to hurt; aller a - , to oppose, take the opposite view
Contremont upstream
Contreroleur comptroller
Convenance promise
Copper to cut; to cut down (trees)
Cotte tunic; shirt; - de maille, chainmail
Coulpe fault, blame
Coulper de to hold responsible for, guilty of
Coup blow; a - , at the same time; immediately
Coupper to cut
Couppiau summit
Couraige courage, ardour; bravery, valour
Couraige thought; intention
Courroucier, courrouciéz to anger, enrage
Course foray, assault; charge (with lance)
Course, bon a la - quick, fleetfooted (horse)
Coursier courser, fast horse or war horse
Couvenance promise, pledge; avoir en - a q’qn, to join with someone in an agreement or promise
Couvenir, convenir to be necessary
Couvert concealed, hidden; en - , in secret
Couverte, à la - secretly
Couvine accord, agreement
Couvinement plan, scheme
Couvrir (se - ) de q’ch to keep secret
Coys calm
Cremir, cremus to fear
Creuz believed, thought
Croire to give on credit
Croire to believe, think
Croistre raise, increase; (poor spelling of croquer perhaps, to crunch (normally with the teeth)
Croniquer, croniquier to chronicle
Cronizer to chronicle
Crosler to tremble, shake
Cuidier to consider, think, believe, deem
Curateur guardian or trustee, a person made responsible by law for managing goods and protecting the interests of another person
Curer to take care of, look after
Dangier problem, worry; danger, peril
Dangier power, influence
Darde short iron-tipped javelin or throwing spear
Daulphin dauphin, heir (title of the counts of Auvergne)
Decoste alongside, next to
Deduit pleasure, entertainment
Defaulte lack, loss, failure
Deffié, deffiéz caused, provoked
Deléz beside, nearby, at the side of
Delivre free
Delivrer to release, set free
Demener, (se - ) to behave
Demener to treat someone in such and such a way
Demonstrer to show, prove, make plain
Demonstrer, (se - ) to show oneself
Demourant the rest, what remains
Denoncer to report
Departement departure
Departement share, division
Departie break, separation, action of sharing
Departir departure
Departir, (se - ) to leave
Departir to divide, assign, allocate
Deporter, (se -) to refrain from doing something
Deporter to spare, save
Deporter, (se - ) to comfort, fortify
Derechief, derrechief at once
Derrain, derraine last, previous
Desconforté, desconfortée overcome
Descouchier to rise
Desduire (se - ) to amuse oneself
Desduisant pleasant, charming
Desgoeillier to slit someone’s throat
Desirier wish, desire
Desirier to want, wish for
Desmarchier to shy (horse)
Desnouller to untie, undo
Desnuoit (desnuer) to divest, dispossess
Despeciéz pulled to pieces
Despit grief mixed with anger; contempt, spite; en, ou - de, regardless of
Desplaisance pique; disapproval, discontent
Descort disagreement, discord
Desrizer to ridicule
Desroier to fall into disarray, disorder
Desrompre, desrompu to break, to shatter
Desservir to deserve, be worthy of
Dessus, au - in a superior position in relation to others (rank, precedence)
Dessus ester au - de, to be in possession of
Destourbier trouble, damage
Destre (a) on the right
Destroit overpowered, aggrieved; au plus - , in the most rigorous manner; en prison destroite, in a secure prison
Destroit narrow passage, gorge
Destroitement tightly, closely, strictly
Desveloper to display, unfurl (a banner)
Desvoiéz lost, gone astray
Detrier (se -) to tarry, delay
Devant, au - before, previously
Devers towards; near; de - , near; at, in; par - , in the possession of; until, up to, close to
Devises words, remarks
Deviser, diviser to recount; to proclaim; to devise
Deviser, diviser to divide, split
Devourer (devouréz) to consume (consumed)
Dicter to write, compose
Differens divided, holding opposite views, opposed
Different, differens conflict, disagreement, dispute
Diversité strangeness
Diviser See Deviser
Dont whose, of which; whereof
Dont so, thus
Doubte fear, worry
Doubter, (se - ) to be wary of
Douer to give as dowry
Drap cloth, fabric
Draps clothing
Droit right, what is due to someone; legitimate; true; loyal
Droit precisely, exactly
Droit, tout - straight on; standing upright
Droitement directly, exactly
Droitures rights
Droiturier just, fair; lawful
Durement really, strongly
Eddit official statement
Efforcier to force, violate
Effroy din, alarm
Embatre (s’- ) to enter; to stumble upon; to engage with
Embesoigner (s’- ) to employ, engage; to charge; to take into one’s service; s’- de, to apply oneself; embesoignié, worried, concerned, preoccupied
Embler to take (by surprise), seize
Embracier to embrace
Embrunchiéz hidden, concealed
Emmi in the middle of
Empennéz decorated, equipped with feathers
Empetrer to obtain (on request)
Emprendre to undertake
Emprise enterprise, endeavour, exploit, feat; offensive
Empugnaisie stinking
Enamourer to fill someone with desire; s’- de, to become enamoured of, see Amourer
Enarracion report, account
Encerchier to inspect, examine; to travel
Enchacier to chase, drive off
Encharger, enchargier to give someone a commission
Enchartrer to imprison
Enclin, encline inclined
Encliner to be inclined to; to incline; s’- a, to deign, acquiesce to; to be drawn to, towards
Encliner (a q’un) to greet (someone)
Enclouy 3rd person singular preterite of enclore, enclose, confined, surrounded; enclose, enclosed
Encontre meeting, encounter
Encontre, a l’- de against; in opposition to
Encontrer to encounter
Encoste next to, near to
Encouvenancier to promise; to pledge (the succession of a kingdom) by legal agreement
Endementres meanwhile
Endementres com in the meantime, so
Endementres que while
Enfelonner (s’- ) to lose one’s temper
Enfes, li child (nominative case of enfant
Enfourmer, enfourméz to inform
Engrans eager, keen
Enhaïr to conceive a hatred of someone
Enhardir to encourage
Enhardissement encouragement, support
Ennortement encouragement, instigation
Enorter to urge
Ensoignier to employ, engage
Ent hence (written form of en)
Entalentéz desirous
Entendre to understand
Entendre a to give heed to, attend to
Entente idea, aim; metre - a, to attempt to
Ententif diligent, aware of
Enterinement completely, perfectly
Enterra 3rd person singular future of entrer, will enter
Entour around, about
Entremés entertainments between the courses of a meal, tableaux
Envahie attack, invasion
Environ about, approximately
Environ, la - around
Envis reluctantly, grudgingly
Errant at once
Esbahi(s), -(z) amazed, bewildered
Esbahir to be scared, surprised
Esbahir to be dumbstruck
Esbatement distraction, amusement
Esbatre (s’- ) to amuse (oneself)
Escheler, escheller to scale (with the aid of a ladder), to launch an attack with scaling ladders
Eschever, eschiver to avoid
Escliper to set sail
Esclusee blocked
Esconser to set (sun)
Escourgiee whip
Escouvenir to be necessary
Escouvenue matter, affair
Escuirie gathering of squires or horsemen
Escusance explanation, self-justification
Eslargir (s’- ) to spread
Esleccion election or choice relating to the promotion of a person to a title or function
Esle wing (of a bird)
Esle wing (division of the body of an army in battle order, or the position this division occupies)
Eslevéz honoured, exalted, elevated to a higher rank
Eslire (esleu, esleurent etc.) to elect, choose
Eslite elite
Esloignier to leave, stray from, leave behind
Esmouvement inspiration, root, source
Espace period of time
Espandre (espandi) to scatter, spread
Espars scattered, dispersed
Espesse, en - de bien well-intentioned
Espesseur thickness
Espie spy
Espier to spy on
Espoir perhaps, undoubtedly
Espoir hope
Espouenter to scare, terrify
Estachiees pierced, jagged
Estains dead
Estandart standard, flag; ensign carrying a heraldic device and serving as a rally point
Estat situation, condition, state; retinue; en grant - , in great state
Estaye supporting beam
Estour combat, battle
Estourdi(e) rash, ill-conceived
Estourdir to stun
Estraine (de bonne -) fortune, chance
Estrange foreign
Estrange out of the ordinary, extraordinary; - de, discomfited
Estroitement strictly
Eure See Heure
Eureus, eureuse lucky, fortunate
Exemple example; parable
Exemplier to lecture, sermonise; illustrate with examples
Exillier to lay waste to (a country or town)
Exploit action, aid (of God)
Exploitier to act, to try one’s best
Faillir to miss, be lacking
Fait act, action, plan, strategy; perdre son - , to fail; - d’armes, feat of chivalry, deed of arms; de - , in fact, in reality
Faitissement in good order, carefully
Faitiz well-made, pretty, beautiful
Faloz torches
Fardage baggage
Fault See faillir
Feables trustworthy, those worthy of trust
Felonesse heartless, cruel, fierce
Felonnie cruelty, aggression
Fendant, (tout - parmi) to pass quickly through (e.g. a public square)
Ferir (feru) to hit, strike; to touch, reach, to flow into
Fes burden, load
Festu blade of straw
Fiance trust; assurance, faith
Fiancier to promise, swear, to hold (a prisoner) to his word
Finer to achieve, to manage to obtain something; to manage to find something
Finer to finish, end
Fleurin florin, a coin
Flote (en - ) unit (of men), horde
Flotel, floternel defensive jacket lined with twice-spun boar’s hair, worn by men-at-arms
Foison large amount, quantity
Fol senseless, dishonourable; foolish, rash
Folement foolishly, unwisely
Fons bottom; ou - de, at the bottom of, between
Forfaire to lose through one’s own mistake; to harm someone; forfaire (se - ), to transgress, commit a crime, sin
Forfait crime, misdeed
Forfait guilty, at fault
Forment many, considerably
Fors except
Fortuneux, -se to be subject to chance
Fouléz, foullé bruised, injured
Fourme conduct according to agreed rules
Fourme physical stature, appearance of a person or animal
Fourme last (used to make shoes)
Foy loyalty, faithfulness; foy et hommaige, fealty and homage, symbolic acts of the contract between lord and vassal: homage was symbolised by both hands being placed between those of the lord, fealty was pledged with an oath of allegiance
Frain a horse’s bit or bridle; mis au - de, engaged in the service of, during combat
Friqueté elegance
Gaiges wages; a (ses) - , engaged by (soldiers)
Gait lookout, watch
Gaite lookout, sentry, guard
Galeries, unes - gallery, covered space which runs alongside a building or room as a passage or walkway
Garde guard, watch
Garde guard, sentry; watchtower; se donner, se prendre de - , to take precautions; to be on guard against; n’avoir - to have nothing to fear; avoir, prendre - a , to watch out for
Geline chicken
Gendre kind, type, race
Gengle prattle, affected chatter
Gent people; gathering of men; persons in the service of someone
Gent people (of a country)
Gentil, gentilz noble, high-born
Gentillecce, gentillesce nobility, an act of generosity
Giet throw, launch (e.g. stone or dart)
Gietter to throw
Gipon doublet fitted on the chest and closed with laces
Gisnest Jennet, small Spanish horse
Giste shelter, place to lodge overnight
Gouverner to steer (a ship) with the aid of the rudder
Gouverner to govern, exercise authority (e.g. over a town)
Gouverner to take care of, provide for
Grant size, stature
Greigneur larger; le greigneur, la greigneure, the largest
Grever to harm, damage, bring to harm
Gros coin worth twelve deniers
Guisarme polearm, weapon made up of a long curved blade edged on the concave side with a slender spear point opposite
Hable, haible harbour, port
Hardement boldness, daring; impudence
Hastif, hastive swift, quick
Hastivement swiftly, quickly
Haultaineté arrogance
Have harbour, port
Heent 3rd person plural present indicative of haïr
Herault herald, (officer charged with delivering important messages, regulating tournaments, jousts and knighting ceremonies and recording and devising blazons
Heriéz harassed
Heure, eure hour; a la male - , unfortunately, inopportunely
Hoir heir
Honnir (honny) to defile, soil; to disgrace, dishonour
Horion heavy blow
Hoyau a small hoe with a curved bevelled blade; mattock, pickaxe
Hoyer, hoer to dig
Huy today; meshuy, for the moment, from now on
Huyer to cry out
Huys gate
Illec, illuec there, in that place
Incidence event, situation
Injure harm, wrong, injustice
Ireusement in a violent rage, furiously
Issir to go out, leave
Issue leaving; going out, sally
Ja, jamais, jamaiz never
Jaques peasant rebels
Jaques defensive jacket lined with twice-spun boar’s hair, worn by men-at-arms
Jouent 3rd person plural present of jouer
Jolis joyful, merry; pretty
Joliveté jollity
Jouee swipe, blow (to the cheek)
Journee day; distance a horse travels in one day
Jus at or near the bottom, below; tout - , close by
Jusques atant que until
Juste precise, accurate
Juste fair, honest; just
Justement properly; fairly, justly
Laissier to leave; to stop, abandon; - de, to say nothing further about; lairay, 1st person singular future; lairoit, 3rd person singular conditional
Lance lance, spear; weapon with a long handle and an iron tip
Lance a combat unit comprising of a lance-bearing knight, a knife-bearer, a page, a squire and archers
Lanceis vigorous lance combat (sometimes on foot with a shortened lance)
Langour exhaustion
Large large
Large generous, magnanimous
Largement easily, abundantly; in profusion
Large(s)ce generosity
Largesce (des champs) width
Legier easy
Legierement without difficulty
Letton brass; yellow alloy of copper and zinc
Lez side
Liement joyfully
Limitacion frontier, border
Lin light longboat or frigate
Long in the distant future
Long long (for a long time); length; passer au - de, to escape, pass through
Longtain, longtaine distant, remote
Lorier laurel
Loy religion, belief, faith
Luite fight, (hand-to-hand) combat
Lumelle blade (of a knife)
Mahommés idol
Mais, ne mais no more; a toujours - , forever, in perpetuity; - que, provided that, as long as
maistrier to become master of
Mal(e) bad
Marchir to abut, adjoin; - a, to border, lie alongside
Marmouset, marmousés favourite (political or personal; most often used to describe Charles VI’s favoured councillors)
Masle male
Mautalent anger, pique, annoyance
Mehaignier to batter, maim
Mener to lead
Menestrandie, menestraudie musical entertainment (performed by minstrels)
Menestrel minstrel, (travelling) musician
Meneur digger; Frere - , a religious of the Franciscan order (Friars Minor or Cordeliers)
Merancolier (se - ) to fret, distress oneself
Merancolieux sad, aggrieved, devastated
Merci metre a - , to subjugate; prendre a - , to spare, pardon; crier - a q’n, to call for mercy
Mescheoir misfortune
Mescreans, mescreant infidels (those who do not follow the Christian religion)
Mesellerie leprosy
Mesgnie servants, retinue (of a king)
Meshaigné maimed, abused
Meshuy See huy
Message message, missive
Message, messaige messenger, emissary
Millé millet
Miniere network of mines or underground tunnels
Moieu yolk (of an egg)
Mongat, mongaut, montgaut, mougat (Provençal word) monk (title or name)
Monstre muster, gathering of troops (in the sense of standing up to be counted by the leader); spectacle
Morir to kill; mort, killed; to die; mort, mors, dead
Moustier church
Mucier (se - ) to hide; to take shelter, refuge
Muer See Sanc
Muire, muyre 3rd person singular subjunctive of morir
Mule haystack
Mulet mule (male offspring of an ass and a mare or of a horse and a she-ass)
Murdrir, murtrir to kill, murder, assassinate
Muyre See Muire
Navie fleet (of ships)
Navrer to wound, injure
Nef ship
Nennil "Not at all!"
Nettement completely, entirely
Nez born
Nigromancie necromancy
No, a no swimming, by swimming
Noble Noble (English coin)
Non chaloir disregard, neglect
Noncier to announce
Nonne None, ninth canonical hour (around 3 o’ clock in the afternoon); a haulte - , before None, when the sun is still high
Notable well known, significant
Notable sentence, maxim, dictum
Nourri fed
Nourri reared; trained, taught
Obbit, obit annual commemorative service or mass for a deceased person
Occirre to kill
Oent, oiéz, oioit See Ouir
Onniement ceaselessly, continuously, constantly
Onques (ne - ) never
Ordonnance, ordenance disposition, state, behaviour; (good) order; regulation, rule; decision made by a higher authority; estat et - , state and manner; way of life; manner of conducting business
Ordonneement in good order, in an orderly fashion
Ordonner to arrange, position; to organise (troops etc.); to decide, stipulate; - de q’ch, to make arrangements for something; - a, to appoint, assign to; s’- , to prepare, make preparations; to get ready to do
Ordonner to set down (in writing)
Ores now
Ors dirty, filthy
Os bone
Os See Avoir, or Ouir
Ost host, army (on campaign)
Ostel inn, residence; household
Ouir to hear, listen; oz, os, 1st person singular present indicative; oiéz, 2nd person plural present indicative; oent, 3rd person plural present indicative; oïoit, 3rd person singular imperfect; oÿ, 3rd person singular preterite
Oultragieus, oultragieuse extreme, intemperate
Oultraige, oultrage recklessness, foolhardiness; excess, turpitude
Oultrance outrageousness, excess; mener a - , to push to the limit
Oultre beyond; tout - , through, over; what’s more, still (in direct speech)
Oultreement entirely
Oultremer across the sea (Mediterranean), thus in the East, of the East
Oultréz exhausted
Ouniement continuously, consistently
Ouvrer to make; to work (on)
Ouvrer to act, behave
Oÿ See Ouir
Paillés paly, parted per pale (in blazon, shield divided vertically into equal parts of two alternating tinctures)
Palis, pallis palisades, fences
Paour fear
Parage, paraige status, birth, lineage
Parement (chambre de - ) ceremonial dressing chamber
Parfont deep, profound (both concrete and abstract meanings)
Parlement conference, discussion, debate; council
Parlement law court, place where people gather to debate; parliament, council
Parmi among, through, by means of
Parmi against, moyennant (la somme de); by way of; - ce, in this way; - ce que, provided that
Parole metre en paroles, to persuade, encourage (someone) to speak
Part side; celle - , in that direction, that way; autre - , other direction, side; elsewhere
Part share
Parti situation; ou - de, on the side of; option, choice; - d’armes, combat situation; en - fait d’armes, in a potential combat situation
Partir to leave, go back
Partuis gap, opening, hole; See also Pertuis
Pas, le grant - quickly, with all haste
Pas strait or passageway obstructed or watched (often strategic and near a river)
Passavent a movable tower with a footbridge allowing attackers to get onto the top of the wall of a fortress
Pattis convention by which the inhabitants of a country, a town or a region paid a sum of money to guarantee protection from the free companies, a forced contribution imposed under threat of reprisal, protection money
Pavaz pavise or large shield
Pel hide (of an animal)
Penance penance, punishment
Pendans strings (of a purse)
Pennon Pennon, a long triangular flag with one point carried by knights
Pertuis gap, opening, hole
Petit, un - a little, a moment
Peuent, peuz See Pouoir
Peüz (masculine past participle of paistre, fed (animals)
Pieça long-past
Plain flat, level; de - , unhindered, unimpeded
Plain field, plain
Plaisance pleasure
Planté See Plenté
Plantureuseté plenty, abundance
Plates plate, armour made from steel plates, steel cuirass (originally made of leather)
Plegier, plegea (3rd person preterite), to guarantee, vouch for
Plommees lead clubs
Point moment; reformer en bon - , to rectify; quant il vendra a - , at the right time
Porter (se - ) to go, present oneself, remain
Possesser to possess
Pou (un - ) a little
Pouldriere cloud of dust left in the wake of an army, cavalcade
Pouoir to be able to; peuent, (3rd person present indicative), peuz (1st person singular preterite)
Pour despite, in spite of; - ce que, because; so that; - tant, for this reason; - tant que, because
Pourchacier to persistently chase, pursue; se - , to embark on a quest
Pourchaz persistence, diligence
Pourpenser (se) to resolve to
Pourtraire to resemble
Pousseis violent assault
Presentement at once, immediately
Prest ready, payment for services yet to be rendered
Preudom, preudomme, preudon a wise, right-minded man, a man of integrity
Prime, a heure de - Prime, around 6 o’clock in the morning (1st canonical hour)
Prime firstly; a - , straight away
Procurer to strive to obtain, gain through one’s efforts
Propice favourable
Propos aim, intent
Proufit, -z asset, revenue, benefice
Quanque all, everything
Quans how many
Quant de in respect of
Querir, querre to look for, seek
Quitte acquitted; released from an obligation
Quitter to pay (a debt)
Quoy calm, quiet
Raler (s’en - ) to go, leave
Ramentevoir to recall, remember, recollect; ramenteveray, (1st person future); ramenteuz, (1st person singular preterite)
Ramordre to criticise, recapture, se faire rappeler
Rapasser to cross (again)
Rasouer razor
Ravaler to humble; to reduce
Recepte revenue, receipts; place where revenue and receipts are collected
Reconqueillir to gather, collect, bring back together
Recorder to recount
Recort narrative, report
Refraindre (se-) to suppress, contain, moderate (one's intentions or behaviour)
Regreter to lament
Relenquir to abandon, disown
Remembrance recollection, memory
Remettre to put back; to restore; - sus, to rebuild
Remonstrer to demonstrate something to someone in order to persuade them
Remposne reproach, insult, taunt
Renfellonner (se) to lose one's temper again
Renluminer to illuminate once more or dramatically
Requerans Those who seek out combat
Requerre to request; to seek out combat alongside someone
Rere to shear, shave; rezes, (feminine plural past participle of rere
Resconser (se) to surrender, find; to set (sun)
Rescourre to come to the aid of, rescue; rescouy, (3rd person singular preterite); rescoux, (masculine past participle); rescousse, (feminine past participle)
Rescousse, rescoux, rescouy See Rescourre
Resoignier, ressoignier to fear, dread
Restraindre to grip, lock
Retouldront See Tollir
Retraire (se-) to withdraw, leave
Retret private apartments, a place to which to retire
Revel joy; entertainment, recreation
Rezes See Rere
Rider to ride; to navigate, sail
Riens thing or creature
Roulle roll, inventory, list, document
Route band, troupe or company (of men-at-arms)
Ru stream, brook
Ruer (-jus) to throw, knock down
Ruser to trick
Sachie contents of a bag, quantity, amount
Saiette arrow
Saillir (sailliéz, sailli, saillirent, sauldroient, sauldréz) to bound out, jump, leap, dash; - avant, to make a sally, advance on
Saine unspoilt la plus - partie, the greater or better part
Saisine possession, or possession of an inheritance by a lord
Salvacion salvation, deliverance
Sanc blood; le - li mua, he became enraged; estre - mué, to be seized with terror
Sauldroient (conditional) see Saillir
Sauveté safety, security
Seeller to seal, close with a seal; to affix a seal
Sejourner to stay, remain
Selon alongside
Selon according to, in accordance with
Selon considering, given
Semblance appearance, aspect
Semblant appearance; faire - de, to pretend; par - , so it seems; faire bon - , to show favour towards; a leur - , in their opinion
Senestre (a la main-) left(hand), to the left
Sentir to sense, to recognise something intuitively
Seoir to be situated, at a siege for example; to sit; to be seated; - a q'un, to please, suit
Seremens, serement oath
Servaige serfdom, servitude
Sery serene, calm
Seur reliable, faithful
Si thus, so; - que, so that; mais si firent, and yet they did it
Sigler to navigate, set sail
Singulierement only, exclusively
Sisme schism
Soier to saw, cut
Solacier to enjoy oneself
Solas entertainment, amusement
Sommage(s) baggage or group of beasts of burden
Sommier beast of burden
Sors magic, sorcery
Soubtil adept, skilful
Soubtill(i)er to do one's utmost to
Soubtivetéz tricks
Soubzterrine underground passage
Souef slowly, unhurried
Souffrir to abide, accept, endure (a difficult situation); se - de, to wait; to refrain from
Souloient (souloir) were in the habit of (doing something)
Soye long, coarse hair from a pig or boar used as lining material in defensive jackets
Stilléz accomplished, proficient, skilled
Sus on, at the top of; courir - , to assault, attack; metre - , to organise, carry out, have carried out; en - , away from
Taille tax or rent paid to a lord
Taille size (of a person)
Taillie, tailliéz able, capable; displaying the physical characteristics to be able to do something
Taillier, se taillier de to prepare to
Tailloer trencher, a piece of bread to put food on
Tanner (se) to grow tired
Tant (so) much; - seulement, only, solely; - que, until; so long as; - comme, while, as long as
Tant measure, quantity
Tantet small amount
Tantost at once, straightaway
Tasseaux group, gathering
Tauxent (tauxer) to determine, fix the amount, evaluate, assess
Tempestemens din, racket, furore
Tempesteur malevolent spirit, poltergeist
Temprement soon
Temps time, length, term; de grant - , long-past; before long
Tendis period of time
Tenue possession
Terme period of time; term, deadline
Termine period of time
Terribouris skirmish, scuffle, clash
Terrien landed, owner of large estates
Terrien earthly, of this earth
Tierce Terce (divine office), about 9 o’clock in the morning
Tiercement thirdly
Tollir (tollu) to remove (removed), take; retollir, retrouldrent, recapture
Tors, tores slanted
Tournois forged at Tours (coin)
Tousdiz always
Tout, a tout with
Toutevoie nevertheless
Traire to draw (e.g. a bow); to pull in a certain direction; se - , to go, head for
Traïsteur traitor
Trait fire, shot, the distance of a shot
Trait, a trait slowly, calmly, at leisure
Travail hardship; suffering
Traveilleux arduous
Traveillier to tire, harass
Tres since
Trestost, si trestost as soon; si - comme, as soon as
Treu, treuz rents, payments
Trieuves truce, treaty
Tristres unhappy, aggrieved
Trop strong; very; many
Uef egg
Uis, uys door, gate; see also Huys
Vair grey-blue, clear and bright (to describe eyes)
Vair grey-white spotted (squirrel) fur; menu - , miniver, predominantly white fur, finely striped, made of bellies only; heraldic fur
Varlet squire, youth, servant
Venimeuses poisonous, venomous (words)
Venteux boasters
Ventue de premiere - , straightaway, at once; de pleine -, immediately
Vergoigneus ashamed
Verséz knocked down, thrown to the ground (in combat)
Vespre eventide, evening (Vespers, divine office observed at the end of the afternoon); basses - , end of the evening
Vespree eventide
Veu wish, vow; au - de, in the name of
Vey 1st person singular preterite of veoir
Viaire face
Viande food, victuals
Victorier take back or celebrate a victory, to emerge victorious
Vireton crossbow bolt with feathers placed at an angle to make it spin in the air
Vive sheer, very steep
Voir true; au - dire, to tell the truth, indeed, certainly
Voir truth; tourner en - , to accept as the truth; trouver en - , to find to be true
Voire in truth, truly; certainly, of course
Vois 1st person singular present indicative of aler; voise, 1st person singular present subjunctive of aler
Vuit, vuis empty
Vueil 1st person singular present indicative of vouloir
Vuide empty
Vuider, vuidier to empty, clear out, leave; to abandon, leave
Vuider to emerge from, come out of
Ydole idol