The Hartlib Papers

Title:Memorandum On The Advantages Of Enclosure, Dymock
Dating:20 July 1649

               Iuly the :20th: 1649
Lett any indifferent good husband (whose place of dwelling will allow itt) take 30 acres (more or lesse) in the comon feild, and as many in some inclosed severall land, lett both parcells bee as lyke as maybe; As both clayes, both sands, both gravells, or the lyke & lett them bee as equally fertile, or in hart, as may bee, lett him vse his best endeavour vpon both and lett them bee put to those vses they are respectiuely fitt for, and I am confident hee shall cleare as mutch more att the yeares end by the severall as by the feild land, yett the rent of the severall twice soe mutch as of the feild, And there are many profitts & conveniences to bee found in severall more then in feild Namely mutch more safetye from the break breaking in of cattle from blastings from drouth or from frosts, and the advantage of eating or reserving att your owne pleasure, and that with what cattle you please, by which meanes our loade of hey in winter shall goe as farre, with you as two or three with your neighbours that haue mixt interest. Alsoe the proffitt of your hedges for hedgewood & fuell, & (which is excellent husbandrye) fruit trees to bee planted or grafted in your hedgerowes without mutch trouble or charge. If wee measure the difference by this scale the disparrity will better appeare betwixt single & mixt interests the latter most comonly runnes thus, Each towne hath dyvers feilds, some haue foure, some three & some but two but we will take the medium three, and say thus, one feild lyes for wheate or rye the other for barley & [pouler?], the third lyes fallow, Now suppose you haue 10 acres in a feild that is 30 acres in all and this for the most part lyes in a dozen if not twenty severall little pattches, as one acre here, two there, halfe an acre yonder a rood in another place which must needs occasion mutch losse & hindrance (although the originall of sutch devisions was from good reason) the first of these 10 of these wee must accompt to be sowed with wheat or rye for which wee must accompt thus
tillage ----------6---13---4 three tilths att- 3s-4d apeice the
                             two first & 6s-8d the seeding &c
seed all wheat ---6---15---0 allowing 2 bushells & an halfe to an
                             acre, to cost 6s the bushell.
all other charges-3----5---0 (vizt) for rowling weeding reaping
                             binding & carrying home &ct
rent              2---10---0 at 5s for every acre one with the
                             other which in all amounts to
If this yeild   {28----2---6} the increase of 5 for one itt is
                              verry well one tyme & place with an
other, which is {08---19---2} 112-´ att 5s the bushell for you
                 ------------ must not expect to sell all for seed
                cleare gaines
The second 10 acres will cast at least -5-00-0, at 4s & 6d a tilth
& two tilths each 5---0---0
seed 35 bushells 5---5---0   allowing 3 bushells & ´ for each
                               acre att 3s the bushell
all other charg: 2---0---0   as cutting cocking carring &c
                              besides rowling & weeding
rent as as before 2--10---0   which in all amounts to 14£-15s-0d
                  ---------   And this allsoe may bee
with the most    14--15---0   rated att 5 for one which is -185
                              bushells att 2s--6d a peice
worth in all     23--10---0
                 08--15---0       8--19---2
                 cleare gaines    8--15---0
adde theses togather vizt     17--14---2 & then [proceed?], the third and last 10 acres lyes fallow the tilths therefore are allready compted for, & wee will vallue the feeding of all the 30 acres against all charges except soyle & rent and soyle must bee sett against the soyle to bee layd on the severall land allsoe, soe
as out of      17--14---2 wee must onely deduct 2-10-0 & there for
rent and        2--10---0
there remains 15--04---2 this is all the gaines that can bee
expected from             30 acres of feild land And note that
here is noething          abated for the many losses & damage that
is usually done           in sutch wilde feilds nor for oates or
pease with which          some of the thirtye acres are allwayes
sowne which come          short of the returne mentioned.

Now the other thirtye acres of severall or land inclosed will require noe more tilths than the other the halfe or 15 of which wee accompt to be sowed with
wheat att 34 bushells ---10--4--0 vallueing the seed to cost 6s
                                   the bushell as before
tillage att the former --10--0--0 rates & all other charges rated
                                   as in the the [feild? altered]
land, amounts to   -------7-17--6 for rouling weeding, reaping
                                   binding & carrying
rent(double to the other)-7-10--0 All which put togather the
                         --------- whole charge of the first
-15-acres amounts to ---35-11--6 Allow the increase of this to
                                   bee but 8 for one (a thing not
vnvsuall in severall)              that is 272 bushells att 5s one
which amounts to         68-00--0 there remaines -32-08-6 cleare
gaines out of which    -----------
deduct the charge        32-08--6
Againe the other 15 acres sowed with barley must bee thus accompted
Tillage ---------------- 7-10--0 allowing two tilths
seed barley 52 bushells
               & ´ ------ 7-17--6 at 3s the bushell
all other charges ------- 3--0--0 rouling, weeding, Cutting,
                                   cocking & carrying &c
rent Double to the feild 7-10--0 All which amounts to -25-17--6
Allow the increase att             8 for one that is 420 bushells
of barley att 2s-6d a
bushell, all in          52-10--0 deduct the charge & there
                        ---------- remaines 26-12-6
To this wee must adde the--------- after pasture of the whole 30
acres att 2s 6d an acre
which is                  3-15--0 soe all that is clearly gained
by this thirtye acres of --------
severall is              62-16--0 And all that was cleared by the
other 30 acres of
feild land was           15-04--2 which is not one full fourth part. By this scale I suppose it is plaine enough how farre & mutch more excellent inclosure & single interest is before, beyond the common feild &, mixt Interest And yett the argument might bee enforce't a great deal farther but lett this suffize.
The odds is as apparant if you scale them as relating to pasture or wood land And moreover there are many wayes yett more profitable to bee taken in severall well inclosed land that is all your owne & lyes safe & entire which can never bee done att all (or without all hope of successe) in the feild as the Hortyeard, the hopyeard planting of liquoris or the lyke. I shall adde a word or two concerning fences which are easyest, cheapest, surest, most proffitable, or most pleasant. Theasyest fence that can be made (especially when wood is cheape, & neer hand) is a dead hedge but this lasteth not aboue three yeares, nor soe long without some repayres & is not secure vnlesse verry strong & high, & that will make itt more costly And this sort, as all other dead fences (for I distinguish fences into foure sorts (vizt) the dead, the living, the supporting, & the moveable) serue for noe other vse but onely to keep to your catle in & your neighbour's out, the next of this sort is the drye ditch, the third is both these togather, the fourth is any sort of wett ditch which allsoe is frequently ioyned with a dead headge, as well as with quickesett of this sort allsoe are railes & all rough payles, The second sort are quickesett hedges (of which sort I conceaue the whitethorne best), and your rowes of tymber trees, as Elme, Ash, beach, oake, or the lyke made vp with quickesetts of haysell. The third sort are, the Moate or broad & deep ditch soe made that itt may att all tymes reteyne water & soe breed or keep fish this (though cheargeable att first) is lasting & the repaires easye for the soile will allwayes more then pay the charge of scouring if in a good husband's hand and the fish conduce mutch to your both plenty & proffitt. Next is the smooth pale made of planckes or deale boards [Catchword: of this sort alsoe]

Of this sort allsoe is walls of bricke or stone, and allsoe the wall of earth or mud mixt with straw All these are verry lasting & sure fences and to him that can spare the money required for their first erection will afterwards proue the best & cheapest of all other fences, These are said (though dead themselues) to giue life to others that is by the helpe & comfort they giue to many noble plants, as the vine, the aprecote the peach or the lyke. The forth sort is great or smale double or single hurdles, or moveable payles made of olde course cloath as of olde sayles or the lyke & these are propperly vsefull, for the penning of sheep or other cattle all night where you please for the inritching of your land & will alsoe serue to seperate any parcell of land that you desire to put to a perticuler vse for a short tyme which will not bee worth the making of any fixed fence.
The vses of all these are to bee considered according to the wealth or weakenesse of your estate according to the tyme you haue in your lease, or the tyme you intend that ground for that vse, & according as the severall materialls are neerest att hand easyest to bee obteyned both in respect of cheapenes, goodnes & carriage & more perticulerly the mote, or high bancke is best & fittest for low grownds as Meads &c the bricke wall or smooth pale are most comely about your house & your stone (if anything square & even) is good allsoe, the stone or mud wall about all greater orchyeards, gardens, hopgrounds or the lyke, your quickesett, especially that with tymber mixt, for [letter deleted] your vpland pastures the other for mowing grounds & corne land. but for a generall vse I esteeme noe fence soe good as the wall of earth & straw, for, none is warmer, none cheaper none easyer repayred, & this if rightly made affords you every seaven yeares (when itt will not bee amisse to renew it) sufficient & excellent soyle for the same land, you may within or without this plant either fruit or tymber trees to noe small proffitt Onely the coney warren of all other requires a deeply grownded smooth pale, or lyke wall of bricke or stone A mote will doe well where itt can be kept from freezing. Make noe wall for(a an Orchyeard, garden, hop ground, or warren lesse then tenne foot high, & a foot and three inches thike thicke, Nor for any other purpose lesse then seaven foot high & a foot thicke; Make noe Moate lesse then 15 foot wide & 7 foot deepe
The benefitt to every private person is before cast vp. And that to the publique may bee calculated accordingly, In case of Invasion the whole kingdome will bee but one defensible worke, & must needs abound in peece & wealth allsoe since all pretence of law suites or other iars will be removed for, one neygbour cannot thus trespas on other vnlesse willfully & manifestly Each man shall bee blest according to his good endeavour Many comodityes found to bee vendible, not formerly knowne or vsed for sutch, And those that are aboundantly increased both in quantitye & quallitye, & soe made more stab staple, Thus this kingdome might within one age iustly merritt the title of the garden of the world before Lombady or any other place knowne, Nor could there bee any other pore but Indigents, & they would easily & plentifully bee supplyed The wealth of each perticuler thus encreased would soe vastly advance the publique [catchword: revennue]

which considered with the increase of people (then our desire now our feare,) itt will easily appeare wee should bee more loued & honored by our freind, & feared & sought to by our enimyes, And, (which is aboue all) mends <men's> minds would bee soe mutch more settled & fitt to serue god & thinke of goodnes by how mutch more their affaires would bee contracted into order & more Moderate & inobled labour. I was about to enlarge myselfe into perticulers, but I forbeare, for if a man should goe about to reckon vp all the greater & lesser benifitts or blessings to bee obteyned, and all the greater or lesser inconveniencyes (or (to speake more propperly) misseryes to bee avoyded, & should adde those better wayes of Mannagement all ready thought of & but guesse att what may bee added thereto in short tyme, hee would find a vast ocean breake in vpon him wherein hee must needs bee lost, for when more is applyed then the mind is able to receaue itt must needs su bee suffocated, An excesse of ioy in the mind (as of Meate in the stomacke) is as certaine & more suddaine death, then greife or hunger. Itt shall therefore suffice mee to knowe soe mutch good to bee in & belong to this course of improuement that I doe not, need not, dare not, desire to haue, or knowe more, or presse farther into this vast laborinth of thoughts that would certainely bring mee into parradice or a place or condition verry lyke that had I the strength & tyme to recover the end, but that is impossible, & soe itt would bee allsoe to retire safely were I but entred a few steps farther. Itt is the blessing of God onely vpon the dilligent hand that makes ritch, If I can but therefore endeavour to doe do good (which to doe is allsoe the guift of God) I will hope for the crowne of good successe, And if God see itt not fitt for this stiffnecked generation to bee soe happy as this course would make them, I shall count myselfe discharged in having thus farre hinted the way to humaine happines, & sitt downe contented, though I had rather see my nation flourish more & more to which if God shall please att any tyme or in any small measure to make mee instrumentall I shall not esteeme itt as the least of his blessings or my happines in this lyfe If any man shall require mee to satisfye his doubts vpon any certaine perticuler I shall endeavour itt, but not engulfe myselfe into the too great & strong streame vpon any tearmes