The Hartlib Papers

Title:Memo On Types Of Mills, Anon

All Inventions and Engins yet commonly knowne & used which are Capable of great and strong workes, & of dispatch, are either Naturall or Artificiall - Naturall, as Wind-mills or Water-mills, Artificiall, as all Engins moved by mens hands or by horses or other Cattle.
Wind-mills when the wind is strong & steadye; are the best engines extant, yet upon the rebound, or farther[H alters from further?] considered, the worst, by reason of their uncertaintie, and for no vse more vnfit then for sugar workes, as grinding sometimes too fast, & then the boylers not able to keepe pace[altered] <H: pace> the liquor <H.: sowres>, and more often to slow, & then either the Canes growe over ripe if not Cut, or are spoyled if cut, And the Cattle still of necessity kept to prevent these inconveniencies last mentioned.
Water-mills are excellent Engins, & therfore much better then Wind-mills, for that they worke more Constantly where placed upon good streames, but this inavoydable inconvenience belongs to them, that they are bound to place, & can therfore dispatch no worke, but what lyes neere them. For this cause it is impossible, that any plantation, whether an Island, or the Maine, can bee throughout supplyed with Water Mills. A great advantage I confesse it is to some of the first planters that may chuse, & so sitte downe, iust besides some good streame & its fall; & there setting up a Water-mill, saves the continuall charge of Cattle: But this Mill cannot serue many plantations, & it is not every foot nor furlong of a river that affords convenient falls for driving of Mills. Hee therfore that lyes by the same River a litle higher or lower, & yet wants a fall, is as farre from the helpe of <a> Water-mill, as hee that lives further up in the Countrye, & is as much obliged to use[altered] Cattle. And perhaps it is a great question, whether the purenes of the Iuice produced by the higher grounds, doe not make amends, for the want of a water mill, it is very probable, Engines moved by Men (in all wayes hitherto commonly knowne & practised) are the weakest of the foure, & therfore as not fitt for dispatch, are rejected, & not vsed; Onely horses, Oxen or the like are made vse off, where water-mills are wanting. And therfore it is not impertinent to consider them and their worke, how strong & swift; For strength and swiftnes is the very Soule & perfection of all grand engines. I say then from sure experience.
That no horse is able to draw so much as hee can carrie, but here by drawing, I doe not meane in a Carte or the like, where the ground beares the weight, & the horse onely puts it in motion; but when weights are hanged over an [catchword: equall]

equall single pully, & the horse put to fetch them vp on the other.
That no dull beast can draw (that is, Constantly to hold a spell of 6 houres, & take no hurt by his working) aboue 1/8th part of his owne proper weight, nor can endure to bee driven above his Naturall pace, which is very slow. Dull beasts I account Oxen, Asses & such horses as are out of heart & lust & breath, And these cannot in a round motion (which is both weaker and slower then to passe right on) aboue (at the most) 60 full turnes in a path of 36 foot diameter, <H.: and> cannot carry aboue the strength or power, each beast for himselfe as above, 84 pounds or 3/4ths of an hundred, hardly any 112 pounds
That the more spiritfull Creatures, such are Men & good horses, Can draw direct, to hold by 1/5th of their owne weight, & that in a swifter motion viz double to the other, or 120 turnes in such a path. yet I say, that for each horse (as to strength & to hold out) to draw at the rate of 168, first touch & passe 2 full turnes per [mite? = minute?], is as much as can bee expected from a better horse then are truly carryed to the plantations.
If therfore 4 such horses as are vsuall there, doe really draw but after the rate of 140 pounds per horse at first touch, in a path of 36 diameter the roules being 2[altered from 20] foot diameter, this is 18 to one inwards and gives a power at the roules as 18 times 500 or 10080 or 90 hundred. And not passing aboue one full turne & 1/2 or 3/4th at most, And if this bee questioned I can presently, & with litle trouble or charge make it appeare here in London in Water workes, or brewers Mills.
But for that in the plantations horses etc are dearer, & shorter lived then Negroes, & more troublesome and charegeable to keep then Negroes, it is generally Concluded, that, could an Invention[H capitalises] bee found, wher by the hands of 4 or 6 Negroes at a spell the same worke could bee dispatched, both as to strength and time, which is now done by 4 horses or 8 cattle; it would bee a noble usefull designe, particularly for sugar workes, & merite a large reward (the thing being also usefull for all kind of mill-workes.
Now in order to this, that I may do good both to my selfe and others, I have studdyed this point many yeares, & made many & Costly Experiments, there is the seed tyme; And now newly by the blessing of God, I have brought my designes and desires to so good perfection, that I can with one man (:& for more with more men in proportion) carry 336 pounds at least 108 foot per [mite? =minute?]; which is more then the former accompt of horses; And here is the harvest, where (by such equitable contracts [catchword: with]

with those, whose Concernment will leade them to it) I expect by the blessing of the same God, to reape a plentifull recompence for all my former labour & studdye & charge.
Whosoever therfore that is concerned in the vses & advantages of this Invention, & shall offer or come to such termes as are equitable, shall without any charge hazard or delay, haue a full & cleare demonstration of the thing, & that in as greate as they can vse gratis, saue onely that before demonstration they must come to Articles, what they will doe, if the thing be made good./

[right margin, hand Y:]             Of mills
[left, upside down, another hand:]
                    weighs weights[smudged]