byr (OSw) by (ODan) byr (OGu) by (ON) býr (ON) bær (ON) bǿr (ON) noun

This word has several different but associated meanings. At the lowest level, it can be a synonym for OSw bolstaþer (‘farmstead’), then it can mean ‘village’ (comprising a number of farmsteads forming a community) or habitation in general and finally it can mean a ‘town’ (as opposed to the countryside). The first two meanings are the most common. Used in the expression by ok bolstaþer or the compound byabolstaþer to mean ‘village and the related farmland’.


farm OSw ÄVgL Föb
ONorw EidsL 10.6 11.4
ONorw FrL KrbA 23 Mhb 4 Rgb 4
OIce Grg Tíg 258
ONorw GuL Llb, Tfb
OSw HL Blb
OIce Kge 32 Lbb 1, 3 Þjb 12
OSw SdmL Bb
OSw YVgL Utgb

farmstead ONorw GuL Krb, Llb
OIce Mah 10 Lbb 5 Llb 15, 42
OIce Js Mah 14 Lbb 1, 18
OIce KRA 4, 11
OSw UL Äb, Mb, Jb, Blb
OSw VmL Äb, Mb, Jb, Bb

habitation OGu GL A 22
hamlet OSw HL Kgb, Jb, Kmb, Blb
homestead OSw DL Tjdb
house OIce Grg Þsþ 77
OIce Js Mah 5

town OSw VmL Rb
village OSw ÄVgL Kkb, Md, Äb, Gb, Rlb, Jb, Kva, Tb
OSw DL Kkb, Eb, Mb, Bb, Tjdb, Rb
ODan ESjL 2, 3
OSw HL Mb, Blb, Rb
ODan JyL 1−3
OSw ÖgL Db
OSw SdmL Kkb, Kgb, Jb, Bb, Kmb, Mb, Tjdb, Rb, Till
ODan SkKL 11
ODan SkL passim
OSw UL Kkb, Kgb, Äb, Mb, Jb, Kmb, Blb, Rb
OSw VmL Kkb, Kgb, Äb, Mb, Jb, Kmb, Bb, Rb
ODan VSjL 60, 71, 72, 75−78, 80
OSw YVgL passim
Expressions:

by ok bolstaþer (OSw)

village and farmland OSw UL Jb VmL Bb

Refs:

CV s.v. bær; KLNM, s.v.v. landsby, stad; Miller 1990, 115; Schlyter s.v. byr

Citation
  • ‘byr’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.

  • http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/834
    (07/03/2022)