Online Froissart

Toulouse, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 511

Godfried Croenen

Jean Froissart, Chronicles, Book I, ca. 1410–1420

Contents:

  • fol. 1r–7r: table of rubrics, rubric: "In Dei nomine amen. Cy commence la table des croniques Froissart, de la guerre et l’occasion d’icelle, qui fu longuement entre le roy de France Phelippe, et le roy Edouart d’Engleterre, et plusieurs autres leurs successeurs.", inc. : "Le premier chapitre contient le prologue", expl. : "Le XIXXX chapitre parle comment le roy de France envoia monseigneur Jehan de Vienne a Montebourc en Constentin."
  • fol. 8r–268v: Jean Froissart, Chronicles, Book I1, the end is missing because the final folios have been removed, rubric: "Ci commence la cronique Frossart de la guerre et l’occasion d’icelle, qui fu longuement entre le roy de France, Phelippe, et le roy Edouart d’Engleterre et plusieurs autres leurs successeurs.", inc. : "Afin que honorables avenues et nobles aventures faiz d’armes", expl. : "de qui j’ay plusieurs fois parlé ça arriere, si avoit esté."
  • Physical description:

    Parchment of good quality. Many small repairs to the parchment: holes sewn on fol. 19, 21, 28, 31, 57, 62, 70, 96, 99, 111, 115, 116, 123, 125, 130, 135, 137, 156, 171, 175, 180, 184, 189, 193, 197, 200, 203, 208, 211, 214, 238, 241, 250; holes in the parchment covered with patches on fol. 36, 37, 83, 91, 98, 99, 100, 103, 108, 109, 120, 134, 137, 147, 148, 161, 163, 164, 169, 180, 182, 183, 186, 187, 189, 197, 199, 253; patches lost on fol. 34, 45, 117, 118, 122 and 128; small holes in parchment on fol. 16, 104, 167, 181, 224, 232. Edge of sheet still visible on fol. 173, 177, 200, 209, 211, 212, 253, 259. 269 folios (including fol. 258bis). Pages measure 400 mm by 295 mm. Written space measures 273 mm by 187 mm. Modern folio numbers in pencil, with one error in the foliation (fol. 258 followed by fol. 258 bis). Some traces of medieval folio numbers placed close to the edge and probably nearly everywhere trimmed by the binder (surviving medieval folio number on fol. 111r shows that the table was not foliated or numbered separately). Collation: 35 quires, predominantly quaternions, flesh side out: 18 (8 wanting), 2–38, 48 (1 wanting), 5–98, 108 (6 wanting), 11–158, 166 + 1 (inserted after 3), 17–348, 352 (2 wanting).2 The inner leaves of quire 32 are out of order, but a later hand has added letters A–H at the end and start of each folio so that the reader can read the text in the correct order. Catchwords by the scribe in the bottom right-hand of the last page of each quire, sometimes on ruled lines (fol. 38v). Signatures in the first half of the quire, in the bottom right-hand corner of the recto side of the folio, close to the edge. Trimmed in most cases but still visible in quires 15, 20–21, 23–32. Secundo folio: "Le LXIIIIe chapitre comment le siege devant Tournay" (table of rubrics, fol. 2r), and: "Aussi en France ont ilz" (text, fol. 9r).

    Layout:

    Leadpoint ruling, 2 columns of 44–47 lines (49 lines in quires 1–3). Prickings on the four corners of the written space. Written above top line. Often additional lines ruled at the bottom of the page, below the guide prickings. After the first quire folios are usually only fully ruled on the recto side, with only vertical ruling for the justification on the verso side. In some cases the verso side of a folio has only been ruled horizontally, whereas the verso side only has vertical ruling (fol. 44–45).

    Scribal Hands:

    Copied by a single early fifteenth-century hand in cursiva libraria. This is the same scribe (Scribe T) who copied two other Froissart manuscripts (New York, Morgan Library, MS M.804 and Glasgow, University Library, MS Hunter 42). He is also the scribe of the added quire found in a further manuscript of Froissart’s Book I (London, British Library, MS Arundel 67, vol. 1, fol. 358r–373v). Variation in the colour of the ink (between nearly black and light brownish) is probably to be explained by the time it must have taken to copy the entire text. The scribe made some corrections to his own text (a line written on an erasure on fol. 45r, col. A; marginal additions on fol. 101r and 119r). It also seems to be the scribe who has written some marginal notes, often next to dates (fol. 115v, 118v–119v, 120v–121r, 122v, 132r). Some corrections on erasures (fol. 45r).

    Decoration:

    22 miniatures by the Giac Master. It is very likely that the manuscript contained originally three more miniatures, found on the folios following fol. 23, fol. 75 and fol. 269, that were removed from the manuscript before it was foliated. These missing miniatures would have illustrated respectively the battle of Cassel, the naval battle of Guernsey and the battle of Cherbourg. The corresponding miniatures are still found in New York, Morgan Library, MS M.804 and Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, MS fr. 2662 and were also planned but never executed for Glasgow, University Library, MS 42, which is a twin manuscript of the Toulouse manuscript. The frontispiece double miniature is followed by a large 11-line illuminated initial. The miniatures on fol. 31v and fol. 49r are followed by 5-line illuminated initials with foliate ornaments. The miniature on fol. 98v is followed by a 4-line illuminated initial with foliate ornaments on fol. 99r. Other miniatures are accompanied by 4-line champ initials, except on fol. 253r where there is a 5-line champ initial. Other chapters are marked by rubrics and a 2-line champ initial. Rubrics are normally executed in red, but are sometimes written in black and underlined in red with a paraph before the rubric and the chapter number, like on fol. 101v, 103v, 108v–109r, 112v, 116v, 121r–121v, 124v, 131v, 135r, nearly all of them accompanying miniatures. In some other cases only the chapter number is executed in this way (fol. 109v and 115r). On fol. 14r there is an initial sketch for decoration extending from a 2-line champ initial.
  • fol. 1r, col. A: miniature showing on the left a king of England, most plausibly Richard II, who receives the chronicler, who kneels before him and offers him a book bound in green velvet with metal clasps and corners.3 The king’s robe shows the Plantagenet leopards (gold) on a red background. Two counsellors stand behind the king.
  • fol. 1r, col. B: miniature showing on the left King Charles IV of France, accompanied by three courtiers, who welcomes to his court Queen Isabella of England, his sister, who wears a robe bearing the arms of France and England, and his nephew the future Edward III, wearing a cape with the Plantagenet leopards, on the right. Isabella and Edward are accompanied by three courtiers.
  • fol. 31v, col. A: the battle of Cadzand. On the right a naval force attacking an army of knights on foot on the shore, on the left, with lances. Two banners extend from the golden frame. The one on the left, for the Flemish defenders of Cadzand, shows sable, a fess argent, while the one on the right flies from the mast of the second ship shown, with the English royal arms (gules, three lions passant or).
  • fol. 49r, col. A: the battle of Sluys. The battle is represented as two ships with soldiers who are engaged in battle seen from the shore. The ship on the right represents the English naval force, as indicated by the English royal banner flying from a coloured mast pole (gules, three lions passant gold) and the king shown with a surcoat of the same arms and a golden crown on his bacinet. The ship on the left represents the French fleet. Its commander, Hugh Quieret, is shown with an armorial surcoat with his arms, which are also seen on the banner (argent, three fleurs-de-lis gules). The colour of the fleurs-de-lys is very dark, which indicates that they were originally probably painted in a different colour and then overpainted to correct the error. Both ships have crenellations and a crow’s nest on the mast, from which a large white sail hangs. Both are also propelled by invisible rowers who operate the single range of oars which appear from the hull of the ship. Behind the ships there is a dark mountain range. The background is diapered with gold, blue and red with white penwork.
  • fol. 98v, col. B: the sack of Caen. On the left the English army led by the king shown with an overcoat with the English royal arms (gules, three lions passant or, shown contourné), a banner with the same arms next to him. The English, all on foot, pursue a French army which is retreating into Caen through an open gate. A dead soldier is lying on the ground. The background is diapered with gold, blue and red with white penwork.
  • fol. 101v, col. B: the battle of La Blanchetaque. Represented as a stand off between two armies on either side of a small river. On the left is the English army, with a banner with the English royal arms (gules, three lions passant or shown contourné), which leaves the frame and is placed in the top margin of the page. The first of the three mounted knights shown rides his horses into the water. The English footsoldiers attack the French army with lances. The French army on the right consists of footsoldiers with lances and longbows. The background is diapered with gold, blue and red with white penwork.
  • fol. 104r, col. A: the battle of Crécy. Two armies meeting in a field. On the left the French army, led by King Philip VI of Valois on horseback. A large oriflamme banner comes out of the frame and into the top margin. The French king has a golden coronet on his bacinet and wears a surcoat with the French royal arms (French modern, azure, three fleurs-de-lis or). Behind the king rides the German emperor Charles of Bohemia, who has a golden closed crown on his bacinet and an heraldic surcoat with the German imperial arms (gold, a double-headed eagle sable). A banner with the same arms can be seen above him. Behind Charles of Bohemia is shown a member of the royal family. The knight has a heraldic surcoat and a banner with the arms azure, three fleurs-de-lis or, a bend sinister, gules, shown contourné. The intention was probably to show the count of Alençon. On the right is the English army, led by King Edward III. The king wears an open coronet on his bacinet, and has an heraldic surcoat with the English royal arms (gules, three lions passant, or). Above him is flying a banner with the same arms. Behind him is shown his son, the Black Prince, who also has an heraldic surcoat and banner, with the arms gules, three lions passant or, a label silver. The background is diapered with gold, blue and red with white penwork.
  • fol. 109r, col. A: the battle of Nevill’s Cross. Two armies on foot meeting in a field. On the left the Scottish army, attacking the English with lances. On the right the English army, armed with lances and longbows. The English army is shown here led by Queen Philippa riding a horse, and followed by two ladies-in-waiting. The English royal banner is flying above the queen, leaving the frame and entering into the top margin of the frame (quarterly, 1 and 4 azure, three fleurs-de-lis or, 2 and 3 gules, three lions passant or). The background is diapered with gold, blue and red with white penwork.
  • fol. 112v, col. A: the battle of La Roche-Derrien. Two armies of foot soldiers meeting in a field and attacking each other with lances. The background is diapered with gold, blue and red with white penwork.
  • fol. 117r, col. A: the battle at Calais between the French knights who are trying to capture it by a ruse and the English who lie in ambush. The miniature shows two armies of footsoldiers meeting in a field and attacking each other with lances. On the right are the French, led by Geoffroy de Chargny, who is represented with an amorial surcoat and a banner behind him with with his arms (gules, three eschutcheons silver). On the right are the English with the English king, Edward III, wearing an armorial surcoat with his arms (gules, three lions passant or) in the front, confronting Geoffrey de Chargny. Above the English army flies the banner of Sir Walter Mauny, who according to Froissart’s text, was in command (or, three chevrons sable). The background is diapered with gold, blue and red with white penwork.
  • fol. 128r, col. A: the battle of Poitiers. Represented as a battle between two armies of footsoldiers with full body armour, meeting in a field and attacking each other with lances. The English are shown on the left, led by the Black Prince, shown with an armorial surcoat and a banner with the full royal arms (quarterly, 1 and 4 France modern, azure, three fleurs-de-lis or; 2 and 2 England, gules, three lions passant or, shown here contourné; the lions on the banner are facing the wrong way). On the right is the French army, led by King John II of France, shown with a golden coronet on his bacinet and an armorial surcoat with France modern (azure, three fleurs-de-lis or, one above and two below). Behind him is Pierre, duke of Bourbon, with an armorial surcoat showing his arms (azure, semy of fleurs-de-lis or, a bendlet gules). Above the French army flies a large oriflamme, attached to a golden shaft, represented with five streamers which leave the frame of the miniature. The background is diapered with gold, blue and red with white penwork. In the bottom margin there is a note by the scribe: "Poitiers". This is possibly an instruction to the miniature painter.
  • fol. 135r, col. A: battle between the French and the Anglo-Navarrese near the ford of Saint-Clément (Cotentin). Represented as a battle between two armies of footsoldiers with full body armour, meeting in a field and attacking each other with lances. The French army is on the left and is led by Raoul de Renneval, who is shown with his armorial surcoat and his banner (or, a cross sable charged with five shells argent). The English are on the right and are led by Godfrey of Harcourt, who is shown with his armorial surcoat and his banner (gules, two bars or). The background is diapered with gold, blue and red with white penwork. To the right of the miniature, in the intercolumnar space, are two bars traced in black pen, ostensibly a sketch of the Harcourt arms.
  • fol. 140r, col. A: French knights defeat the Jacques in Meaulx. On the right an army of knights on foot with full body armour. Their commander is Charles of Navarre, shown with an armorial surcoat and a banner with his arms (quarterly, 1 and 4, gules, an escarbuncle with eight rays or charged with bells, a bordure or, 2 and 3 France ancient, azure, a semy of fleurs-de-lis or). Behind Charles of Navarre is the Captal de Buch, also shown with an armorial surcoat and his banner (or, a cross sable charged with five shells argent). The text does not refer to Charles of Navarre, but to the count of Foix, so the miniature probably conflates the earlier episode in Clermont, where Charles of Navarre attacked the Jacques (illustrated in New York, Morgan Library, MS M.804, fol. 138v), with the episode in Meaulx, where the Jacques were defeated by the count of Foix and the Captal de Buch. On the left are the Jacques, with open helmets and mail rather than the plate armour worn by the French. The Jacques have pikes with which they attack the knights, but in the foreground there are several dead bodies of Jacques and one knight. The background is diapered with gold, blue and red with white penwork.
  • fol. 150v, col. A: the battle of Nogent-sur-Seine between Eustace of Auberchicourt and his followers, and the French led by Burchard of Fénétrange. It is represented as a battle in a field between two armies of footsoldiers armed with lances and full plate armour. On the left is the army led by Eustace of Aubercicourt, who is shown with an armorial surcoat and a banner with his arms (ermine, three hamades sable placed beneath one another). On the right are the French. Their commander is also shown with armorial surcoat and banner (gules, a bend or). This is probably meant as the arms of Burchard of Fénétrange, but in that case the colours are probably wrong.4 The background is diapered with gold, blue and red with white penwork.
  • fol. 169r, col. B: the battle of Brignais. It is represented as a battle in a field between two armies of footsoldiers armed with lances and full plate armour. On the left is the army led by Jacques of Bourbon, who can be recognised from his armorial surcoat and banner with the full arms of Bourbon (azure, a semy of fleurs-de-lis gold, a bend gules). Behind him is Renaud of Forez, also with armorial surcoat and banner, showing the full arms of Forez (gules, a dolphin or). On the right are the heavily armed soldiers of the Compagnie. Above the army is a long triangular pennon, with the arms of England (argent, a cross gules). The background is diapered with gold, blue and red with white penwork.
  • fol. 177r, col. A: the battle of Cocherel. It is represented as a battle in a field between two armies of footsoldiers armed with lances and full plate armour. On the left is the French army, led by Bertrand du Guesclin, with an armorial surcoat and his banner (argent, an eagle with two heads sable, a bend gules). On the left are the Gascons, led by the Captal de Buch, who has an armorial surcoat and banner with his arms (or, a cross sable charged with five shells argent). The background is diapered with gold, blue and red with white penwork.
  • fol. 181v, col. B: the battle of Auray. It is represented as a battle in a field between two armies of footsoldiers armed with lances and full plate armour. On the left is the army led by Charles of Blois, with an armorial surcoat and banner both showing the arms of Brittany (ermine). Behind him is Bertrand du Guesclin, with an armorial surcoat with his arms (argent, an eagle with two heads sable, a bend gules). On the right is the rival contender to the duchy, John of Montfort, also with an armorial surcoat and banner showing the arms of Brittany (ermine). Behind Montfort is John Chandos, who wears an armorial surcoat with his arms (argent, on a pile gules a martlet or). The miniature has not been completely finished, with some of the figures lacking the lances, which their gestures suggest they should be holding. The background is diapered with gold, blue and red with white penwork.
  • fol. 194r, col. B: the battle of Nájera. It is represented as a battle in a field between two armies of footsoldiers armed with lances and full plate armour. On the left is the army led by Pedro the Cruel, who is shown wearing a golden coronet on his bacinet, and with an armorial surcoat and banner both showing the quarterly arms of Castile-Léon contourné (quarterly, 1-4, gules, a triple-towered castle or with windows, 2-3, argent, a lion passant sable). On the right is the army led by his opponent Henry II of Castile, who is also shown wearing a golden coronet on his bacinet, and with an armorial surcoat and banner both showing the quarterly arms of Castile-Léon (quarterly, 1-4, gules, a triple-towered castle or with windows, 2-3, argent, a lion passant sable). Behind him is Bertrand du Guesclin, with an armorial surcoat and a banner with his arms (argent, an eagle with two heads sable, a bend gules). Between the two armies there are several dead bodies. They are facing the left and so probably represent the casualties on the side of Henry II of Castile, who lost the battle. The background is diapered with gold, blue and red with white penwork.
  • fol. 203v, col. A: the battle of Montiel. What is shown is the advanced stages of the battle, in which Pedro the Cruel was defeated and fled into the castle of Montiel. On the left is the army of Henry II of Castile, led by the king on horseback. Henry is also shown wearing a golden coronet on his bacinet and an armorial surcoat and banner both with the quarterly arms of Castile-Léon contourné (quarterly, 1-4, gules, a triple-towered castle or with windows, 2-3, argent, a lion passant sable). Behind him is Bertrand du Guesclin, also on horseback, with an armorial surcoat and a banner with his arms (argent, an eagle with two heads sable, a bend gules). They are attacking the army of their opponent, Pedro the Cruel, which is fleeing through an open gate into a fortified building or walled town. Pedro is shown wearing a golden coronet on his bacinet and an armorial surcoat with the quarterly arms of Castile-Léon (quarterly, 1-4, gules, a triple-towered castle or with windows, 2-3, argent, a lion passant sable). On the foreground several dead bodies, most of them facing the left and therefore probably representing the casualties on Pedro the Cruel’s side. The background is diapered with gold, blue and red with white penwork. In the middle of the painting there are some imperfections: either the pattern was left incomplete, or the black, gold and blue painting was rubbed of through later use.
  • fol. 237v, col. A: the battle of Pontvallain. It is represented as a battle in a field between two armies of footsoldiers armed with lances and full plate armour. On the left is the army led by Bertrand du Guesclin, who is shown wearing an armorial surcoat and banner with his arms shown contourné (argent, an eagle with two heads sable, a bend gules). On the right is the army of Robert Knolles, but the miniaturist probably did not know Knolles’ correct heraldic arms and has therefore represented its leader with the arms of Grandson (paly of argent and azure, a bend gules charged with three shells or), probably a reference to Thomas Grandson, who is mentioned in the text. Between the two armies, on the side of Knolles’ army, a dead body. The background is diapered with gold, blue and red with white penwork.
  • fol. 244r, col. B: the sea battle of La Rochelle. Two ships with soldiers in full armour attacking each other on the sea, seen from the coast. The ship on the left has two masts with crow’s nests and white sails. The ship on the right is partly hidden behind a fortified building, probably representing the city of La Rochelle. Towers and crenellations extend beyond the rectangular frame into the right margin. The background is diapered with gold, blue and red with white penwork.
  • fol. 253r, col. A: the battle of Chizé. It is represented as a battle in a field between two armies of footsoldiers with full plate armour. On the left is the army led by Bertrand du Guesclin, who is shown wearing an armorial surcoat and banner with his arms shown contourné (argent, an eagle with two heads sable, a bend gules). On the right is the English army, identified by a pennon with the arms of England (silver, a cross gules). The English are armed with longbows while the French have lances. Between the two armies several dead bodies. The background is diapered with gold, blue and red with white penwork.
  • Binding:

    Early-modern leather binding. Modern end papers. Cardboard boards covered by brown leather. Seven raised bands, gilt tooling on the spine, with a black leather label between first and second band with the title in gold lettering: "CHRONIQUES / DE / FROISSART". Between the first and second flyleaf in the front is bound a letter by the Dutch genealogist and historian P.N. van Doorninck, dated 26 October 1892, which enquires about an inscription supposedly found in this manuscript.5

    History:

    The manuscript was probably produced in Paris by or for a Parisian libraire who was also responsible for two other manuscripts containing Book I or Books I and II of Froissart’s Chronicles: New York, Morgan Library, MS M.804 and Glasgow, University Library, MS Hunter 42. Even though the Glasgow manuscript is left unfinished, it is in many respects so similar to the Toulouse codex that the two manuscripts should be considered twin manuscripts. Some features indicate collaborative production, including guides for chapter numbers (fol. 58v, fol. 61v, 90r, 93r, 94r, 96r, 99v, 102v, 123r, 132r).

    The original artist probably added the coat of arms of the first actual or intended owner twice in the border illustration on the opening page of the text (fol. 8r). The same coat of arms originally possibly also featured inside the large initial on the same page. The marginal decoration on the opening page also included a motto, which was repeated within the garlands which form a frame around the text. Using an UV-lamp the three parts of a phrase, repeated several times around the border, can still be read: "il y", "bel" and "tet". This was probably the motto of the owner of the coat of arms. At a later point, probably still in the first half or around the middle of the fifteenth century, the two or three heraldic shields with the coat of arms were overpainted. The one on the right was covered with a winged dragon, the one in the bottom margin with a decorative knot that imitates the smaller knots found in the top register of the page, and the one in the initial with a face. At the same time the motto was probably scratched out.

    A later (fifteenth- or sixteenth-century) reader has entered a name in the bottom margin just below the text of column A on fol. 169r: "le chevalier de Boullaiviler". This may be a reference to a member of an aristocratic family from Boulainvillers near Amiens. The page on which this note appears gives the account of the battle of Brignais (with miniature), but Froissart does not refer to a lord of Boulainvillers in his text. It may therefore be an owner’s mark. A few pages earlier, on fol. 167v, someone has made some notes in the left and lower margins in broad leadpoint. The notes seem to be written in an early modern (late sixteenth- or early seventeenth-century) hand, but they are impossible to decipher.6

    At the end of the eighteenth century the manuscript was part of the old collection of the library of Toulouse.7 This collection was formed in 1762, when the order of the Jesuits was dissolved and their books were transferred to the newly founded Collège royal. To this collection were later added further collections, including those of Castillon and Lefranc de Pompignan. The library was opened to the public in 1786. A handwritten catalogue of the manuscripts dating from 1860–1870 lists the manuscript.8

    Bibliography

    Godfried Croenen, ‘Les manuscrits 864–865 de Besançon et la production parisienne’, in Jean Froissart, Chroniques, Livre III. Le manuscrit Saint-Vincent de Besançon, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 865, ed. by Peter F. Ainsworth, vol. I (Geneva: Droz, 2007), pp. 39–47 (mentioned p. 40)

    Godfried Croenen, ‘La tradition manuscrite du Troisième Livre des Chroniques de Froissart’, in Froissart à la cour de Béarn: l’écrivain, les arts et le pouvoir, ed. by Valérie Fasseur (Turnhout: Brepols, 2009), pp. 15–59 (in particular p. 19–20)

    Godfried Croenen, ‘Le libraire Pierre de Liffol et la production de manuscrits illustrés des Chroniques de Jean Froissart à Paris au début du XVe siècle’, Art de l’enluminure, 31 (2009), 14–23, 45

    Godfried Croenen, ‘Froissart illustration cycles’, in The encyclopedia of the medieval chronicle, ed. by Graeme Dunphy, 1 (Leiden / Boston: Brill, 2010), pp. 645–50 (in particular p. 648)

    Godfried Croenen, Kristen M. Figg and Andrew Taylor, ‘Authorship, Patronage, and Literary Gifts: The Books Froissart Brought to England in 1395’, Journal of the Early Book Society for the Study of Manuscripts and Printing History, 11 (2008), 1–42 (in particular p. 27, note 17)

    Godfried Croenen, Mary Rouse and Richard Rouse, ‘Pierre de Liffol and the Manuscripts of Froissart’s Chronicles’, Viator, 33 (2002), 261–93 (in particular 287)

    George T. Diller, Attitudes chevaleresques et réalités politiques chez Froissart. Microlectures du premier livre des Chroniques, Études de philologie et d’histoire, 39 (Geneva: Droz, 1984) (listed p. 169)

    Gustav Haenel, Catalogi librorum manuscriptorum qui in bibliothecis Galliae, Helvetiae, Belgii, Britanniae M., Hispaniae, Lusitaniae asservantur (Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1830) (col. 477, no. 3, listed)

    Laurence Harf-Lancner, ‘Image and Propaganda: The Illustration of Book I of Froissart’s Chroniques’, in Froissart Across the Genres, ed. by Donald Maddox and Sara Sturm-Maddox, translated by Sara Sturm-Maddox (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1998), pp. 220–50 (in particular pp. 224 and 226)

    baron Kervyn de Lettenhove, ‘Introduction. Troisième partie: Description des manuscrits’, in Œuvres de Froissart publiées avec les variantes de divers manuscrits, III-III (Bruxelles: Devaux, 1873), pp. 185–461 (here p. 292–3)

    Paul Lefrancq, ‘À la bibliothèque municipale’, in Catalogues des expositions organisées par la ville de Valenciennes en l’honneur de Jehan Froissart, du 11 septembre au 10 octobre 1937 (Valenciennes: Hollande fils, 1937), pp. 17–46 (in particular p. 41–2 and pl. XXII)

    Laetitia Le Guay, Les Princes de Bourgogne lecteurs de Froissart. Les rapports entre le texte et l’image dans les manuscrits enluminés du livre IV des Chroniques, Documents, études et répertoires publiés par l’Institut de Recherche et d’Histoire des Textes ([Paris / Turnhout]: CNRS Éditions / Brepols, 1998) (listed p. 154)

    Siméon Luce, ‘Introduction au premier livre des Chroniques de J. Froissart’, in Chroniques de J. Froissart, ed. by Siméon Luce, tome premier: 1307–1340 (depuis l’avènement d’Édouard II jusqu’au siége de Tournay) (Paris: Jules Renouard, 1869), pp. I–CXXXIV (listed on p. XXXV; in the edition this MS is refered to with the sigil A32)

    Valentina Mazzei, ‘An Edition and Study of Besançon Municipal Library ms. 864 (Jean Froissart’s Chroniques, Book I, ‘A’ redaction)’ (PhD thesis, University of Sheffield, Department of French, 2008) (in particular p. xxxvi–xli, li, lv, lviii–lix, lxvi–lxvii, lxxv–lxxvii, 139–48)

    Millard Meiss, French Painting in the Time of Jean de Berry: The Limbourgs and Their Contemporaries, with the assistance of Sharon Off Dunlap Smith and Elizabeth Home Beatson, 2 vols (London / New York: Thames and Hudson / The Pierpont Morgan Library, 1974) (p. 404)

    A. Molinier, Catalogue général des manuscrits des bibliothèque publiques des départements publié sous les auspices du Ministère de l’instruction publique, VII. Toulouse — Nîmes (Paris: Imprimerie nationale, 1885) (pp. 315–316, no. 511)

    [Jean Porcher], Bibliothèque nationale. Les manuscrits à peintures en France du XIIIe au XVIe siècle (Paris: Bibliothèque nationale, 1955) (p. 107, no. 227)

    Jean Porcher, The Rohan Book of Hours, The Faber library of illuminated manuscripts (London: Faber and Faber, 1959) (pp. 9–10)

    Richard Rouse and Mary Rouse, ‘Some Assembly Required: Rubric Lists and Other Separable Elements in Fourteenth-Century Parisian Book Production’, in “Li premerains vers”: Essays in Honor of Keith Busby, ed. by Catherine M. Jones and Logan E. Whale (Amsterdam — New York: Rodopi, 2011), pp. 405–16 (p. 410, note 8)

    Une bibliothèque imaginaire du XVe siècle. Les livres favoris des lecteurs de la fin du Moyen Âge, exhibition catalogue, exhibition held 20 January–7 March 2009 (Toulouse: Bibliothèque de Toulouse, 2009) (pp. 55–56, no. 38)

    Alberto Varvaro, ‘Il libro I delle Chroniques di Jean Froissart. Per una filologia integrata dei testi e delle immagini’, Medioevo Romanzo, 19 (1994), 3–36 (in particular pp. 13, 18–19, 24–26, 28)

    Notes

      1 Kervyn de Lettenhove, p. 293, states that the text is divided into 10 parts. This is not correct as there are no other textual divisions beside the chapters. However, in the table of rubrics one finds red labels, written by the scribe, which seem to divide the text into ten ‘wars’.

      2 In this manuscript’s twin, Glasgow, UL, MS Hunter 42, there is space for a miniature, followed by some text, which together takes up just under four columns. However, the Glasgow manuscript ends before the normal end of Book I and therefore omits a small section of text. New York, Morgan Library, MS M.804, which is also closely connected to both the Glasgow and Toulouse MSS, has this additional final chapter, which has there its own rubric and takes up less than a column. In the table of rubrics in the Toulouse MS there is no rubric listed for this final chapter, but that is not necessarily proof that it was absent, as this chapter does not always have its own rubric. It is therefore not entirely possible to ascertain whether or not it was once part of the Toulouse text. But even if the Toulouse MS continued the text of Book I up to the normal ending, all the missing text, with a miniature, would fit on three, or possibly two, manuscript pages.

      3 Kervyn de Lettenhove, p. 292, identifies this figure as Philippa of Hainault, queen of England, but this seems erroneous.

      4 They should be azure, a bend argent, cf. C. Van den Bergen-Pantens, ed., Gelre B.R. Ms. 15652–56 (Leuven: Editions Jan van Helmont, 1992), p. 353, no. 1327.

      5 In reality this information seems to relate to Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, MS fr. 831. On this manuscript and its inscriptions, see Croenen, Figg and Taylor, ‘Authorship, Patronage, and Literary Gifts’ (in particular p. 4–9).

      6 For the information on these notes I am indebted to Mark Smith, who has carefully examined them. Although the contents and purpose of the notes remain elusive, they seem to contain a list of placenames with no obvious relationship to the text of the Chronicles.

      7 Kervyn de Lettenhove (p. 292) states that the manuscript came from the Benedictine abbey of Notre-Dame de la Daurade in Toulouse, but provides no evidence for this assertion. The manuscript does not feature on the list of the la Daurade manuscripts provided by Molinier (p. XI–XII).

      8 Toulouse, Bibliothèque municipale, ms. 1013, p. 102. The manuscript is listed under shelfmark 3.