sak (OSw) sak (ODan) sak (OGu) sök (ON) noun

Primarily, ‘(legal) case’, however often appearing in alternative translations and used of related aspects of the legal procedure, such as ‘lawsuit’, ‘charge’, ‘claim’ and ‘indictment’. Sometimes used of the cause for the legal case, occurring in translations such as ‘crime’, ‘cause’ or ‘accusation’. Elsewhere used of the result of legal proceedings, illustrated by translations such as ‘fines’, ‘compensation’ and ‘punishment’ but also ‘guilt’ and ‘liability’. There is considerable overlap between usages and it is not always possible to determine which one is intended.


accusation ODan SkL 148
ONorw GuL Krb, Mhb, Tjb
OSw DL Kkb
OSw YVgL Tb

action ODan JyL 1, 2
case ODan ESjL 2, 3
ODan JyL 1, 3
ODan SkKL 11
ODan SkL 85, 121, 145, 149, 156
ODan VSjL 37, 41, 50, 87
OGu GL A 4, 14, Add. 2 (B 17)
OIce Grg
OIce Js passim
OIce KRA 15, 34
ONorw BorgL 16.7
ONorw FrL KrbA 32 Mhb 6
ONorw GuL Trm
OSw DL Kkb
OSw HL Mb, Rb
OSw SdmL Kgb, Gb, Jb, Bb, Kmb, Mb, Tjdb, Rb
OSw UL Kkb, Kgb, Äb, Mb, Kmb, Blb, Rb, Add. 9
OSw VmL Kkb, Äb, Mb, Kmb, Bb, Rb
OSw YVgL Kkb, Drb, Gb, Rlb, Tb, Föb, Utgb, Add
OSw ÄVgL Kkb, Md, Smb, Slb, Gb, Rlb, Tb, Fös, Föb
OSw ÖgL Kkb, Eb, Db, Vm

cause ODan SkL 112
ONorw GuL Mhb
OSw SdmL Bb, Tjdb
OSw SmL
OSw UL Kkb, Blb, Rb
OSw VmL Kkb, Mb, Rb

charge (1) ONorw FrL KrbA 46
ONorw GuL Krb
OSw YVgL Gb

claim ODan ESjL 3
ODan JyL 2
ODan SkKL 11
OGu GL Add. 1 (B 4)

claim for compensation OGu GL A 14, Add. 1 (B 4)
compensation ONorw GuL Mhb, Sab
OSw DL Mb, Gb, Tjdb
OSw YVgL Kkb, Föb, Add
OSw ÄVgL Kkb, Gb, Rlb

crime OGu GL A 5, 13, Add. 1 (B 4)
OSw DL Kkb
OSw UL Mb, Rb
OSw VmL Kkb
OSw YVgL Kkb, Drb, Rlb, Add
OSw ÄVgL Rlb, Tb
OSw ÖgL Eb, Db

errand OSw HL Kkb
fine OGu GL A 6–9, 25, 31
OGu GS Ch. 3
OIce Fml 16
OSw DL Kkb, Mb, Bb, Tjdb, Rb
OSw HL Äb, Rb
OSw SdmL Conf, Rb
OSw UL Kkb, Kmb, Rb

guilt ONorw GuL Krb, Mhb, Tjb
indictment OSw ÄVgL Vs
lawsuit OIce Grg Þsþ 64
liability OGu GL A 17
OSw UL Mb

matter ONorw FrL Intr 10
OSw DL Tjdb
OSw UL StfBM, Mb, Rb
OSw VmL Kkb, Rb
OSw YVgL Föb

misdemeanour OSw UL Kkb, Äb
OSw VmL Kkb, Äb

offence OIce Grg Þsþ 80
ONorw GuL Tfb
OSw HL Äb
OSw UL Mb
OSw ÖgL Eb, Db, Vm

payment ONorw GuL Kpb
prosecution ONorw GuL Krb, Kpb, Mhb
punishment OSw SdmL Kkb, Bb, Rb
right to claim compensation OGu GL A 2
suit OIce Grg passim
ONorw FrL KrbB 20

Expressions:

kenna sak (OGu)

accuse OGu GL A 2

sak gifa, giva sak (OSw) give sak (ODan) gefa sök (ON)

Literally ‘to give (somebody) a case’. Used in the early stages of legal proceedings, i.e. when the victim of a crime wanted to start legal proceedings or when a person who allegedly committed a crime is informed of this, and has hence been translated as ‘to accuse’, ‘to summon’, ‘to charge’, etc.

accuse ODan JyL 2 SkL 221 VSjL 41 OSw SmL UL Kkb, Mb, Jb, Kmb, Blb, Rb YVgL Drb, Rlb, Tb, Föb ÄVgL Md, Gb, Rlb, Tb, Föb ÖgL Eb, Vm

accuse of a crime OSw HL Rb

allege OSw ÄVgL Rlb

appeal OSw ÄVgL Tb

be a case against ODan SkL 203

blame for a crime OSw HL Äb

bring a case (against) ODan JyL 2 OSw DL Bb, Rb

bring an action against ODan JyL 2

bring a prosecution OSw UL Mb, Rb VmL Kkb, Mb, Rb

challenge OSw VmL Mb, Bb

charge ODan SkL 89, 230 OIce Llb 26 OSw SdmL Kkb, Kgb, Äb, Bb, Kmb, Mb, Tjdb, Rb YVgL Kkb ÄVgL Gb

conduct prosecution OSw DL Rb

give indictment OSw YVgL Vs

give someone a case ODan ESjL 3 SkL 149, 219

give someone a case OSw ÄVgL Rlb

initiate a case ODan SkL 121

make a case ODan SkL 111, 140

make a suit OSw YVgL Drb ÄVgL Md

make suit against OSw YVgL Drb

prosecute OSw UL Kkb, Kgb, Mb, Blb, Rb VmL Kkb, Kgb, Mb, Kmb, Bb, Rb YVgL Kkb, Drb, Rlb, Tb, Föb, Add ÖgL Db

put in action (a case) ODan SkL 119

raise a case ODan ESjL 2 SkL 158 OSw HL Rb

raise a claim ODan SkKL 9, 12

raise an accusation OSw YVgL Frb, Tb ÄVgL Slb

state a claim OSw HL Rb

sue ODan JyL 2, 3 OSw HL Kkb, Mb YVgL Frb, Gb, Add ÄVgL Slb

summon ODan JyL 2 SkL 145, 146, 200 VSjL 38, 41, 87

summon someone for a case ODan SkL 149

take action against ODan ESjL 2 JyL 2, 3 SkL 118, 120

sak sætia (OSw)

sue OSw HL Rb

sea sakum, sak sia (OGu)

demand compensation OGu GL Add 1 (B 4)

negotiate compensation OGu GL Add 1 (B 4)

sea viþer sakum, sakum viþr sia (OGu)

answer a demand for compensation OGu GL Add 1 (B 4)

defend a claim OGu GL Add 1 (B 4)

sökia sak (OSw)

sue OSw YVgL Gb

accuse ODan SkL 147 VSjL 37

be the plaintiff ODan SkL 121

bring a case (against) ODan SkL 219

bring action OSw ÄVgL Md

complain ODan SkL 4

prosecute OSw SdmL Mb

pursue a case ODan SkL 147, 152

raise a case ODan SkKL 11 OSw YVgL Gb

raise a charge ODan SkL 86

raise a claim ODan SkL 14, 88

summon ODan SkL 147

take action ODan ESjL 1 SkL 121

viþer sak, viþr sak (OGu)

to the sum of OGu GL A 17

ægha sak (OSw)

be guilty OSw HL Mb

Refs:

Bjorvand and Lindeman s.v. sak; Cleasby and Vigfússon s.v. sök; Fritzner s.v. sök; Hellquist s.v. sak; Hertzberg s.v. sök; SAOB s.v. sak; Schlyter s.v. sak

Citation
  • ‘sak’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/4430
    (10/20/2021)

sakaaukabót (ON) noun

atonement extra compensation ONorw FrL Sab 14

Citation
  • ‘sakaaukabót’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/4432
    (10/20/2021)

sakaráberi (ON) noun

case-bearer ONorw EidsL 44
plaintiff OIce Þfb 5, 8 Mah 8, 22 Llb 27 Kab 13
OIce Js Þfb 3, 5 Mah 8, 16
ONorw FrL Intr 16 KrbB 20 Mhb 8 Rgb 7
ONorw GuL Krb

prosecutor ONorw FrL Mhb 22 Var 12 Bvb 11

Citation
  • ‘sakaráberi’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/4433
    (10/20/2021)

sakaraðili (ON) noun

principal in the case OIce Grg Vís 87 Ómb 142, Feþ 156, 167 Misc 254

Citation
  • ‘sakaraðili’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/4434
    (10/20/2021)

sakargift (ON) noun

accusation ONorw FrL Kvb 14
charge (1) OIce Kge 5
OIce Js Kvg 5

Citation
  • ‘sakargift’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/4435
    (10/20/2021)

sakarspell (ON) noun

case-spoiler OIce Grg Þsþ 72 Vís 89
something which spoils a case OIce Grg Þsþ 35

Citation
  • ‘sakarspell’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/4436
    (10/20/2021)

sakarsǿkjandi (ON) sakasǿkjandi (ON) noun

prosecutor OIce Grg Þsþ 25, 58

Citation
  • ‘sakarsǿkjandi’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/4437
    (10/20/2021)

sakarverjandi (ON) noun

defendant OIce Grg Þsþ 20

Citation
  • ‘sakarverjandi’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/4438
    (10/20/2021)

sakarvörn (ON) noun

defence in a case OIce Grg Vís 86

Citation
  • ‘sakarvörn’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/4439
    (10/20/2021)

sakauki (ON) noun

This was an additional person (i.e. outside the circles of baugamenn (see baugamaðr) and nefgildismenn (see nefgildismaðr), such as an illegitimate child, entitled to part of the wergild. See GuL chs 236 and 237.


atonement extras OIce Grg Bat 113
ONorw FrL Sab 5

increaser of the wergild ONorw GuL Mhb
Refs:

Hertzberg s.v. sakauki; KLNM s.v. mansbot

Citation
  • ‘sakauki’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/4440
    (10/20/2021)

sakaðr (ON) adj.

accused OIce Þfb 3 Kab 2 Þjb 19, 21
charged OIce KRA 6, 11

Citation
  • ‘sakaðr’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/4441
    (10/20/2021)

sakbót (ON) sakbætr (ON) sakbǿtr (ON) noun

atonement OIce Grg Vís 102 Bat 113
OIce Js Mah 15

compensation ONorw GuL Kpb

Citation
  • ‘sakbót’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/4442
    (10/20/2021)

saker (OSw) sakr (OGu) sekr (ON) sæker (OSw) adj.

Derived from the noun sak ‘case; cause; crime; fine’. Often translated as ‘guilty’ or occasionally ‘sentenced’. Frequently appers with the amount to be paid in fines/compensation, which explains translations such as ‘guilty/liable/obliged to pay’, ‘guilty/liable/responsible to compensate’. The specifically OIce usage (ON sekr) ‘outlawed’ (Grg) changed into ‘liable to pay a fine’ or ‘under penalty’ in the later Js and Jó, possibly related to a stronger emphasis on the expropriation of the convicted’s possessions.


case OSw YVgL Föb
compensation OSw YVgL Jb
condemned OIce Grg Þsþ 48
fine OSw YVgL Jb
fined OGu GL A 4
OIce Grg Klþ 2
OIce Þfb 2, 3 Sg 1
OIce Js Mah 12
OIce KRA 1, 14
ONorw FrL KrbA 8 KrbB 4 Mhb 7, 9 Var 1 Bvb 6
OSw ÖgL Kkb

guilty OIce Þjb 8
OSw YVgL Tb
OSw ÄVgL Gb, Tb, Fös
OSw ÖgL Kkb

guilty to compensate OSw YVgL Utgb
OSw ÖgL Kkb, Db

guilty to pay OSw ÖgL Vm
liable OSw DL Bb
OSw UL Rb

liable to (pay) OGu GL A 9, 10, 13, 25, 26, 31, 48, 55, 56a, 61
OSw UL Kkb, Mb, Kmb, Rb
OSw VmL Kkb, Äb, Mb, Kmb, Bb

liable to compensate OSw YVgL Kkb, Föb, Utgb
OSw ÖgL Kkb

liable to pay OSw SdmL Kkb, Äb, Bb, Kmb, Mb, Rb, Till
liable to pay compensation or a fine ONorw GuL Kpb, Løb, Llb, Leb
obliged to pay OSw YVgL Gb
obliged to pay a fine OSw DL Tjdb
outlawed OIce Grg Þsþ 48 Vís 102 Bat 113 Feþ 158
responsible to compensate OSw YVgL Tb
sentenced OSw HL Kkb
under penalty OFar Seyð 5
OIce Grg Klþ 1 Vís 90 Feþ 144 Lbþ 172 Misc 237

Refs:

Breisch 1994, 162–63; Brink 2002; Cleasby and Vigfússon s.v. sekr; Fritzner s.v. sekr; Riisøy 2014; SAOB s.v. sak; Schlyter s.v. saker

Citation
  • ‘saker’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/4443
    (10/20/2021)

sakfé (ON) noun

object paid in wergild ONorw GuL Mhb

Citation
  • ‘sakfé’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/4444
    (10/20/2021)

sakgildr (ON) adj.

current ONorw FrL Rgb 46 LlbA 15
valid OIce Grg Bat 113

Citation
  • ‘sakgildr’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/4445
    (10/20/2021)

sakgivi (OSw) noun

person aggrieved OSw YVgL Add

Citation
  • ‘sakgivi’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/4446
    (10/20/2021)

saklös (OSw) sakløs (ODan) saklaus (OGu) saklauss (ON) adj.

Literally ‘without a case’ (cf. sak). Sometimes translated as ‘innocent’, ‘not guilty’, but often appearing in contexts that are ambiguous as to whether the defendant has been acquitted/declared not guilty, or whether the charges have been dropped. Potential translations of the former are ‘exonerated’, ‘free from responsibility’, ‘blameless’, ‘without fault’, while the latter might be reflected in translations such as ‘discharged’, ‘with impunity‘, ‘without a case’, ‘without cause’, ‘free of charge’. In addition, saklös might be used for cases where the victim/plaintiff does not receive any fines/compensation, or, possibly, is to be protected from loss, reflected in translations such as ‘uncompensated’, ‘indemnified’.


blameless OSw HL Kkb, Mb, Jb, Blb, Rb
OSw UL Kgb, Jb

clear of charge OSw HL Kgb
discharged OSw DL Kkb, Mb, Bb, Rb
OSw SdmL Kkb, Kgb, Bb, Kmb, Mb, Tjdb, Rb, Till
OSw UL Kkb, Mb, Kmb, Blb, Rb
OSw VmL Kkb, Äb, Mb, Jb, Kmb, Bb, Rb

exempt OSw UL Kkb, Blb
OSw VmL Kkb, Bb

exempt from having to pay a fine OIce Mah 15
exempt from punishment OIce Mah 21 Fml 15
exonerated OSw UL Blb, Add. 8
not to be forfeited OSw DL Eb
free from obligation OGu GS Ch. 4
OSw UL Kkb, Kgb, Mb, Blb, Rb

free from responsibility OSw DL Kkb, Bb, Rb
OSw HL Äb, Mb
OSw SdmL Kkb, Kgb, Jb, Bb, Kmb, Mb, Rb
OSw UL Kkb, Kgb, Äb, Mb, Rb
OSw VmL Kgb, Äb, Mb, Bb, Rb

free of any claim ODan SkL 241
free of charge ODan ESjL 2, 3
ODan JyL 3
ODan SkL 137, 147, 148, 163, 170, 233, 241
ODan VSjL 87

free of guilt OSw DL Bb, Rb
OSw UL Kkb, Kgb, Jb
OSw VmL Kkb, Jb, Bb

freed OSw DL Kkb
guiltless OSw DL Bb
having no case to answer OGu GL A 2
OSw UL Kgb, Mb, Jb, Kmb, Blb, Rb
OSw VmL Kgb, Mb, Jb, Kmb, Bb, Rb

illegal OSw HL Mb
OSw YVgL Tb

indemnified OSw SdmL Bb
innocent ODan ESjL 2
OIce Mah 14, 17
OIce Js Mah 7, 36
OIce KRA 18
ONorw FrL Intr 1, 6
ONorw GuL Mhb
OSw HL Kgb, Mb, Blb
OSw SdmL Kgb, Kmb, Mb, Tjdb
OSw UL Kkb, Kgb, Mb, Kmb, Blb, Rb
OSw VmL Kgb, Mb, Kmb, Bb

inoffensive OIce Grg Misc 243
invalid OSw YVgL Jb, Add
lawful OSw YVgL Utgb
no fine in compensation is to be paid out OSw HL Blb
not guilty OSw HL Kgb, Mb
not implicated OSw YVgL Tb
not litigant ODan JyL Fort
not prosecuted OSw YVgL Tb
not responsible OSw YVgL Frb
not obliged OSw DL Bb
OSw HL Kgb

uncompensated OSw DL Mb, Bb
with impunity OGu GS Ch. 4
OSw SdmL Kkb, Jb, Bb, Kmb, Tjdb, Rb, Till
OSw SmL
OSw UL Kkb, Blb
OSw VmL Kkb, Bb

with right OSw HL Blb
without a case ODan ESjL 3
OSw YVgL Tb, Add
OSw ÄVgL Tb, Föb

without a case to answer OSw DL Eb, Bb, Tjdb
OSw ÖgL Kkb, Eb, Db

without cause ODan JyL 2
OIce Mah 2 Kge 5
OIce Js Mah 7 Kvg 5
OSw HL Kkb
OSw UL Blb
OSw YVgL Kkb, Frb, Urb, Drb, Tb, Föb, Utgb, Add
OSw ÄVgL Md, Fös

without compensation OSw HL Jb, Blb
without consequences OSw YVgL Utgb
OSw ÄVgL Tb

without fault OSw UL Kkb
without guilt OSw HL Kgb
without legal penalty OSw UL Kgb
OSw YVgL Föb

without liability OSw YVgL Drb
without obligations OSw DL Eb, Mb, Bb, Gb
without reason ONorw FrL Intr 24 Kvb 14
Refs:

Schlyter s.v. saklös; Fritzner s.v. saklauss; SAOB s.v. saklös

Citation
  • ‘saklös’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/4447
    (10/20/2021)

saklösa (OSw) noun

without a case to answer to OSw ÖgL Eb

Citation
  • ‘saklösa’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/4448
    (10/20/2021)

saklöst (OSw) sakløst (ODan) saklaust (OGu) adv.

free of charge ODan SkL 133, 202
freely OSw HL Jb
with impunity OSw SmL
OSw UL Kkb, Blb
OSw VmL Kkb, Jb, Bb, Rb

without a case OSw DL Rb
OSw YVgL Add

without a case to answer OSw ÖgL Db
without compensation OSw HL Mb
without penalty OGu GL A 26
OSw UL Kgb

Citation
  • ‘saklöst’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/4449
    (10/20/2021)

saknæmr (ON) adj.

liable at law OIce Grg Feþ 155

Citation
  • ‘saknæmr’. A Lexicon of Medieval Nordic Law.
    http://www.dhi.ac.uk/lmnl/nordicheadword/displayPage/4450
    (10/20/2021)