sak (OSw) sak (ODan) sak (OGu) sök (ON) noun

Primarily, ‘(legal) case’, however often appearing in alternative translations and used of related aspects of the legal procedure, such as ‘lawsuit’, ‘charge’, ‘claim’ and ‘indictment’. Sometimes used of the cause for the legal case, occurring in translations such as ‘crime’, ‘cause’ or ‘accusation’. Elsewhere used of the result of legal proceedings, illustrated by translations such as ‘fines’, ‘compensation’ and ‘punishment’ but also ‘guilt’ and ‘liability’. There is considerable overlap between usages and it is not always possible to determine which one is intended.

accusation ODan SkL 148
ONorw GuL Krb, Mhb, Tjb
OSw DL Kkb

action ODan JyL 1, 2
case ODan ESjL 2, 3
ODan JyL 1, 3
ODan SkKL 11
ODan SkL 85, 121, 145, 149, 156
ODan VSjL 37, 41, 50, 87
OGu GL A 4, 14, Add. 2 (B 17)
OIce Grg
OIce Js passim
OIce KRA 15, 34
ONorw BorgL 16.7
ONorw FrL KrbA 32 Mhb 6
ONorw GuL Trm
OSw ÄVgL Kkb, Md, Smb, Slb, Gb, Rlb, Tb, Fös, Föb
OSw DL Kkb
OSw HL Mb, Rb
OSw KrL Kgb Äb Jb Bb Rb DbI DbII
OSw MEL Rb Eb Hb DbI
OSw MESt Gb Äb Bb Kmb Skb Rb Eb Hb DbII SmbI
OSw ÖgL Kkb, Eb, Db, Vm, Rb, Bb
OSw SdmL Kgb, Gb, Jb, Bb, Kmb, Mb, Tjdb, Rb
OSw UL Kkb, Kgb, Äb, Mb, Kmb, Blb, Rb, Add. 9
OSw VmL Kkb, Äb, Mb, Kmb, Bb, Rb
OSw YVgL Kkb, Drb, Gb, Rlb, Tb, Föb, Utgb, Add

case of fine OSw ÖgL Rb
cause ODan SkL 112
ONorw GuL Mhb
OSw KrL Bb
OSw SdmL Bb, Tjdb
OSw UL Kkb, Blb, Rb
OSw VmL Kkb, Mb, Rb

charge (1) ONorw FrL KrbA 46
ONorw GuL Krb

claim ODan ESjL 3
ODan JyL 2
ODan SkKL 11
OGu GL Add. 1 (B 4)

claim for compensation OGu GL A 14, Add. 1 (B 4)
compensation ONorw GuL Mhb, Sab
OSw ÄVgL Kkb, Gb, Rlb
OSw DL Mb, Gb, Tjdb
OSw YVgL Kkb, Föb, Add

crime OGu GL A 5, 13, Add. 1 (B 4)
OSw ÄVgL Rlb, Tb
OSw DL Kkb
OSw KrL Tb
OSw ÖgL Eb, Db
OSw UL Mb, Rb
OSw VmL Kkb
OSw YVgL Kkb, Drb, Rlb, Add

errand OSw HL Kkb
fault OSw KrL Gb

fine OGu GL A 6–9, 25, 31
OGu GS Ch. 3
OIce Fml 16
OSw DL Kkb, Mb, Bb, Tjdb, Rb
OSw HL Äb, Rb
OSw KrL Bb Kmb Rb DbI
OSw MEL Kgb Rb
OSw ÖgL Bb
OSw SdmL Conf, Rb
OSw UL Kkb, Kmb, Rb

guilt ONorw GuL Krb, Mhb, Tjb
indictment OSw ÄVgL Vs
lawsuit OIce Grg Þsþ 64
OSw KrL Tb

liability OGu GL A 17
OSw KrL Bb

matter ONorw FrL Intr 10
OSw DL Tjdb
OSw UL StfBM, Mb, Rb
OSw VmL Kkb, Rb
OSw YVgL Föb

misdemeanour OSw UL Kkb, Äb
OSw VmL Kkb, Äb

offence OIce Grg Þsþ 80
ONorw GuL Tfb
OSw KrL Hb
OSw ÖgL Eb, Db, Vm

payment ONorw GuL Kpb
OSw ÖgL Rb

prosecution ONorw GuL Krb, Kpb, Mhb
provision OSw KrL Gb

punishment OSw MESt Gb Rb
OSw SdmL Kkb, Bb, Rb

right to claim compensation OGu GL A 2
suit OIce Grg passim
ONorw FrL KrbB 20


höghsta sak ok læghsta (OSw)

the highest and lowest cases OSw ÖgL Rb

kenna sak (OGu)

accuse OGu GL A 2

sak gifa, giva sak (OSw) give sak (ODan) gefa sök (ON)

Literally ‘to give (somebody) a case’. Used in the early stages of legal proceedings, i.e. when the victim of a crime wanted to start legal proceedings or when a person who allegedly committed a crime is informed of this, and has hence been translated as ‘to accuse’, ‘to summon’, ‘to charge’, etc.

accuse ODan JyL 2 SkL 221 VSjL 41 OSw KrL DbI SmL UL Kkb, Mb, Jb, Kmb, Blb, Rb YVgL Drb, Rlb, Tb, Föb ÄVgL Md, Gb, Rlb, Tb, Föb ÖgL Eb, Vm

accuse of a crime/an offence OSw HL Rb MEL Rb

allege OSw ÄVgL Rlb

appeal OSw ÄVgL Tb

be a case against ODan SkL 203

blame (for a crime) OSw HL Äb MEL Tb

bring a case (against) ODan JyL 2 OSw DL Bb, Rb

bring an action against ODan JyL 2

bring a prosecution OSw UL Mb, Rb VmL Kkb, Mb, Rb

challenge OSw VmL Mb, Bb

charge ODan SkL 89, 230 OIce Llb 26 OSw MEL Rb SdmL Kkb, Kgb, Äb, Bb, Kmb, Mb, Tjdb, Rb YVgL Kkb ÄVgL Gb

conduct prosecution OSw DL Rb

give indictment OSw YVgL Vs

give someone a case ODan ESjL 3 SkL 149, 219

give someone a case OSw ÄVgL Rlb

initiate a case ODan SkL 121

make a case ODan SkL 111, 140

make a suit OSw YVgL Drb ÄVgL Md

make suit against OSw YVgL Drb

prosecute OSw UL Kkb, Kgb, Mb, Blb, Rb VmL Kkb, Kgb, Mb, Kmb, Bb, Rb YVgL Kkb, Drb, Rlb, Tb, Föb, Add ÖgL Db

put in action (a case) ODan SkL 119

raise a case ODan ESjL 2 SkL 158 OSw HL Rb

raise a claim OSw ÖgL Rb ODan SkKL 9, 12

raise an accusation OSw YVgL Frb, Tb ÄVgL Slb

start a lawsuit OSw MEL Bb

state a claim OSw HL Rb

sue ODan JyL 2, 3 OSw BjR HL Kkb, Mb KrL Bb, Tb MEL Kb, Bb, DbI, SmbI MESt Bb, Rb, Hb YVgL Frb, Gb, Add ÄVgL Slb

summon ODan JyL 2 SkL 145, 146, 200 VSjL 38, 41, 87

summon someone for a case ODan SkL 149

take action against ODan ESjL 2 JyL 2, 3 SkL 118, 120

sak sætia (OSw)

sue OSw HL Rb

sea sakum, sak sia (OGu)

demand compensation OGu GL Add 1 (B 4)

negotiate compensation OGu GL Add 1 (B 4)

sea viþer sakum, sakum viþr sia (OGu)

answer a demand for compensation OGu GL Add 1 (B 4)

defend a claim OGu GL Add 1 (B 4)

sökia sak (OSw)

sue OSw YVgL Gb

accuse ODan SkL 147 VSjL 37

be the plaintiff ODan SkL 121

bring a case (against) ODan SkL 219

bring action OSw ÄVgL Md

complain ODan SkL 4

prosecute OSw SdmL Mb

pursue a case ODan SkL 147, 152

raise a case ODan SkKL 11 OSw YVgL Gb

raise a charge ODan SkL 86

raise a claim ODan SkL 14, 88

summon ODan SkL 147

take action ODan ESjL 1 SkL 121

viþer sak, viþr sak (OGu)

to the sum of OGu GL A 17

ægha sak (OSw)

be guilty OSw HL Mb


Bjorvand and Lindeman s.v. sak; Cleasby and Vigfússon s.v. sök; Fritzner s.v. sök; Hellquist s.v. sak; Hertzberg s.v. sök; SAOB s.v. sak; Schlyter s.v. sak

  • ‘sak’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.