The Hartlib Papers

Title:Printed Pamphlet, 'A Discoverie For Division Or Setting Out Of Land', Cressy Dymock Et. Al. Part 1
Ref:First half of text (sig. A1-4, pp. 1-11)
Notes:This document is divided between two files. Published by Samuel Hartlib. Text comprises: Preface by Samuel Hartlib (sig. A2r-A3r); Main text in form of a letter to Hartlib by Cressy Cymock (pp. 1-11); Various experiments in husbandry, various authors (pp. 12-24: included in Part 2). Published with An Essay upon Master W. Potters Designe, [Sir Cheney Culpepper], (pp. 25-33: included separately). [HDC list of The Publications of Samuel Hartlib, Turnbull: No. 44]

[Long-Title and Bibliographical description:]
Dymock, Cressy
ST: A discoverie for division.
Wing Number: H985   Wing Microfilm: 495.28
A | DISCOVERIE | For Division or Setting out of Land | as to the best Form. | Published by Samuel Hartlib Esquire, for | Direction and more Advantage and Profit of the Ad- | venturers and Planters in the FENS and other- | Waste and undisposed Places in England | and IRELAND. | Whereunto are added some other Choice | Secrets or Experiments of | Husbandry. | With a Philosophical Quere concerning | the Cause of Fruitfulness. | AND | An Essay to shew How all Lands may be | improved in a New Way to become the ground | of the increse of Trading and Revenue | to this Common-wealth. | [rule] | LONDON. Printed for Richard Wodenothe in Leaden-hall-street, 1653.
4o: A-E4, F1; [$2 (- A,E 1) signed]; 17 leaves
pp . [8] 1 -24 [25-26] 27-33

[Text begins:]
[sig. A1r]
         For Division or Setting out of Land,
               as to the best form.
       Published by Samuel Hartlib Esquire, for
     Direction and more Advantage and Profit of the
      Adventurers and Planters in the FENS and other
         Waste and undisposed Places in England
                    and IRELAND.
          Whereunto are added some other Choice
              Secrets or Experiments of
          With a Philosophical Quere concerning
               the Cause of Fruitfulness.
          An Essay to shew How all Lands may be
        improved in a New Way to become the ground
          of the increase of Trading and Revenue
               to this Common-wealth.
Printed for Richard Wodenothe in Leoden-hall-street, 1653.
[sig. A2r]
                      TO THE
   Christian Reader,
THE hopes which we have of a more speedie Reformation in time to come, and of a readier dispatch of Publique Designes then formerly, doth encourage me to offer to the view of the Publique these Motions, which haply may finde acceptance, if not so farre as to be set up by Authority; yet to be understood by private Persons, that they may finde their Convenience therein.
   They concerne, as thou maiest see, chiefly the Advantages of Husbandry, to remedie some Defects and Disorders, which are found therein; and to lay the foundations of Trade and Commerce to increase the same; and all this by some Orderly Contrivances, which may produce incredible Effects, if rightly undertaken and attended. If I should intend to lay open the Mischievousnesse of Disorderlinesse and Confusion, I might [fill?] a Volume; it is either the root or the effect of all evils of this [catchword: World,]
[sig. A2v]
World; [2? illeg. words] afflict our Soul or our Body, and concern our privat or our publick Relations; and to bring our selves [and our?] [illeg. word] into a righteous Order, is the great Work which every one [should?] attend within himself: and the greatest good which can be [procured?] at any time unto others; and at this time unto the publique: it is therefore incumbent to all, equally to serve one another herein, according to their utmost ability; and except all concur to order themselves aright both within themselves and towards each other, we cannot be throughly happy nor [setled?] in any course successfully, because it is in Humane Societies [almost?] as in a Watch, except all the Wheels be not only sound and well setled upon their own axle-trees; but fitly ordered to correspond with each other, there can be no Universall Motion, because the disorderliness of one will disturbe many from acting in their Spheres; so it fals out in most matters of Humane Society chiefly in Trade, and in some points also of Husbandry, as by this following Discourse will appear. Therefore, that which one says is to be heeded; Quod omnes tangit ab omnibus curati debet. That which is the concernment of all, ought to be the care of all; but no man can make this to be so; except the spirits of men be raised to a pitch answerable to the worth of things offered unto them. For as Seneca saith, Magno animo de rebus magnis judicandum est, alias illarum vitium esse videbitur quod nostrum est. Great matters are to be weighed with a raised minde, otherwise the fault will seem to be in them, which is in our selves. And although these things may perhaps seem to some, of no great moment, yet if they be lookt into duly, they will be found such, as have an influence, upon the Fundamentalls of the Settlement of Common-wealths. For if Husbandry , and trade at home and abroad be well regulated; all hands may be Employed, and where all hands are at work, there the whole strength of a Nation, doth put forth its endevours, for its own advantage, which if it can be directed to do in an [catchword: Or-]
[sig. A3r ]
Orderly Way; and with a joynt Concurrence of all parts to one and the same effect; it is not to be imagined how sucessful such an Undertaking may be; As for myself, I have in my station bin faithful to offer Objects of this and some other kinde unto the Publike, to provoke every one to minde the best things for their own and the Publike Good; and although in this endevour, wherein for many years I have continued in the midst of some difficulties, and all our Changes, and have spent my self thereupon as upon a necessary duty; yet I have found no great Encouragement thereunto from abroad, more then what mine own resolution (to persevere faithful unto the end in well doing) did suggest unto me; nevertheless I hope I shall not faint. For I hope the Lord will continue me in the Apostles minde, that I may say from my heart, 2 Cor.12 15,16. That I will gladly spend and be spent for the good of others, although for the most part it proves a thankless office, and the more abundantly one is found to love the Publike; the less he is loved: Yet let it be so with me; I shall not at any time seek to burden any man, but rather set my self in doing things freely by this kinde of Craft to catch men by their own advantages, to minde the Publike, and do good one to another as servants of each other through love; for herein is the Law of Jesus Christ fulfilled, and his Kingdom advanced amongst us, when upon such a ground trusting unto him, we do all our Affairs heartily, for his sake, and not as serving Men only or Our selves. And that thou mayest Christian Reader be inabled to walk in all thy Ways by this Rule, is the Upright desire of him, who shall always profess himself,
                         Thy faithfull Servant in Christ,
                                   Samuel Hartlib.
[sig A4r]
This Chart conteins 2000 Acres, consisting of or divided into 16 great Farms, conteining 100 Acres apiece, and 16 lesser Farms, consisting of 25 Acres apiece: And that so as each thousand Acres may be considered apart, as being divided in the middle by the great Bank or highway, with the two great Drains on each side of the same.
[left margin:]
A the Bank
B the 2 great Drains on each side.
C the foure lesser Drains.
D the great Ditches or Cuts to each Farm.
E the like Cuts to the little Farms.
F the main River.
G the Cut from the four best Farms to that River.
H the Farmhouses and home-stalls of the great Farms.
I the lesser Farm-houses
K the marks of division to the Farms.
L the mark of the ring hedge Ditch or wall
M the four first great Farms.
N the 12 other great Farms.
[right margin:]
This may serve as the plot of another greater Mannor of 2000 Acres, wherein the four middle Tenements may be made into a grand Farm, or the Lords Domains. And then there remains twelve great Farms of 100 Acres apiece, and 16 lesser Farms of 25 Acres apiece, whose inhabitants (being supposed labourers) lie Conveniently to serve either the Lord or the greater Farms. All which may be cast into either form, Round or Square, though for my part I judge the round in the square the best and most convenient.
[sig. A4v]
   This Chart is the Plot or description of one entire Lordship, or Mannor-house, with its proper Demains: or it may serve for a considerable Farm of 100, 200, or 300 Acres.
A the Mannor house, or dwelling house.
B the kitchin Garden.
C the Orchyard.
D the Garden for choyce fruits or flowers.
E the Garden for Physicall plants, or what you will.
F F the [Dary?] and Landry.
G G the Sheep coats.
H H the two greatest of the home Closes to milk the Cows
  in, or to put a saddle Nag in.
I I the Bake house and Brew house.
K the standing racks for Oxen, &c., and the great Corn
L L Other Barns, Stables, Cow or Ox-houses, Swine styes.
M M the little houses for all sorts of Poultry.
N N More standing Racks.
O O little Closes for a stoned Horse, a Mare, or Fole,
R R Little CLoses for like purposes.
S two little Pastures for fat Sheep.
T two Closes for Pasture for Ewes, Lambs, or weaker
V two little Pastures for a fat Beef or two.
W two little Pastures for infected Cattle.
X two little Pastures for your own, or your friends
  Saddle-horse, that is for present service.
Y two little Pastures for weaning Calves.
[p. 1]
                     For New
          Setting out of LANDS, as to the
    best Forme: Imparted in a Letter to Samuel
                  Hartlib, Esquire.
I Here present you with a plain Discovery of that prudentiall Contrivance for the more Advantageous setting out of Lands, which I have formerly acquainted you with, and as you know offered in vain to some of the Company of Drayners of the great Fen, as I had [catchword: op-]
[p. 2]
opportunity; That so I may not onely gratifie your Publique-heartednesse and great Zeal for the Common good, and rectifie my willingnesse to be doing some good in my generation, as God shall enable me, but that I may in some sort be blamelesse to all Posterity, though those Lands be not well divided or sub-divided, since I have not onely offered my assistance, such as it is in private, but do here (and suppose not altogether too late) freely offer it to the consideration of all men that are, or may be concerned in the same, or the like nature, of what better use Lands divided, or sub-divided, according to the Plats here intended to every mans view may be found or esteemed. And lest any mistake should be in the not rightly understanding my meaning, or the nature of the thing, give me leave to trouble the World with a few of my Reasons for, or apprehensions of that Advantage or Conveniency, which may be more had and obtained by following this Example.
   I have been even called to a more then ordinary use of, and love to all sorts of Husbandry, and particularly to Agriculture, wherein God hath been graciously pleased to recompence my Zeal, and indeavour with an increase of knowledge and experience in the wayes of managing Agriculture and Husbandry; in all its parts; and not onely according to what is commonly known and practised, but by some Additionals, which if well accepted, and rightly pursued, would tend exceedingly to the prosperity, honour and plenty of this whole Nation; but of this, as I have formerly acquainted you more largely (for you have thought fit to [catchword: hint]
[p. 3]
hint it to the World in your Reformed Husbandman), I shall therefore proceed and say, that that dear and even naturall affection which I have to Husbandry, above all other employments among men, may (perhaps) have occasioned my further enquiry into these affairs; and by those observations to which I have given my selfe more then every man, I may have attained to farther insight then every man hath troubled himself to take, which I freely present to my Native Countrey, at least so much as concerns the matter here in Question; namely, The setting out of Land, as to the best Forme.
   I have observed that all or most part of the Lands, Lordships, Mannors, Parishes, Farmes, and particular Ground, or Closes in England are not (or rather were not at that time past, when they were first) set out in any good Forme; too much of England being left as waste ground in Commons, Mores, Heaths, Fens, Marshes, and the like, which are all Waste Ground; but some more, some lesse; some being made a little better use of then others; but all capable of very great Improvement, as not now yielding (not one of forty of them through England) the one fourth part of that profit either to private or publique, which they are respectively capable of.
   I have observed in all places in England the great inconveniences that come by the Want of Enclosure, both to private and publique, the irregularity of these Lands that are inclosed, the frequent, and (as things now stand in relation to time past, and Land already set out) unremediable intanglements or intermixture of [catchword: Interest]
[p. 4]
Interest of severall persons in the same Common, in the same Field, in the same Close, nay sometimes in the same Acre. The inconvenient passages made or allowed between divers grounds, and that not onely, when they belong to severall men, but even when one man is owner of divers grounds; and the truth is, either he that is possest of Lands, is a Lord or Tenant; if Lord, he seldome alters that Form he found his Lands in, whether he received them by Inheritance, or purchase; and if but Tenant, he would count it (for the most part) lost labour, although he did indeed understand both the inconvenience and the right remedy: but I fear neither Lord nor tenant do so, or at least so, as to lay to heart the Crosses or Losses they or their neighbours do too frequently sustain meerly upon this accompt, or are too carelesse or desperate of the remedie.
   I have observed the carelessenesse and wickednesses of Servants and bad neighbours both; which a man shall be sure to meet, let him remove as often, and to what place he will.
   I have observed the proneness most of Cattel & poultry to break into forbidden places, but above all others, commonly kept in England (not to speak of Deer and Goats, or of wilde fowl, or the like) Swine, Coneys, and Pigeons, (and some sorts of Poultry, at some seasons) are most inclined to and frequent actors of mischief, and that so great, that men dare hardly consider it seriously, but let it passe to avoid vexation.
   Who is it that lives a Countrey-life, but knowes, or may know, and upon enquiry finde, that one pair of [catchword: old]
[p. 5]
old Pigeons eates of one sort or another of Corn, and grain in the year at least 6 bushels, & that there are almost (if not altogether) as many such pairs of Pidgeons, as there are men, women and children in England, and it is plain, they can get none, but either of what you have sowne, or of what you should reap, or of the sheadings in the field, which were better bestowed on your Swine or Poultry, or out of your barne, or rick, or threshing-floor, from whence I suppose you cannot well spare it, or from the manger, standing racks, or dunghill, all which your pigs and hens must want so much. I conclude as to this Creature, that there is no such enemy to the prosperity of England, of his bigness so little taken notice of, or that yields so little return; nay I dare affirm, that all the beasts & souls in England, (wilde fowl, which we cannot so easily prevent, and Swine, and Coneys, which yet return abundantly more profit excepted) do not equalize the losse and damage suffered by this one sort of small birds; but let this serve by way of digression, for the truth is, the Contrivance here principally intended is for the better casting out of Lordships or Farmes in point of Forme, and doth no other way remedy this, but as it contracts your businesse into a close order, making it as easie to discover, and chase away this enemy in one ground, as in another, which is not commonly to be done in other places.
   The next destructive Cattel are Coneys, they will eat down the Corn at the first coming up, sometimes to its destruction, they will eat it down all along till Harvest, and if it yet prosper in part, they will stand on their hinder legs, and crop it off the ear just at the bot- [catchword: tome]
[p. 6]
tome, and leave the straw standing, I have seen severall fields in a considerable part so served, they will destroy young Woods, by eating the bark away round about a foot high, and in good meadow and pasture make a thousand crosse paths, and in all grounds dig holes under the roots of trees, corn, &c., to a very great prejudice; and this evill is something the worse, in that there is no Fence in the common way against them, but the dog or gun, which is not alwayes allowed, yet to do this little beast right, it is not his fault but his Masters, or those that keeps him in no better order, for I do affirm, that few Creatures under heaven, (as they may be managed) turn to greater profit to the Owners, and yet may they be kept (all things considered) cheaper, and (in a manner) free from doing any hurt to his Owners, or their Neighbours; and so becomes a most pleasant, profitable, harmlesse creature. And thus to manage this Creature is most properly to be done by such, whose Lands are divided, or sub-divided into some such Forme as these Charts expresse, and in such a Farme it is not uneasie to make these Creatures to do some especiall services even in his life-time.
   The third most harmfull beast is the Swine, a Creature so ravenous, that children are scarce safe from a lean sow that hath pigs, and for her to eat her own pigs is no very strange thing; and to eat your Turkeys or Goslings a thing often seen. And as Swine are ordered, there is hardly any thing safe from them; how will they break through almost any hedge, not onely eat, but root up & destroy the Corn abundantly, as likewise any grass, trees, plants, or whatever corn is in their way, or they can come at; what and how great and frequent [catchword: are]
[p. 7]
are the losses abroad, and the nasty inconveniencies at home occasioned by this Creature; And herein they differ, and are worse then all other Cattle, that when they are in the corn they are not easily seen, and (if their owners or keepers misse them not,) as too many of those that are called poor people, will not onely willingly not misse them, but (I have seen it, and suffered by it) will on set purpose drive them thither by which means they will sometimes get a haunt of a piece of corn, and go into it so cunningly, that a man can scarce find where, but being a good way in, they will destroy wholly great spots of a rod or two together, and when a man shall discover them, he had almost as good let them alone, for without a dog they will but play bo-peep, and be running from place to place, but trample down and spoil more, and so they will do a good while also, though you have a dog. Seriously, Sir, I suppose, that though the Hog being fat, and dead is excellent meat, and of so large a body, and good price that he may be worth some pounds, yet there is not one Hog of ten, but (besides the corn given him, after put up to fat) hath one way or other lost, spoiled, destroyed, or devoured twice his price. Most of which inconveniences, as well the nastinesse as the dammage is almost totally prevented by the right Use of this Contrivance, which if, I may truely say, that with some additions to the Common, or for the better management of this Cattel, they are of exceeding Use and Profit equall to Cowes, Sheep, or any other, if not much beyond; but indeed all Cattle almost depend so necessarily on one anothers fellowship, that he that keeps one hath good reason to keep all; (but if any alone, Sheep.)     [catchword: The]
[p. 8]
   The fourth necessary sort of Creature fit to be about a Farme, is Poultry of all sorts, whether Water-fowl, as Geese, Ducks, &c., or Land-fowl, as Turkeys, Hens, &c. The first sort are of speciall Use, and require more care then charge in the keeping, which care is eased very much by this Contrivance, and those many ill turns, not unusually done by Geese, prevented with an opportunity given to breed or keep many more without charge. The second sort are exceeding profitable, if bred and fed according to a safe and orderly Rule in a place convenient, allowing a large walk, yet preventing the harme they are apt to do. I am assured both by reason and experience, that very great profit above all charge may be had without much trouble by them that keep great store of these sorts safe and well, which I conceive will be much facilitated by this Contrivance.
   All other great Cattel, as Horses and Mares, &c. Buls, Cowes and Oxen, &c. and all sorts of Sheep, as they are apt to run into every Meadow, better pasture, or corn-grounds they can come at: so are they easier seen or prevented; and besides, it troubles a man lesse to make satisfaction to his Neighbour, or to bear his own losse patiently, when he considers, that such Cattel many times (though not alwayes) are the better for what they have eaten, and may shortly one way or other make him some amends, either by their fat, or Fleece, or milk, or labour, or the like, whereas all the Pigeon, the lean Hog, or the Coney gets irregularly is meerly lost.
   And the evill Contrivance and Inter-mixture of wayes and Interests in most places of England is a speciall reason, which many, even of the more Ingenious [catchword: sort]
[p. 9]
sort of men, that would fain yet do not attempt or endeavour those many, great, and visible wayes of better improvement that are in nature, and in view, and that because thay have no place secure enough, but may every day one before the other expect, that the carelessenesse of their Neighbours, or their own children, or servants (yea, and by mistake sometimes themselves) may let in all or any sorts of these beasts or fowls, (worst of all Hogs or Coneys, which in the common way have most liberty and opportunity) to destroy all their labours and charges in an instant; therefore say they (not very wisely nor industriously though) it is better sit stil then rise up and fall.
   Whereas if English men would be resolutely and ingeniously industrious by this, or some other, or better Contrivance, Way, or Means (which I shall gladly subscribe to, when I see it) those dangers may be avoided, and this Nation become in an age or two, as much (almost) beyond what it is now, as it now is beyond Scotland for fertility, or Ireland for good Husbandry. And we need hardly be beholden to any Nation under heaven for any of their Commodities, except Spanish-Wines and Spices, or some such things, of which we have no simple necessity.
   I have observed, that in most parts of England, especially in Champion Countreys, the Pastures lie neer home, and the Woods, Meads, and Corn-land lie at a great distance. And something like it in inclosed grounds also, and that it is common to go through one Close into another, whereas it is plain, that the corne or grasse in the first Close is liable to be eaten and troden down by the Cattle that passe to and again to the Close beyond it. It is also very plain, that all Cattle [catchword: that]
[p. 10]
that are well, lusty, and not of immediate Use, are able to carry themselves to a greater distance, but that Wood, Corn, Hey, or the like, require much time, charge and pains to remove them; I appeal therefore, whether it be not fitter to send such Cattle further off, and have your Corn and Hey, (and Wood too, if need be) neerer home. And for your young, sick or weak, or infected Cattle in this Contrivance, there is provision made for such; as also for your Milch-Cowes at Milking-time, so well, that till I see some better I rest contented with this.
   I have observed, that when the foul or home-sted is too neer the dwelling house (as it is in most places) it makes the Inhabitants liable to many inconveniences, and offensive sights and smels, as well within doors, as without; but here I refer my selfe whether that evil is not remedied, and yet the Barnes, Stables, &c. neer enough for inspection, which is all the reason for their being so neer; for as you have it in this Contrivance, you may at all times with ease view and take accompt of your businesse, and yet be as neat and sweet as in a Burgemasters house in Holland.
   Finally, here your house stands in the middle of all your little world (which you may build as your purse and fancy directs, though I could say something as to that in particular, which I take to be as effectuall if need were) enclosed with the Gardens and Orchards, refreshed with the beauty and odour of the blossomes, fruits and flowers, and the sweet melody of the chirping birds, that again encompast with little Closes, that all young, weak, or sick Cattle may be fostered under your own eye without losse or inconvenience, and all bound together as with a girdle, (and surely never had [catchword: the]
[p. 11]
the old proverb, ungirt, unblest, a fitter or fuller sense or application) and all that covered again, as with a fair large cloak of Meadow and Tillage, to which you may commit the corner pasturage, the Cape if you please, or the Sleeves to the Coat (for a Coat as well as a Cloak will serve to cover either knavery or foolery) of old customes or negligence. Here you have your Bake-house, Brew-house, Darie, or the like; your Barns, Stables, and Out-houses in such apt places as may serve indifferently for all occasions. And no one ground to passe through into another, no probability of being trespassed upon by others, or by your own, but the most perfect right and ample Use of every foot of ground inclosed entire, by all which (I doubt not) will make good what I have sometimes affirmed; that besides all other wayes of Improvement that may farther be added, this alone in meer point of Contrivance is enough to improve the value of your Estate one half part; viz. that if it were really worth 100li. per annum before, it will thus become as really worth 150li. per annum, and the charge in casting it into this forme, (especially where no fences are already) little more, in some cases not so much, though I must tell you, you cannot spare in any case more unhappily then here. And besides profit, the ease and pleasure will be better felt then exprest in words.
   Very much more might be said in order to this, but it would too farre exceed the bounds of a Letter, and it is also not amisse to see how the World will accept or reject this first; From the hands of him, who subscribes himself ever       SIR,
           Your most faithful, thankful Friend,
                and humble Servant,
                 Cressey Dymock.
[Text continues in Part 2]