The Hartlib Papers

Title:Printed Pamphlet, 'Cornu Copia. A Miscellanium', [Cressy Dymock]
Dating:1652?
Ref:Selection of text (pp. 1-11)
Notes:Published by Samuel Hartlib. Full text comprises: <U>Cornu Copia</U> by Cressy Dymock (pp. 1-11); <U>General Accomodations by Addresse</U> by Aldophus Speede (pp. 12-16: not included here). A longer printed version of the latter is at 57/3/8/1A-8B. No title page. [HDC list of The Publications of Samuel Hartlib, Turnbull: No. 38]

[Long-Title and Bibliographical information]
Dymock, Cressy
ST: Cornu Copia; a miscellanium.
Wing Number: H982    Wing Microfilm: 187.5
[ornamental rule] | CORNU COPIA. | A Miscellanium of lucriferous and most | fructiserous Experiments, Observations, and Disco- | veries, immethodically distributed; to be | really demonstrated and communi- | cated in all sincerity...
4o: A-B4; [$2 signed]; 8 leaves
pp. l-16

[Selection of text begins:]
[p. 1]
                    CORNUCOPIA
A Miscellanium of luciferous and most fructiferous Experiments, Observations, and Discoveries, immethodically distributed; to be really demonstrated and communicated in all sincerity.
   TO discover a Certainty to raise 2000l stock, per annum de claro, with lesse then 200l stock, unhazarded, and beyond contradiction, without the least aspersion of Usury, Extortion, oppresion, engrossing, or any Monopolizing unconscionable or dishonorable way whatsoever. This designe may be advanced to a farr greater proportion, and exceedingly to the good of the publick, and may be fortified with firm and convincible reasons, to any that shall waver in their belief.
   Item, A certainty another way with 500lib. stock unhazarded, to raise de claro, 2000 lib. per annum and upwards, without aspersion, as above and without the least imaginary inconvenience or prejudice whatsoever, but to the generall good, especially to the poor, with the free allowance of all the country; which hath been found true by the unquestionable testimony of experience, and will found consonant to reason, and be undeniably satisfactory as the other.
   Item, A certainty, with lesse then 500l stock unhazarded to raise de claro 1000l per annum and upwards, and so with lesse or greater sums proportionably, by even, honest and generous courses as above. Which may be made conspicuous, valid, and most compleat.
   Item, To discover a credible way without charge, more then ordinary expences, whereby an industrious man but of a reasonable capacity and fortune, may contrive to himself 500l. per annum and upward, without prejudice to any, or dishonour in the least kinde unto him self. Which may be made easie and familiar to our reason by e- [catchword: vidence]
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vidence strong enough to silence doubt, and procure credency.
   The like, but with small charge more then conveniency of livelyhood, whereby a man of an ingenuous and generous condition, may by compendious, facill and conscionable wayes, gain a 1000l per annum and upwards, with as much freedome, sincerity and regularity, as with the particulars above written, being a meridian truth, too cleer to be eclipsed by contradiction.
   Item, With lesse then 50l stock constantly visible, and no way endangered, to advance de claro 1000l per annum, with all claritude and uprightnesse. This may be confirmed to the observation of any whose curiosity shall incline him to the easie trouble of experience.
   Item. To make in all probability with 200l stock in three years 400 lib, and in three years more to make the 400 lib. 800l, and in three years more to make the 800l 1600l, without adventure by sea; and so with less or greater summes proportionably by even, honest and charitable ways: this will result in serene andan unrefutable truth to the nicest observation, and may be made indubitable by arguments of Reason and experience.
   Item, Divers other feasable and confirmable transparances and expedients of very great consequence and transcendency, to be per acted by active and publick spirits, without any stock adventured, but secured as before, and to be enjoyed by those that wil use the means.
          These following relate to the exceeding great advantage
                    of Husbandry.
Imprim' A Seed to be sown without manuring in the coursest, barren, sandy, and heathy Grounds, which will be very much improved thereby, that will afford three crops a yeer, and will cause Kine to give milk three times a day constantly, with full vessels, and to become fat withall, and to feed all other Catell fat suddenly, together with Calves, Lambes, and Swine, without either hay, grasse or corn, or any thing in relation to corn; and likewise to preserve and feed all sorts of poultry and foul fat in a very short time, as Geese, Turkies, Phesants, &c. and to make them lay and breed extraordinarily, and to continue all sort of Cattel and Foul exceedingly healthfull, and all without any considerable charge, one Acre of wheat being most commonly worth but five or six lib with the charge, and an Acre of this but one crop in three worth 12 l and upwards, and in a manner without any [catchword: any]
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any charge. This (besides what is specified before) may be so disposed of, that it might advantage every housekeeper throughout England, Scotland, and Ireland, 8d per week constantly, and the better sort, a double, treble, and a quadruple proportion, and upwards.
   Item. Another kind of seed to be had, which will likewise afford three crops a year, and two loads and half in one Acre, one load thereof being worth two loads of ordinary Hay, besides an excellent winter pasture, till March, it will cause Kine to give milk as before, and will feed and preserve all sorts of four footed beasts, and cause them to become fat in a very short time, without any other Grasse or pasture, and the seeds thereof will feed all sorts of poultry fat, and make them lay as before, and this may be performed in barren, sandy, and heathy grounds, and must be sowen but once, and will continue so four or five years, and then this Grasse will so improve the ground, for four or five years more, without manuring, that it will afford excellent crops of wheat and barly, and after you may sow the ground with the same seed again, which will hold on that course both for Grasse and Corn constantly, and an Acre of this Grasse will keep three Cowes winter and summer, in the highest condition, and the seed of one Acre may be justifiably worth about 70lib. besides the winter pasture, and about seven loads and half of hay, which no man will part with under 5lib. the load, that rightly understands the benefit thereof: You may keep your swine constantly in a yard, or in an orchard, which will mightily advantage the fruit trees, and by giving them only a liqour to drink made of what is before specified, with a little of this hay, they will become fat in a very short time, and with this liquor only you may keep as many swine as you please: and as for yout Kine, you need not turne then into any Grasse at all, but keep them in a yard or some little parcell of ground, so you may sace all your Muck, and they will thrive the better, being kept from the flies, which causeth them to waste themselves and their Milk, and in some grounds to spoil as much grasse as they eat, by running about. I know a Gent' that keeps them tied up all summer as they do in winter, and finds greater benefit thereby, and in that manner likewise, he keeps his feeding cattell all the summer, and feeds them off presently, without any considerable trouble and with very little charge.
   Item, A most excellent discovery with one slight plowing and harrowing, or but raising the ground in the least kind, to enjoy six crops in one year, proportionable to the fruitfullest grasse, and so con- [catchword: stantly]
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stantly every year, without any further trouble or charge at all, which is so wonderfully fruitfull for milch kine, that besides the double increase of milk, and better by far then any other milk, it will afford two skimmings of excellent cream, such and so good, that the like was never heard of, this exceeds all other food for cheese; and when all the cream is taken off, the milk will be as good again as any other in that kind, this seed will cost nothing, and will sow it selfe, after the first year, and will afford inseed above 1000 for one.
   Item, Another seed, that when grounds are laid down, and quite out of heart, the grasse thereon will maintain the greatest sheep very lusty, and fit for slaughter, and yet there hardly appeares any thing they can eat: This seed being provided and sowen upon meadowes and pasture, would mightily advantage the grasse to very great perfection, with the application of the way for growthsomenesse, but newly devised.
   Item, Another seed to be had, the grasse thereof causeth cattle to give milk in abundance: you may sow your dry, heathy and barren grounds therewith; and such land as you intend to let lie, being out of heart, and not in a place convenient for muck, and sowing but once with this seed, it will last good seven years, without any further trouble. The ordinary burthen is a load and a halfe per acre, and after seven years, you may break it up, and sow it with corne, without manuring, will it be out of heart, and then sow it with the same seed as formerly; for it doth very much fatten the ground, and inrich it, and will thrive extraordinary well upon dry land, where nothing else will grow, and when the grasse and plants are destroyed with the parching heat of the Sunne, this flourisheth very much, and after seven years (if not with corn) you may sow the land againe with the same seed, and all with little charge. The trutch is, it will last 10, or 15 years. Sir Richard Weston saith, it will be cut seven or eight times in a Summer, but then the rich and fat grounds are best, and those that are high and dry.
   Another seed to be sown without manuring upon good land, but somewhat loost and light, not very dry, nor over moist, one bushel to fix corn will serve, its to be cut twice a year, and affords excellent winter pasture till March, and it is exceeding good for all kind of cattel, as wel young as old, and exceedingly fatneth all sorts of cattel, and lean beasts especially, and horses will grow fat therewith in eight or ten days, and to milch kine it procureth exceeding great store of milk; after once [catchword: sowen]
[p. 5]
sowen, it wil last neer fifteen years, and the hay will continue good three years.
   To discover a grasse growing here in England, in its naturall soile, that being orderly husbanded, will transcend glover grasse, Saint Foine, Lucerne, or any other outlandish grasses whatsoever.
   Item, A root ordinarily to be had, which will increase wonderfully with little charge or trouble, it will feed all kind of cattel, horses and swine especially, very fat, as those formerly, without either grasse or corn; and will seed poultrey likewise, as before; it will make very good bread, cakes, paste, pies; and both crust without and food with in, and will hardly be destroyed once planted, but will constantly increase of themselves, they will likewise grow, being cut in slices, and so put into the earth.
   Item, A seed which may likewise be disposed of without ploughing, upon very poor ground, deemed uncapable of any fertility at all, which will advantage the ground very much, and afford at least 30l an acre per annum, or perform what was profess'd before, for all sorts of cattel, poultrey, &c.
   Item, Another seed, the fruit thereof upon the same sort of ground, though very mean, will feed all kind of cattel, especially milch kine; increasing their milk exceedingly, as before, and will afford two crops a year.
   Item, Another seed that being tilled but once will last without any further labour, trouble, or charge four years, and will mightily inrich improve and fatten the ground for goodly corn four years after, without manuring, and is excellent for horses, hunting dogs, poultry and swine, and may be very well rated at a 100lib. per annum, and upwards, the benefit and great increase thereof truly considered.
   Item, Another great experiment in ordinary grounds, without muck, which (by a new invention) five acres thereof have this last year afforded above 200lib. benefit in one acre, rent and all charges defraied, and being still ordered (according to directions) will continue no lesse advantagious and inrich the ground very much.
   Item, Trees to be had here in England, but in one place, which being rightly planted (though in ordinary grounds) one tree will (in a short time) afford out of the Root thirty plants, and every one of those thirty will in a short time afford thirty more, and these trees are at their full growth in twenty years; and after seven years, every tree improveth yearly worth [1?]s. a tree untill its time be up. For pleasantnesse and use, [catchword: this]
[p. 6]
this tree hardly hath its paralell, they need be planted but ten foot distant, and they much advantage the grasse: besides, there is another seed to eb sown amongst them, that will (in some places) farre exceed the benefit of the grass, the trees being very tall and strait, usefull for timber, carts, traies, boles, &c. being very white and tough. By 30lib. deposited in a way concerning these trees, may be returned at 20 years end 10000lib. benefit.
   Item, To raise wood more in twenty years, by new ways lately discovered, then in forty years naturally.
   Item, Experienced ways lately in practice by divers Gents, and a long time continued by some of them, to preserve and feed horses for labour, and travell in the best condition, without Hay or Corn, several ways, and neither of them instanced before.
   There is a Knight in the country that hath advanced his estate above 1000lib. per annum by planting of one ordinary commodity in the countrey on the coursest sort of ground, which may be performed in some places by others.
   A Gent' by planting an Acre and half of ground received lately neer 200lib. profit in one year without tillage, these two not hinted before, and to be peracted by others, and the last with a additional benefit.
   Item, By two sorts of Creatures ordinarily to be had, may be gained de claro, above 500lib. per annum; and by another, there hath been and may be got avoe 500lib. per annum; and either of them wiht very little trouble, and the charges of all three not considerable, and all to be acted within doors.
   A Gent' in Northfolk made lately 10000lib. of a piece of ground, not forty yards square, and yet neither Minerall nor Mettall; and as beneficial places may be discovered elsewhere in England.
   To advance Ground from 5.s. an Acre to 50lib. an Acre per annum, by ways apparantly maintaineable, and not by tillage.
   Item, After seven years to make 20lib. an Acre per annum constantly, without tillage as the other, with very little charge, and with the ordinary sort of ground not hinted before.
   Item, A ground in Kent of 30 Acres did lately produce in one yeare, 1000lib. benefit without tillage.
   To make Grapes grow upon Oaks, more plentifully, as pleasantly, and as full of juice as any other Grapes whatsoever.
   Item, To make Grapes ripe as soon as Cheries.
   Item, Perfect directions for a vineyard, there having been many [catchword: planted]
[p. 7]
planted here in England, till most abusively put down, for the benefit of Custome, the increase of a vineyard being by computation four tuns per Acre, an old vine lately in Kent producing neer a hogshead of pure wine.
   Item, There is a Root ordinarily to be had, that wil grow as plentifully as Carrets, that hath been formerly sold for 1.s. the pound, and wil now sell for at least 7d the pound, not instanced before, being a staple commodity.
   Item, Seven severall sorts of seeds, that will yeeld either of them constantly above 20lib. an Acre per annum, not hinted before.
   Item, another seed that will afford 20lib, and upwards an Acre per annum, nothing thereunto belonging being edible or appliable for health.
   Item, 50lib. an Acre offered this year, in Glocester-shiere, and so for many Acres, these nine being neither of the five sorts following viz. Oade, Osiars, Rape seed, Fennel seed, or Safforn.
   Divers excellent and new discovered experiments to avoid the smutinesse of Corn, and Mildewes.
   Out of Land worne out of heart and naturally poor, to have a crop of Oats, and a full crop of excellent fruitfull Hay after it, the same year, and to advantage the ground for crops of grasse afterwards exceedingly.
   Item, To inrich Meadows in a very high nature without Muck, or any course of watering, and to make them yeild five times more Grasse then formerly.
<ISP>  Item, Another way to make an acre of meadow, every year, as good as two acres, only by casting a seed amongst it: which may be ordinarily provided for other meadowes.</ISP>
   Item, A seed that is afforded (being sowen in Yorkshire) out of two pecks and halfe, as much as was sold for neer 40 lib. which may be performed elsewhere.
   Item, By laying out 5.s. per acre, to reap it in the pounds.
   Item, When lands are tilled till they will bear on corn, and mowed till they yeeld no grasse, to restore them both to good heart and strength and to far greater fruitfulnesse then ever they yeelded before, without laying so much as a load of much thereon, or without any considerable charge or trouble. And by a way likewise newly experi- [catchword: mented,]
[p. 8]
mented, to make a barren field quite out of heart, or being the last year of a lease, to yeeld an extraordinary good crop of corn, without muck, and with no charge, and but little trouble.
   Item, A late experiment, no way repugnant to the dictates of common reason, to cause lands (by Gods permission) they being capable of improvement, to return 20. haply 100 for one, either in wheat or barly, and to make it most apparent by luculent demonstrations, that there hath, and may be made a greater return by far of either.
   Item, After a man hath tilled and sowed a parcell of ground, at the full hight and charge, according to his uttermost skill and experience of husbandry, to undertake to dispose of the one halfe part of the same parcell, so that (with the blessing of God) it may happily quadruple the benefit of the other part, and to make the same advantage of any other field of corne, and much more, if I may have the totall dispose thereof.
   Item, Directions concerning the great variety of compost for the severall conditions and capacities of grounds, with divers new discoveries relating thereunto: The true understanding and practice thereof will (under God) inrich any industrious man whatsoever.
   Item, A cleer demonstration (by wayes consonant to reason, and not formerly known or thought on) to make exceeding rich muck in abundance, 1000 loads and upwards, if you please, for all sorts of grounds, according to the capacities they lie under, severall wayes, with little charge; wherewith any man may be sufficiently furnished, and so good that the world cannot afford better, without the use of sheep.
   Item, A very late, but a most certain and infallible experiement, to be confirmed by principles of sound reason, visible to any dubious and unbeleeving mind whatsoever, to draw forth the earth to her uttermost fruitfullnesse, and to mositen, fatten, and fertilize sandy, dry and hilly grounds, and to water them sufficiently in times of drought, and to make them capable of vast advantages both for grasse and corn, and to continue them in the highest condition, without carrying a load of muck thereunto; which way may be enjoyed in a plentifull manner, the charge not considerable: this will likewise produce much fertility to all manner of quicksets, all sorts of plants, all kind of trees, and to gardens likewise, being seasonably applyed; which may be made out cleer, easie and no wayes obstructive to ordinary apprehensions. And these two last may be performed accordingly throughout England. [catchword: Item,]
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   Item, To make the tenth part of seed corn to serve with far greater advantage them with the usuall proportion.
   Item, A late rare invention, to make five loads of dung more effectuall then twenty loads of the usual compost, and one acre of ground generally to extend as far, and to be as beneficial for corn as three acres, and to last so constantly.
   Item, Whereas there have been a very great destruction of beans and pease these late years, by worms and other creeping things, men being ignorant of any remedy therefore, to discover a rationall and an experimented easie way, generally to destroy them, both in corn-fields, gardens, and at the roots of trees, and very much to a dvantage and fertilize the grounds and trees thereby.
   To make grounds free from rotting of cattel, and to prescribe remedies to cure the rot if not too far gone, and to prevent the same.
   Item, An excellent experiment to make trees bear much and exceeding good fruits.
   That I know where there is now to be had, 500. acres of ground intire at 8. s. the acre, within 15. miles of London, whereby there may be justifiably raised 8000lib. per annum, and so proportionably with lesse parcells, which may be performed in other places accordingly.
   Item, To make cattel, swine, and poultry fat with water only, mingled with earth.
   Item, Severall excellent experiments to help maturation.
   Item, A sort of ducks to be now had that will lay two eggs a day constantly.
   Item, A sort of Rabbets to be now had (not mingled, which have been in request formerly) but such as their skins, now are worth 2.s. and 3.s. the skin, which begin neerly to come in extimation equall to beaver: And another breed thereof, that are a big again as the ordinary Rabbets.
   Item, Directions how a cart may be made to draw with one horse as much as five horses; this King James beheld with his ful approbation, and for the putting the same in practice throughout England, I had a patent from him in my dispose.
   To make clay burn like other fire, and to be equally useful upon all occasions.
   Item, A way to conveigh water under the ground, up a steep hill to the uppermost part of a very high house, and to be usefull at all times, in all offices about the house, and neer the house, &c.
                              [catchword: Item]
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   Item, To empty and cleanse rivers and moats of all mud, without going into the water, use of boats, diverting the stream, or letting out the water by ditches, sluces, &c. and with great facility and little charge.
   Item, To make perfect iron with sea-cole, or pit-cole, and to char-cole pit-cole to dry malt, and for divers other mecessary conceniences, and to make char-cole last long.
   Item, To keep cabbage, artichoacks, and all sorts of roots in the house all winter.
   Item, Most certain directions to discover salt springs, with the degrees of the brine, and how to order the liquor; and to divide if from the fresh springs according to experience.
   An approved way to make old cattel fat in a very short time, and to make their flesh eat as tender as the youngest.
   Item, To make Heifers larger, fairer, and more proportionable then their ordinary breed.
   Item, To make starch without the use and abuse of corn.
   Item, To make a composition without charge, which will performe all things equall to sope.
   To make flax like silk.
   To bring all the fishes in a pond together, &c. and to increase store and preserve fish-ponds severall excellent ways.
   To store a pidgeon-house, and to cause them to stay, and not to stray to other houses, and to make them breed most part, if not all the year: the charge of food not considerable.
   To take red or fallow Deer, especially the best and fattest in a forrest, park, or straggling abroad, as easily as you may take fish with a bait; or to make them fall down as if they were dead, and yet no harm, so that you may approach and dispose of them at pleasure.
   Severall excellent new inventions to take both Foxes, Pole-cats, and other vermine.
   Item, To avoid Crowes, Rooks, and Dawes from corn in the sowing, or in the ear.
   Item, To cause all the Moles in a field to resort to one place, and to take them very easily.
   To preserve timber from rotting.
   To make glew for the joyning of Bords, whether green or dry, that shall hold faster then the boards themselves.
   That by travelling severall years for the discovery of rare experi- [catchword: ments]
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ments, &c. amongst many admirable collections for several infirmities hapning upon four easie wayes for the perfect curing of the Kings Evill, and neither of them with the weventh child, which are so excellent and (by the blessing of God) so exceedingly successefull, that I desire to impart them to such as shall have occasion thereof.
   Item, An infallible experiment for the Gout and Scurvy, which hath perfectly cured above 100.
   Item, For the Stone and Strangury, which hath saved many mens lives.
                              Cum multis aliis, &c.
Having many other Rarities of most admirable consequence, which would grow so voluminous, that I am resolved to reserve them for an additional Impression: In the meantime, I shall willingly demonstrate them, by way of exchange, or other wise, to any that shall be desirous thereof.