The Hartlib Papers

Title:Memo In Hartlib'S Hand On Inventions And Finance, With Copy Extract From Verulam'S "Novum Organon"
Dating:Undated
Ref:8/64/1A-4B
Notes:Another copy of "Novum Organon" extract at 63/12.
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                     Inventions.
          The Standard of Equality in Subsidiary
                  Taxes and Payments.
31. Here it were to bee wished that Publique Encouragement might bee given to such Vndertakers, who are the Discoverers of profitable Projects, not only to such as exactly hit the marke, but even to those that probably misse it. because their aberrations may bee directions to others.
    This would make active braines to beate about for New Inventions, wherein former Ages and Nations have beene very fruitful, and Ours might bee presumed would not bee barren. And though many Tympanies, false Conceptions, and strange births would bee produced, and many frustrations, aberrations and miscarriages brought forth, yet admidsts these some pregnant Wits would happily bee delivered of rare Inventions, especially if the State were pleased to bee their Midwife, fauourably to encourage them.
  32. Wee see no Nation post with more haste, or crowd in more numbers to Lotteries then our English. No people is more contentedly cozened with hope of gaine in that kinde no whit disheartned by the disproportion of Blanks to adventure for the Prize. This discovereth in our Countrymen a curious humor to bee tampering with contingencies and a longing mind and liqvorish palat, after novel Projects, especially if made lushious with probability of profit. An active humor, which if vented the right way, and directed to the true End, might prove (as now destructive to themselves) well and beneficial to themselves and others, in putting them [as? MS torn] hard, but honourable Projects, or difficult Designes [words missing: MS torn]
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with likelyhood of successe.
     O what Indies would they finde in England! rescuing Treasure from the jawes of the Sea, or bowels of the Earth, enlarging the dimensions of this Land, not to make it longer or broader, but deeper by their Industry.
33. Here Wee take the boldnesse to point at a double Injustice. First many men when they haue conquered an hard Invention, another is crowned with all the credit therof. As in the fable of the Birds, striving to fly highest, when the Soveraigne Eagle had soared above them all, the smal Wren, which covertly had conveyed herself vpon the Eagles back, mounted with her owne Wings a little higher, and so got the Victory. So many men improving themselves on the Discoveries made by the braine and paines of others, and only adding some complemental enlargements of their owne, have plundered the first founders of all the praise and profit of their Invention. Thus any comon-fellow may set fire to a Gun and hit the marke, whilest the comendation belongs justly to him, who first rightly mounted and leveld the Ordnance.
34. The Second is a greater Grievance. Namly when one on his owne purse and paines hath compleated a Project profitable for the Comon-wealth and then some great Person, stepping in by force or fauor, ejects the true Owner out of the posession of what his Industry had acquired. Wee read in the 2. of Sam. 23. 16. How those three were accounted amongst Davids Worthies who breaking [through? MS torn] the Army of the Philistines fetched Water from [words missing: MS torn] Bethlehem to satisfie the longing of king David. [catchword: Well]
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Well then in like manner may that meritorious knight bee ranked amongst the Worthies of this Realme, who to quench the thirst of thousands in the populous City of London, fetcht Water more then 24. mile on his own cost, encountring all the way with an Army of Oppositions, grapling with Hills, strugling with Rocks, fighting with Forrests, and yet with admirable constancy hewed out his passage in defiance of all difficulties, and brought his Project to perfection. When a potent Person and idle Spectator strikes in, and by his greatnesse possesseth himself of a [moity?] of the profit, which the vnwearied endeauors of the afore-said knight had purchased to himself. Such Injustice for the future may bee prevented, that men may quietly reape what their Industry hath sowne, not disturbed by the intrusion of others.
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  30. Equality of Rates being thus setled all over the kingdom it will in-spirit all Trades with a vigorous cheerfulnesse to prosecute their Calling. The Husbandman as well as his Land will bee in heart, the Spinsters Wheele would merrily turne round, an edge would bee set on the Cloath-Workers sheeres, and a fresh colour on the Diers cheekes.
  15. -- that fauor bee shewed to Manufactures that men bee not made to pay Excise for the dropping of their owne sweate, and a special regard bee had to the incouraging of Industry in Cloathing. For what is confidently reported of many Houses and Churches built in moist and spungy places, that they are founded on Wool-packs, is certainly true of our English State, whose greatest profit is grounded on that same comodity, wherby numberlesse People are fed and maintained. Care therfore must bee taken that Artificers bee tenderly vsed in the Excise, otherwise it will cause a Crampe or hand-gout in all Manufactures. Yea Industry will bee left
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in a worse condition then Idlenesse; for though both alike bee sent supperlesse to bed, yet Idlenesse shal only bee hungry, but Industry hungry and weary too taking paines without profit, which is swallowed vp in the Publique Excise
            To the Parliament of England.
        The humble Petition of diverse Well-affected Persons to the Advancement of Vniversal Learning.
     Sheweth
          that your Petitoners haue taken notice of many Ingenious Men about the City of London and else where, who haue contrived divers hopeful Wayes for the Advancement of Arts and Learning in general. Now for as much as their is as yet no setled course to receive and consider Proposals of this nature.
          your Petitioners humble desire is that there may bee a Standing Committee appointed for the premises vpon whose Report this honourable House may take such Order concerning them as in their Wisdome shall seeme meete.
-------------------- And they shal pray. etc. ----------
           A Passage Out of the Lord Verulam's
             Novum Organon translated out of Latin.
The Introduction of Noble Inventions seemeth to bee the very chiefe of all humane Actions which formes Ages sufficiently witnessed, in as much as they attributed Divine [words missing: MS torn] Inventors, wheras they allotted only the ho-
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nor or Title of Heroes to the Well-deserving in Civil Affaires, such as are the Founders of Cities and Empires Lawmakers. the Deliverers of their Country from long and tedious mischiefes, the Suppressors of Tyrannies and the like. And truly whosoeuer shal well scan the matter, hee shal finde this Verdict of the Auncients to bee very just. For the benefits of New Inventions may extend to all Mankind Vniversally, but the good of Civil atchievements can respect but some particular Cantons of Men, those latter doe not endure above a few Ages, the former forever. Moreover the Reformation of States in Civil Affaires for the most part is not compassed without Violence and disturbances. But Inventions make all Men[altered] happy without either injury or damage to any one single Person Furthermore New Inventions are as it were New Creations and neere Imitations of Gods owne Works.
    Again it were good to take notice of the Vertue Efficacy and Consequences of Inventions, which are scarce more conspicuous in any then in these three vnknown to the Auncients, and whose beginnings (although but of late) are obscure and vn-renowned. To witt the Art of Printing Gun-powder and the Marriners Needle. For these three have changed the face and state of things throughout the whole World. The first in the matter of Learning the Second in that of Warre and the last in Navigations. From whence have followed an innumerable Changes of things, so that no Empire no Sect, nor no Constellation seemeth [to have? MS torn] had a grea-
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ter influence vpon humane Affaires then these Mechanical Inventions haue had.
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     One notable Meanes to to encourage Inventors
         will bee the Erecting of a Colledge of Arts.
For when so many Artists are living together which are excellent in several kinds it will bee a very great and beneficial Compend for Inventors to perfect or dispatch their Inventions wheras now they are forced to wrestle with many difficulties for want of such an Expedient.
                                     Dymock
            Reasons
   Why Faux or Vaux-hall should bee set a part for Publick Vses.
1.   To keepe all maner of Ingenuities Rare Models and Engines which may bee vseful for the Comonwealth.
2.   To make Experiments and Trials of profitable Inventions, which curious Artists oft times cannot offer to the knowledge of skilful men, and to Publick Vse, for want of a place of Addresse to meet with them, and of other necessary conveniences to show a proofe of their skil, wherof in Faux-hall is great store.
3.   To be a place of Resort, wherunto Artists and [Ingeneres?] from abroad and at home may repaire to meete with one another, to conferre together, and improoue many Way's their abilities, and hold forth profitable Inventions [words missing: MS torn] of the Common-Wealth.
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                More Particular Reasons.
1. The late king did designe that place for such an Vse and that wee should bee lesse mindful of the Publick then hee did seeme to bee will bee a disparagement vnto vs.
2. The conveniencies of forges, furnaces mills and all manner of tooles for making of Models and Experiments being there already will bee a great losse to the Commonwealth if they should bee destroy'd, and if the House bee alienated into some privat hand this will fall out.
3. In other Comon-wealths as in Switzerland the Low Countries and the free Imperial Cities of Germany, there are places designed for all manner of Ingenuities which they call kunst-kameren that is Chambers of Artifices.
4. It will encourage Artists of all Sorts at home and abroad to looke towards vs to esteeme of vs and to repaire to vs, as to men of Public Spirits and Lovers of Ingenuities, which will not only bee a credit to our Cause and proceedings but an occasion of much profit; for to haue a Magazine of all manner of Inventions, and a ready way to encrease the same, and trye the Vsefulnes therof, is a treasure of infinit and vnknown valew in a Commonwealth which by setting this place a part for Publick Vse may bee gained.
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[another hand:]
                  Inventions
                     &
                  Experiments.