The Hartlib Papers

Title:Printed Pamphlet, 'Londons Charity Inlarged'. Hartlib
Dating:1650
Ref:57/4/13/1A-12B
Notes:Italics original except within square brackets.
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               LONDONS Charity inlarged,
                     STILLING
                  The Orphans CRY.
                         BY
           The Liberality of the PARLIAMENT,
in granting two Houses by Act, and giving a thousand pounds towards the work for the imployment of the Poor, and education of poor children, who many of them are destroyed in their youth for want of being under a good Government and education, whereby they may be made serviceable for God, and the Commonwealth.
                       ALSO
This good work is much encouraged by the liberall Contributions of many well-affected Citizens of London, for the better carrying it on for the glory of God, the honor of the Nation, and the Comfort of the helples Poor.
                       WITH
A platform, how many Officers needfull to govern 100 children in a Work-house, with Laws and Orders for the Schoolmaster to read to the children once a day for a time, afterwards twice a month, whereby they may be kept under a godly and civill Government, to the great joy of good peopl.
       With other Observations worthy the reading.
---------------------------------------------------------
By S.H. a well-wisher to the Nations prosperity, and the
                    Poors comfort.
---------------------------------------------------------
London, Printed by Matth.Symmons, and Robert Ibbitson, 1650.
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               [illustration with captions:]
   The Orphans Cry, We perish, we die.
      For the Lords sake
                           Some pity take
Lay not this sin to their charge
                                   I am sick, I die
                  As we you see
                  So may yours bee
             Dead in the street
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                         (1)
To the Right Honorable Thomas Foot, Lord Mayor of the City of London, with the Worshipfull Sheriffes, and to the Gentlemen of the Corporation for the Poor, both Aldermen and Common-councell of the City of London; S.H. wisheth your Lordship, and the rest, happines in this life, and eternall consolation by Christ Jesus in the life to come.
Right Honorable, With the rest of the Gentlemen:
I Hope this is the Yeer of Jubilee, or Joy to the Poor, and all Gods peopl, and that by your helps and assistance, concurring together, such a work of Reformation will bee set on foot, and caried on for the good of the Poor, as well for their souls, as their bodies, as was never so exactly performed in former ages in our Nation.
   The work of the Poor consists in two things, viz.
Comfort, the honest helples Poor.
Reform, the obstinate ungodly Poor.
   And for your ground and Authority to cary you on in the performance of this good work, you hav
   1 The Law and Command of our God.
   2 The Laws of our Land, and the assistance of Parliament if you need
   1 The Law of God saith, He that will not work, let him not eat: This would be a sore scourge, and smart whip for idle persons, if Gods Law were so executed, that none should be suffered to eat, till they had wrought for it (if they were able) this would torment such persons (both back and belly) more then ten lashes a day, and such a restraint from victuall, would in time drive them to works whether they would or no, tho never so stubborn; for if such [catchword: should]
                         A2
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                (2)
be made to fast that will not work, one or two dayes, before they eat, they will be glad to fall to his or her labour the third day; for hunger will tame the wildest Colt, and constrain him to come to hand for hey or straw.
   2 The Laws of the Land saith, He that is idle, and may work, and will not, let such be sent to the house of Correction, and there be imployed, and restrained from a begging idle life.
   There are other good Laws made against incorrigible Rogues, which I will omit to speak of, desiring those that would know more of them to search the Statutes of England, which are very good in suppressing the idle, and relieving the needy, onely if one thing might be added:
   That no lusty person should have the benefit of a Passe if he lived abov thirty miles from London; the reason why I speak of the distance of thirty miles, it is because the Cariers come two or three times a week, and a letter from the Corporation to the Parish, and the said Carier that dwells nearest to the Parish to cary it; and the Porter that is servant to the Carier, to cary the said letter to the Parish where the Begger saith he was born, or last dwelled, and he to deliver it to the Constable or Collectors for the poor, and they without delay upon a penalty to return answer by the first or second return of the Carier, and their hands with the hands either of a Justice or Minister of the Parish, of the truth, whether ever any such person were born there, or inhabited amongst them; by this means you will soon discover much falshood amongst beggers, and much carelessnes among Constables, in not guiding home the beggers to their Parish, a penalty on them will make them bee carefull; therefore if the Corporation do intend to do the work truly, faithfully, and with advantage to the Common-wealth, they must neither take the word of a wandring begger, nor the true service of a careles Constable, for they are both ill members to a well-governed Common-wealth, and will deceive; therefore two letters from the Corporation to the Parish where the Begger saith he was born, or last abode will be very necessary, viz. one to know the truth whether ever any such person belonged to them, [catchword: by]
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               (3)
by this means you shall have a true account whether the Beggers report be true: The other letter is when the Begger is sent away with the Passe, to know whether he be come to his Parish, if not, you shall be sure then to know what Constable was in the fault, that the Begger was not conducted to his Parish, such Constables being fined, will make others beware, this will be little charge to the Corporation, and your work done very judiciously with care & prudence; for some Beggers may commit some misdemeanor in their Country; therefore it is a simple thing to take their word, for they will never tell truth; As for example,
   Suppose a Constable of London should take up a Begger in his Precinct or Parish, & should ask him where he was born or last dwelt, the Begger should say, at York, or Newcastle, when as peradventure he was neither born, nor inhabited in any of the foresaid Cities, and it may be he was never in that Country in all his life, yet upon the bare word of the Begger the Constable makes his Passe, corrects him, and sends him away to the place of his birth, or last abode, as he saith, and when he comes hither, the inhabitants there will own no such person, and so he must be brought back again to the great trouble of the Country, according to this I will give you a president.
   A Gentleman who is now one of the Corporation being Constable, a lusty Begger was begging in his Parish, he asked him where he was born, he said at Dover, he caused the Beadle to whip him, and made him his Passe, and sent him to Dover, when he came thither, the Inhabitants of Dover would not receive him, they had none such born there, they sent him back again to London from whence he was sent; when the Constable saw him, he admired that the Laws were so defect; and he was sory the Country was so much troubled, by carying, and re-carying to no purpose; then he asked the Begger where he did ever dwell, he said at Bristol, the Constable sent him away for that place, and what became of him afterwards he could not tell.
   Herein we find it is a trouble to a Common-wealth, that a Constable hav no more proof concerning a wandering Rogues birth or abode, but onely his bare word, which [catchword: may]
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              (4)
lye if he please, as well as tell truth.
   Consider in the next place how a careles Constable may prove an ill instrument to the Commonwealth; for if a lusty Begger passe through the hands of many Constables safe as he is carying along the Country; yet if at last he fall into the hands of a careles Constable he can make his escape and go into another part of our Nation, and continue still a trouble and a danger to the Commonwealth, for some of them are very desperate and envious; if a Farmer give not them an alms to their own mind, or a crosse word, they care no more to set his Barn and Ricks of corn on fire, then to light a pipe of Tobacco, so desperate many of them are to do a mischief by day or by night; wherefore in my apprehension ther's no better way to guide Beggers to their homes then by way of the Carier, for some Cariers hav been complained of for bringing boyes and girles, and leave them at London upon the charge of this City.
   I conceive a Carier or Wagoner are the fittest men to convey Beggers, that dwell about 30 miles from London, for they will cary them safe as well as a Letter, or Fardle, or Trunk; provided the Parish pay the Carier for his paines, and if the Carier or Wagoner do not perform their care for the good of the Commonwealth, let a penalty be laid upon them, by this means, the Constable will be freed, and the Country eased of such persons that are a pest and trouble to our Nation.
   And if in case a lusty vagrant should say he was born a hundred miles or more, not then to have a Passe, but rather be kept to work either in the house of Correction, or in the Gallies, or clensing of streets, I mean little narrow places where carts seldome come, with such like imployment, till such time they can be sent to the English Plantations, unlesse such can procure good security to live orderly.
   I have no more to say, but beseech the Lord that your Lordship, with the rest of the Corporation, may be tender fathers to the honest poor, and severe to the obstinate, knowing, as I said before, you have the Law of God, and our Nation to strengthen your hands, and the power of Parliament to countenance you. For which shal be the daily prayer of him, who is Your humble servant, S.H. [catchword: To]
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              (4)
     To the Right Honorable His Excellency, Tho. Lord
          Fairfax, Generall of the English Army.
Right Honourable
THat which sets the chiefest Diadem upon great persons, is not so much in their birth, and blood Royall, as in their Piety and Charity, such persons whose hearts God hath seasoned with the graces of his holy Spirit, they are of a hyer bloud, then those that are born from Emperors and great persons, such as they are but born of the flesh, they are not born of the Spirit: and Christ tells us, If we are not born of the Spirit, that eternall Royall seed, we shall never enter into the Kingdom of God. By this we find (My Lord) that there is a necessity to seek after this second birth, being of the Spirit, & from the Spirit of God, as our first birth is of the flesh, and from the flesh of men; the first birth is a fading birth that shall perish; the last birth is a lasting birth that shal never perish, it shal never dye, as Christ saith, viz. They shal never dye in the spirit, though they suffer death in the flesh, and our Saviour Christ bids his peopl, Not to fear them that can but kill the body, but are not able to destroy the soul.
   My Lord, I hear many boast of their first birth, which is but from sinfull man at the best; but I hear but few in comparison of the other to boast or glory any thing in their second, which is from the highest birth Royall of all, inasmuch as the is none greater than he, who is not only called King of Kings, but King of the Saints, that is King of Kings to overpower them, for they are in hands like Rivers of water, that have their tydes, who have their flowings and swellings, eb- [catchword: bings]
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bings and fallings, as pleaseth the Lord; and he is also called the King pf Saints, because he is their Governor and Protector, therefore he is not ashamed to say, I will be your Father, and you shall be my children; and Christ his dear Son, is not ashamed to call them Brethren. By this we find the Saints, whether rich or poor, noble or ignoble, are in great favour with God and Christ.
   And the Apostle, St. James saith, God loves the poor that are rich in faith; and the poor so qualified, through the grace of Jesus Christ, are in a capacity to hav a right to the birth-right of the Royall bloud of Heaven, which is the hyest birth and bloud of all: And truly, My Lord, whereas God and Christ loves the poor, I rejoyce when I see rich men, and great men love the poor that excell in vertue; And this I must speak to the Honor of your Excellency, that both your self, and the Officers of your Army, have been cordiall in propagating the cause of the poor, and their miseries, in that your Lordship upon request of some wel-affected, to send two or three Letters, some of them to the Parliament, and one to the Lord Mayor of the City of London, late deceast, that they would improve their power and interest for the carying on of this good work, That poor children that beg, may hav maintenance, imployment, and godly education; and all sorts of wandring poor kept under a daily government, whereby God may be glorified, and good peopl hav joy and comfort in it; 'tis a mercy to a Nation when great men are good men, seeking to advance Piety and Charity more then their own honors, and we hav cause to bles God, that hath made you instrumentall for the honor of God, and the good of the poor, and for the continuance of these mercies to the Nation: It shall be my daily prayer, with the peopl of God, that Piety and Charity may never fail you to your dying day, and that you may then everlastingly enjoy that heavenly birth-right, and by bloud Royall spoken of before.
          Your Excellencies most humble servant
                                   in the Lord, S.H.
[catchword: To]
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                                       7
                    To the Reader,
   Christian Reader,
PICTURES of misery, mooves the hearts of mercifull peopl to greev, the condition of the poor is like the picturs in the begining of the Book, decypher'd out; some Crying, some Dying in the Streets, if thou desirest to remedy the miseries, by thy liberall contributions, according to that portion God hath given thee, thou dost like a good Steward; and God and Christ who is the Father and Saviour of the poor, who are rich in faith, will Crowne thee with mercies here, and with glory and life Eternall in Heaven hereafter; but if thou hast this Worlds good, and yet art miserable and hard hearted, and regardest not to advance so good a worke, as imploying the poor, take heed thy condition be not like his that Solomon speaks of, saying, He that withholdeth Corne in time of Famine, the Poor shall curse him: I desire of God, that thy covetousnesse may not abound so much upon thee, that the Curse of God and the curse of the Poor should fall upon thee. Remember how much Dives Doggs were kinder to poor Lazarus then their Master, for they came and licked Lazarus Soars, when as their Master would not give a Penny towards the poor mans Cure, so farr in love with his money was he. But what good was the end of this cruelty?   Perpetuall woe and misery, as the Scripture saith; and because he had not a favour to the poor man, he lost the favour of God. Thou knowest not what a third Warr will produce, for, rumours are abroad, therefore I councel thee to be liberall to advance this good work of the Poor, while thou hast it, that God may shew mercy upon thy Soul and Body, and preserve the rest of thy Riches from forreign Plunderers, and doubt not, but God will favour thy life and Estate, when thou favourest the Poor.
   The advance of this worke we hope will produce great joy to the Nation, and we hope that the Parliament will to their utmost stand for the honour of God, and the good of the peopl, which consists in piety and charity; that is, by advancing the Gospell of Christ, and seeking the peace of the Nation, for so in severall Ordinances they have declared to doe.
   1. They have declared they will provide maintainance for Preaching Ministers in England, tho yet many places therof are in darknesse, wanting, as also for other Countreys beyond the Seas belonging to this Nation that the word of the Lord may have its free course and be glorified amongst them as it is with us in this Citty of London.
                         B         [catchword: 2. They]
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8                 Londons Charity inlarged.
   2. They will endeavour that the releife and imployment of the poor may be settled in all Citties and Market Townes of the Nation, as in London.
   3. They will endeavour the releasment of poor Prisoners that are not able to pay their hard hearted Creditors, and yet lye in Prison for a small debt; and as for such that lye in Prison and are able to pay, and will not doe it, being the undoing of many a poor man and his Family, which doth occasion great poverty upon the Nation.
   3. They will endeavour to appoint Friend-makers in all great Parishes of the Nation, that the mighty may not oppresse the poor; this is a worke of great concernment, and will prevent much poverty in the Nation, and bring glory to God, and honour to Parliament: God is angry with oppressors, as he was with King Pharaoh, and it was his end<ms: over> throuwe, and God saith, they that oppresse the Widdow, the Fatherlesse, the Stranger, the poor, he will take away their Oppressors with thornes[altered in ms from hornes], and fish-hooks, he will not heare their cry in distresse, but will Scatter them among all Nations, a fearfull judgement will fall on such as neglect to settle a short and speedy way to right the poor against their oppressors; therefore it was a good saying of one, That quick Justice makes quiet Kingdomes, but Forma pauperis are oft times tedious to the undoing of many a poore man, and also many actions arising more from malice then matter, are a meanes to impoverish many a poor body. And truly I must speake plainly, it stands upon the Parliament to dispatch these high and publick things out of hand, for the peace and prosperity of the Common-wealth, for the honest rich, and mercifull & comfortles poor, whither Prisoners or others, wait for a reformation, as the thirsty ground for rains, and indeed I must say, there is a great need for the Parliament to find out ways and means to preserve peopl from poverty, by Oppressors or otherwise, as it stands upon them to keep peopl from starving when they are poor.
   And now Christian Reader, thou that art cordiall for a godly reformation, and desireth not onely that swearing, Sabboath-breaking and drunkennes may be pull'd down, but also oppression, which is like a violent storme, and sweeping raine, as Solomon sayth, but also desirest, that good things may be planted throughout the Nation for the glory of God, and the peace and prosperity of it.
   Wherefore I pray thee be not impatient or unbeleeving, but pray, and wayt, and thou shalt see the Parliament will act suddenly, according to the hearts desire of the godly, and mercifull, rich and the oppressed poor, for the finishing and perfecting of all which, shall be the dayly prayer of him, who desires to be,
                         Thine in the Lord Christ, S.H
                                   [catchword: London]
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                                       9
               [decorative block]
            LONDONS Charity Inlarged,
             Stilling the Orphans Cry.
THE Corporation appointed by Authority of Parliament for the well ordering of the Poor within the Citty of London, and the Liberties, that the honest poor who are willing to worke, may be countenanced, and the idle suppressed; and the said Corporation I hope doth desire to acquaint well affected peopl that are willing to advance this pious and charitable worke by their liberall contributions what their intents and purposes are (by Gods assistance) to carry on the foresaid good worke: And,
   Therefore to take off all jealousies that none may have the least suspicion of their fidelity, as well in relation to the preserving of the flock as also in performing the good worke so long desired by many good peopl, shall be declared as a wellwisher to them in these particulars ensuing.
   1. They will endeavour that the Lord Mayor may be moved to send his precepts to the Marshalls and Constables, and Beadles of the Citty of London, to bring all idle persons to Bridewell and the Workhouses, and to allow something to the Officers for every one they shall bring to the aforesaid places; that the Corporation may know how the better to dispose of them, either for Sea or Land.
   2. I hope they desire an unanimous conjunction with the Governours of Bridewell, London, that they may assist each other by taking up, and imploying to worke all the lusty poor they find begging.
   3. I hope they will endeavour that the said lusty poor be kept hard to worke, and not to depart thence at least, till he or shee have beene there a Moneth, unlesse they can give sufficient security to the Corporation and Governours of Bridewell that they will behave themselves civilly and orderly, leaving off the trade of a begging life.
                    B 2              [catchword: 4 I]
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10             Londons Charity inlarged.
   4. I hope they will indeavour that all such as are acquitted for petty Fellony may not be set at liberty, as formerly they have been, for within a Moneth or lesse they have fallen to their old course of stealing, and brought to Prison againe: therefore that such upon the discharge out of Prison, may be brought to the Houses of Correction, whether it be London, Westminster, Middlesex, or Surrey, where the party lived, or the theft committed, or else imployed in the Shipps and Busses for the fishing Trade, the better to make them serviceable to the Common-wealth, by reforming their ungodly life.
   5. They will endeavour that such as are incouragable to have power from the Parliament to send them to the Plantations belonging to the English, beyond the Seas, to see whither God will be pleased to turne them.
   6. I hope they will take care that poore Children may be taught to write and read two houres in a day, so that by the time the Boys come to the age of 12. 14. or 16. they will be able to read and write, fit for Apprentices, but such as are quick witted to make Schollars, and accomptants, or what they delight in, either for Sea or Land.
   And I hope also, they will indeavour that such poor that are willing to worke at home with their Children, that they may have Hempe, Flax, Cotten-wool, & other materials to work upon at their own dwellings, they leaving a pawn, or bringing a friend for their security to returne such materialls againe to the Steward of the Corporation, and not to sell it, or pawne it away for Ale and strong Beere, as some poor have done their Masters worke.
   7. I hope they will indeavour to use all means (some of them being Justices of the Peace) to prevent such Familys from poverty, who are made poor by common drunken Husbands, such drunkards bring misery and poverty in the Common-wealth in three relations.
     1. By it, they make their Familys poor.
     2. By it, they are apt to charge and burthen their Parishes.
     3. By it, they impoverish the plenty of the Nation, by spending the plenty of it wastfully, and so threaten a Famine upon us; for two drunkards will spend more in drunkennesse in one night, then will serve two moderate men halfe a weeke.
   8. I could wish, for the better sanctifying of the Lords Day, for so I call it, especially from Christs Resurrection, because then our enemy death was overcome, and our full redemption wrought, that the Schoolmaster on every such Sabboath, keepe the Children and others belonging to the Work-house, from wandring the Streets and Feilds in Ser- [catchword: mon]
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             Londons Charity inlarged.             11
mon time by exercising his gifts of Prayer, reading of Chapters, singing of Psalmes, Catechising them in such a Cathecisme appoynted by Authority; that Children may be prevented from errors, especially that of Free-will, for a man is not saved by his owne works, but the chiefest hopes & assurancet of his Salvation standeth upon these helps ensuing.
   1. By the free grace of God that pardoneth a sinner of his sins; as a mercifull Creditor forgiveth a poor man a Debt, when he hath nothing to pay, as Christ makes the comparison of the Creditor and the two Debtors, that when they had nothing to pay, the Creditor forgave them, Luke 7.4. Meaning God the Creditor, and the two Debtors were Jew and Gentile, the Gentile was the greatest Debtor, for he was for a time a Prodigall, yea without God in the World, having no feare of God before his eyes, but now the worke of grace by Christ Jesus, hath wrought a great reformation in many a poor Gentiles soul.
   2. As God is the forgiver of sin, so he is the giver of power against sin, that is, by his holy and good spirit in converting a sinne, which makes the Saints to rejoyce and wonder when the strong holds of Satan in a sinner are throwne downe.
   3. Means we are saved by faith, that is, beleiving that Christ Jesus was the best Sacrifice that ever was offered to take away sins from sinners, therefore Christ hath gotten him this honour, that he is called the unspotted Lambe of God that taketh away the sins of the World, that whosoever believeth on him should never perish but have everlasting life.
   4. Meanes of Salvation is a mans works, where God hath given him some measure of his spirit, for to act. Therefore a man must be carefull not to deny his spirit by despising it; nor he must not greive the spirit, nor quench the spirit, if any doe, God will be angry with such, for he hath made man a rationall Creature: therefore the Apostle saith, we are the workmanship of God, created unto good works; yet we are to know, that without Christ we can doe nothing that is good, no more then a body can live, when the spirit of life is departed from him; these are speciall things for a School-master to instruct, and season Children with, on Sabboath-days. Also the reading of good Sermons are very profitable, which I desire may consist of these heads.
   1. A Sermon concerning the holy Trinity, in their offices and attributes, needfull to be knowne in these erring times, for some deny a Trinity, some deny Christ, and some deny a unity or spirituall union.
   2. Sermon of faith.
   3. Of love.
   4. Humblenesse of mind in these proud times. [catchword: 5. O]
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12                Londons Charity inlarged
   5. Of sobriety and chastity, in these drunken and unchast dayes.
   6. Self-denyall, that is, denying ungodlinesse and Worldly lusts, we may live righteously and soberly, &c.
   7.Of the excellency of patience that makes a man intire.
   8. Of contentednesse in a low condition, and affliction; for godlynesse with content is great gaine.
   9. Of the excellency of truth, which will cast out of a man, lying and stealing.
   10. Of the excellent Joys of Heaven, and chiefly wherein, Viz. In beholding the beauty of God and Christ, as a Bridegroom delights in the faire beauty of his Bride, above all her riches.
   11. The horror of Hell, and chiefly wherein, Viz. The losse of the glorious presence of God, and his love and favour: this is a hell beyond the unquenchable fire. The Lord deliver us from it.
   12. A Sermon not to be idle, but labour with our hands for the good of the Common-wealth.
   These Sermons being read, and the blessing of Gods spirit carrying on young and old to the practise of it, who can tell but this may be a meanes to beget abundance of the poorer sort of people, and their Children to a holy knowledge and obedience to God, in life and conversation, and consider if any shall scruple at the reading of these things? I Answer it is ordained of God, as well as preaching. See these places in Scripture which doe confirme it. Deut.31. 11. Josh.8. 34,35. Jer.36. 6. Dan.3. 16. 17. Luk.4. 16. Act.8. 30,31. Act.13. 27. 2Cor.1. 13. Collos.4. 16. 1 Thess.5. 27. Rev.5. 4.
   9. Is in relation to their imployment.
     1. Upon the fishing Trade, this will not onely imploy many thousands, but also be a meanes to bring in food for the great reliefe of the poore. There is a Booke lately come forth very usefull to imploy housands of peopl for the advance of Fishing, and are sold at Greyhound in Little brittaine.
     2. The Children shall be imployed to spinning, knitting, and sowing, and such other imployments as consists to the making of their owne Cloathes, therefore to have a Weaver to weave the Cloath, and a Taylor to make and mend their Cloaths; other imployments in time may be found out, which may be very assistfull to Handycraft-Tradesmen, and the good of the Marchant.
   10. Is in relation to Rayment and Food for the Children.
   1. For their Rayment, a course Woollen suite for winter, and a Canis or such like for summer, as for their food, I will speake of it afterwards. [catchword: 11. Is]
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                 Londons Charity inlarged.            13
   11. Is in relation to their Recreation.
   1. Sometime warlike exercise, which many Children take much delight in, this recreation will be commodious to the Common-wealth, by bringing them up, some for the Drum, and Pipe, some for the Trumpet, and all will be skil'd with Warlike termes and postures, which they will not forget when they come to be Men.
   This exercise to be performed by each Work house at home once a weeke, or fortnight, and once a moneth in summer time in some convenient place, then, and there all the Children of ability of body, in the Work houses to meete together, to exercise their skill and valour.
   Other Recreations may be used in winter time, as the Children of Christs Church doe, for the sharpening of their wits, reviving their spirits, and preventing them from Scurvyes, and dropsies, and such like.
   This usage of Children serves to confute the thoughts of some, that thought the Corporation would not be so kinde, and tender-hearted unto poor Children; and therefore to take off all jealousies, I shall be bold to say this of the Corporation, I verily beleive that such Children whom God doth endue with grace, and towardlynesse of carriage, they will be willing to prefer to the best services and honest masters they can get for them, for the better joy and comfort of such poor that live orderly.
   12. I hope the Corporation will endeavour that all such well minded peopl, whom God hath inriched with this Worlds good, and having their hearts inlarged to the poor, by giving them Bread and other food, one day in the Weeke, or more, to as many as come to their Doores, as to my knowledge some rich Bakers of London do, that such bread or any other provision as they, or any else, that shall give, may be fetched from their Houses by the Beadle or the like Officers, for the releife of the poor in the Workhouses, which will be a considerable thing to uphold the stock, because much of the stock will be spent towards feeding & cloathing the young Children, and that the Beadle or other officer be carefull for the receiving of it, having two or three of the people of the Work houses to goe with him in gathering it, and they to deliver it to the cooke or Sutler, for the use of the Poor. This also will be a great succor to such Women that beg with little Children in their armes and hands, for bread, and broth, and beere, are the chiefest things that Children feede upon, all which will be had with little charge to the Corporation: onely the Beadle or Officer for his paines, and I beleive some men will, from a charitable disposition, doe it for little gaines, because it is for the honour of God, and the good of the poor. [catchword: 13. And]
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14                    Londons Charity inlarged.
   13. And lastly, I hope they will endeavour that these ensuing Lawes may once or twice a weeke for a time, be published to the Children by the School-master, for the better regulating them in the feare of God.
1. THat none young nor old in the work-house shall sweare, neither by the name of God, nor the Lord Jesus Christ.
    2. That none eyther young or old give their tongues to lying, rayling, filthy talking, or singing ribbauld Songs.
    3. That none scoff at any man or Womans person, being Deformed, seeing it is the Workmanship of God, who might have layd it upon thee that scoffeth; nor to scoff at any mans profession being never so low and mean in the World, if needfull in the Common-wealth.
    4. That none have any cursed wishes in their tongues to any, neyther in the Work-house nor abroad.
    5. That none give their hands to stealing, or imbezeling any of the goods of the Corporation, or any of their Fellows goods belonging to them in the Work house.
   And if any refuse to obey these, or the like wholsome Lawes, and Orders of the Work-house and despiseth to be under the Government and Correction of such punishment as the Corporation shall thinke meete for such offences, greater or lesser, that then they be sent to Bridewell or house of Correction, to receive further punishment for deserts. Consider that these Lawes and Orders being read by the aforesaid School-master, upon such dayes as the Corporation shall appoint, and the punishment executed upon the Offendors, young or old, will be a meanes to make many of them affraid to offend; as it appeares by Solomons words, Prov.22. 15. Foolishnesse is bound in the heart of a Child, but the rod of correction shall drive it farr from him. [catchword: Here]
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   Here followeth to be considered the charge and the gain of imploying the poor in these particulars ensuing:
  1 How many officers needfull to govern 100 children.
  2 The wages of officers to govern the children from 5 or 6 year old, to 14 or 15.
  3 The charge of dyet for such children whose Parents are dead, or very poor.
  4 What profit will arise out of their labour towards this charge.
  First, how many officers needfull to order 100 children in each Work-house?
  1 A Steward. 2 A Schoolmaster. 3 A Cook, or Sutler. 4 A Botcher. 5 A Cobler. 6 A Barber. 7 Five women teachers, to order the said hundred children in spinning, knitting, or the like; in all, there will be need of these 11 officers.
  2 What wages each officer to have yeerly in a competent measure for the better preservation of the Stock, and a hopefull carying on of this good work.
                                               li. d. s.
1 The Stewards Salary, besides his lodging,    50 0 0
2 The Schoolmasters Salary, with his loding,   20 0 0
  And if this be thought too little, allow him so much Serge as will make him a Suit and Cloak of the childrens spinning, which will be a good help to him.
3 The Cook or Sutler his Salary                12 0 0
  And the benefit of selling bread and beer to the work-peopl, &c.
4 The Botcher his Salary                        6 0 0
5 The Cobler his Salary,                        4 0 0
6 The Barber his Salary,                        3 0 0
7 The 5 women 5 li. a peece Salary, comes to   25 0 0
                                              120 0 0
   Besides, if every woman may be allowed a peny out of every shilling the children earn by spining, kniting, or other work, this will not onely be a means to stir up the children, to make them quick-handed, but also the Teachers, and the Corporation will both gain by it, for the better preserving the stock for the good of the City; as for example, The five women having 20 children a peece to govern, If each woman after a while, can by her industry and care, bring her 20 children to earn 12d. [catchword: a]   
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a week a peece, this will bring to the Teacher 20d. per week, but when the children come to earn 18d. per week, then it will be 2s. 6d. per week, which amounts unto yearly 6 li. 10s.
   So that with the allowance of the Corporation 5 li. per annum, with her own care and industry to forward the children , will amount yeerly to 11 li. 10s.
   Consider, if the Corporation allow a competent maintenance to every Officer, they shal be sure not to want an officers or Teacher, when any dye or be removed, for peopl wil sue for an office in the Work-house, as Parents sue yearly to get their children in Christ-church Hospitall; besides, after a few years, the Corporation wil hav Teachers of their own trayning up, to serve their occasion when ever they need.
   Having shewn the totall of all Salaries, for all the Officers amounting to yeerly 120li.
   3 I come now to speak of the charg of dyet for the 100 children, this will be a thing uncertain, because all the whole 100 children may not be at the charge of the Corporation for thee meals a day, whether they be strangers or inhabitants, for that were to bring a vast charge upon the Corporation and City; and if the Corporation should entertain all that come East, West, North, and South, they should have ten strangers for one Parishioner, I beleev it is not so intended by them, but rather the livelihood they appoint, is for such children that are in the Parish wher the Work-house is, or such Parishes adjoyning near, or about the Work-house,viz. such children who have neither Father, nor friend; but the Parishes, and they ought to be the Fathers to them to provide for them, and such children must have three meals a day, and lodging with it.
   Another sort of poor children there are, who are the children of poor widows, or poor Parents, who are so poor they are not able to pay for their childrens Schooling 3d. or 4d. per week, much less to find them victels, but are inforc'd to send them, to beg bread, and pottage, or what they can for their livelihood, such as these also to have some allowance three times a day, except on publick fast dayes, they going home to their Parents for lodging.
   There is another sort of poor children, whose Parents are very poor, yet they send not their children a begging, yet they fare very hard, scarce eat a peece of meat throughout the year, whose fare for the most part is bread and pottage, and roots [catchword:in]
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in Winter, and herbs in Summer, or Raddishes, and Salt, with a peece of bread without Butter or Cheese, and their drink for the most part, fair water from the Pump, and yet blessed be God, tho the fare be mean, yet they are long livers and healthy.
   These poor peopl if their children might be allowed one meal a day, and their childrens teaching, they would acknowledg it a mercy from God, so to put it into the hearts of good peopl, to provide for poor children, and others.
   I come now to speak of the allowance of three meals a day, and the charg of it, begining with the Winter season, because then provision is deerer then Summer.
   1 For breakfast in Winter 3 ounces of houshold bread, a mess of pottage, and halfe a pinte of drink,
   The charg of this meal is about a                 ob:
   2 For Dinner, 5 ounces of bread, a pint of beer, a mess of pottage, made sometimes of meat, sometimes of milk, and sometimes water-grewel, one herring, or that quantity in other fish, with a Turnip with it, to qualify the saltnes of it.
   The charg of this meal will be about          1d. ob.
   3 For Supper, 4 ounces of bread, half a pint of beer, one Hering with a Turnip, and sometimes broth in cold weather.
   The charg of this is about                    ob. q;
   By this we find, that the charg of three meals a day, amounts to 2d. ob.q; this will be the most, if these three things be considered, for the improvement of dyet.
   1 If the Fishing trade of the City of London be caried on by Parliament and the City, some pious persons with 600 li. stock, will undertake to bring from Sea, fish monthly for the relief of the poor at the Work-house, which will much ease the Corporation, and the charg will not be so great as to buy all at London. Furthermore if a quantity of London busses may be set out by the Parliament and City, the rich and poor in and about London would fare the better by it.
  2 If we may buy one time with another ordinary wheat at 6s. per Bushel, we may allow a child 12 ounces of bread for a peny that is 3 for breakfast, 5 for dinner, and 4 for supper, with other things with it, all which amounts unto each day except publick Fastdayes       2d. ob. q?.
    By the week it amounts to                1s. 7d. q.
    By the yeer about                        4 li.3s. 6d
                    C 2 [catchword: 3 Som]
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   3 Som yeers we may buy Wheat for 3s. and 4s. per Bushel, which now worth 7s. or 8s per Bushel, so that when 'tis a cheap year of Corn, and our own industry and labor (all hands working) for carying on the fishing trade, we shal be abl by Gods blessing to find our children food at a cheaper rate then I hav set down.
   Consider if one childs dinner cost 1d. ob. which is for the whole week 10d ob. as well Sabbath dayes as others, for so I hope the Corporation do intend to do, that so all boys and girls that come to School or work, may be kept under government on the Sabbath days, as I said before, from rambling abroad.
   Reckon then if one child cost for one meal a day by the week                                              10d. ob
   What will the charg be for the yeer       2 li. 5s. 6d.
   Then reckon for 50 children a yeer is      113 li 15s.
   Consider then, 50 children 3 meals per day, amounts to by the yeer about                                227 li 10s.
   Now reckon the charg of 100 childrens diet, as well those 50 that are to hav but one meal a day, as those that are to hav 3 meals a day, and see what the whole charg amounts unto.
  Their charg of diet amounts unto yeerly about 341 li.5s.
  The Officers Salary amounts to yeerly            120 li.
          In all it comes to                   461 li. 5s.
   Here is the whole charg laid down in as low a maner as may be in Christian charity, as well for the smalness of the wages for the officers, as the littlenes of the meals for the children; and tho the allowance be small, yet it will be a great refreshment to many a poor child, for nature is content with littl, and grace with less. Also the contributors to this good work may see the care of the Corporation is so much for the good of the City, that they would competently refresh the poor, and not wast and lavish the stock; but that this charitabl work may be held up for ages, by Gods blessing, and good mens endeavor.
   Upon the prosperity of the fishing trade, for the better ease of the charg of diet, if children eat fish 4 times a Week; that is, on Mundays, Wednesdays, Fridays, and Saturdays, and meat on Sabbathdays, and Thursdays. A quarter of a pound of Beef for a child is the allowance of Christs Church Hospitall to their children; and on Tuesdays a little dumpling of pudding, a [catchword: fare]
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fare that as oft children delight in; and this note, If children be refresht in Winter with 7 meals for 10d. ob. in Summer, provision is cheaper.
   4 Particular, What profit these 100 children will bring in weekly by their labour towards this great charg.
   Suppose after 2 or 3 months teaching, by the care of the Teachers, the children may be brought to earn 12d. per week a child, one with the other, viz, som children, tho in 2 or 3 months teaching cannot earn 12d. per week, by reason they are dull, and heavy-handed, yet others being quick-witted, and nimble-handed, may earn above 12d. per week, so that one with the other, it amounts to per week, 5 li. and 5 li. per week, by the yeer amounts to 260 li.
The charg of Officers, and diet, being yeerly 461 li.5s.
  The loss is yeerly                            201 li.5s.
   Consider then, when the children come to earn 18d. per week or more, the loss will not be so great; but put the case the Corporation should lose 200 li. yeer, yet the Church of God, and the Commonwealth will gain by it, but he that seeks his own interest above the honor of God and the Commonwealth, shews himself to be no true friend to God, nor the Commonwealth; therefore I counsell all peopl hy and low to their uttermost, advance the honor of God, and the good of the Commonwealth, lest they fall and perish, as many great men have done of late; for 'tis dangerous when God and a Commonwealth, eys a man as no friend to them.
   The work of well-ordering the poor is a rare work, and by it three excellent things will be produced, toward a good Reformation.
   1 Gods honor will be set up, when that that is good is advanced.
   2 The peopl of God will rejoyce, when sin in children and others is beat down.
   3 The poor children will have a benefit by it, because thereby they are like to be made serviceabl for the Commonwealth; otherwise, they wil be as thorns in the sids of the Nation; wherfore I rejoyce when I see great men in hy places to have pious hearts, and publick spirits, such persons God, and a Nation [catchword; will]
                    C 3                 
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will stand for, against all their enemies, and he will make their enemies to be at peace with them.
   But as for such that are enemies to this good work, either by opposing it in their words, and works, or by starving it with their poor and small charitys, I fear God hath a curse for them here, or a wo for them herafter, When Christ shall say, Go ye cursed in to everlasting fire prepared for the Devill, and his angels: And Christ will say to such, Inasmuch as ye have not don it to the poor, ye have not don it to me: Such opposers of charitable good works, when they shall com upon their death-beds, they will then wish they had given half their estates with Zacheus, that they could then obtain the love of a Christ, and the happines of a Zacheus, that salvation might com unto their house, as it did unto his; therfor I wish all rich men that desire to obtain the love of a Christ, to make their hands and their eys, their first executors, because their last executors may deceive them, as som have don.
  Consider, if children are kept under government and imployment, they are the fitter for Tradesmen, & others, and so therby, made serviceabl to the Commonwealth, so that the loss of 200 l. is the preserving of 100 children from ruin: therefore we conclude, if the City of London should lose 1000 l. per annum in this work, yet they would gain by it, in the preservation of 500 children, and more; for if children are not kept under a government, they will in time grow to a generation of ungodly wretches, having no fear of God before their eys, and so become a dishonor to God, and a burden to the Commonwealth.
   Therefore let us judge seriously, which will be the greatest loss, either mony or peopl to a Commonwealth? viz. whether 500 children should perish yeerly, rather then the City of London should lose 1000 l. over and above their other common charity?
   If ungodly, uncharitable muck-worms should say, we had rather see 500 children beg and starve yeerly, rather then the City of London should lose 1000 l. yeerly towards poor childrens education and relief; I would say to such unchristianlike peopl, as St. Peter said to Simon Magus, thy mony perish with thee; so say I, let their mony perish with them, rather then poor souls should perish for the want of so small a portion of food for a meal, as I have set down before. [catchword: And]
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   And whereas the losse of 200 li. ariseth in the dyeting of 100 children, if these insuing helps may be gained; the losse will then be very little, which is by way of gathering from Bakers and others, who give bread on one or two days a week constantly to the poor at their doors, but if the poor of the work-houses might have it, they would rather give it there. For I understand there are many honourable and rich persons in and about London are resolved to give no more at their doors, since they have heard of a Corporation appointed to regulate the poor by work, and other good government, therefore as Christ said Take up the fragments that nothing be lost. I beleeve the practise of this wil save the City of London, 500 l. per annum or more, otherwise it wil be lost.
   As I have spoken of the officers and their salleries, so I desire to shew what is the cheife worke of a Steward to do, and what the School-masters work is, and the Cook or Suttlers is,
   1 The Stewards work is, to keep books of accounts, one book is, what he receives from the Treasurer, either monys, or materials received from the publick store house, appointed by the Corporation, for the laying in of wool, hemp, flax, &c.
    The second book is, what commodities are delivered out, to work-people in the house, or abroad.
    3 Book is, for the commodities received when tis wrought.
   4 Book is, to take notice of what losse was in any pounds of wool, hemp, flax, or cotten wool, as well in weight as tale, this will be a means to prevent stealing and carelesnes, such losses the workers to make good, besides the allowance, some masters allow one ounce in the pound losse in childrens work.
   2 His care is to see to the house, that it be swept and washt, and kept clean and wholsom, when the Corporation or strangers come into it, to see the people at work.
   3 His care to see the Instruments belonging to the work people, that they be preserved, and if any hap to be brok, or out of order to see them repaired, and to buy such things as the Corporation shall appoint.
   These are the cheifest things the Steward is to perform, for the honour of the worke.
          The office of the School-Master is,
   1 To pray with the people once a day at least.
   2 To teach the children to read and write, 2 hours in a day, one in the forenoon, the other in the afternoon, the rest of the day to work [catchword 3 To]
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   3 To read the lawes and orders at certain times to the children, to the end they may know how to walk before God and men, for the law read is a terrour to mild children, and such will reproov others that are more stuborn, saying I wil tel my Master, because you did swear, or you did this or that evill, contrary to the Laws of the work-house, these words falling from the child will daunt the reprooved.
   4 To exercise those gifts, God hath given him, on the Sabbath days, by prayer, reading of Chapters, and Sermons, as afore-mentioned, and catechizing the children, by this meanes the streets and fields will bee cleared of many idle children who now spend their days in wickednesse, to the dishonor of God, and the disgrace of this City, and Commonwealth.
   When God shall be pleased to bring this Government, then the rich and poore, affected with goodnesse shal say, Happy art thou O England in this thy Reformation, and blessed be thy God for it.
   3 The office of the Cook or Sutler, to provide such provision for the children as the Corporation shall appoint.
  1 By taking care, that all such provision that shall be given weekly by well disposed people, for the comfort of poor children, whether it bee Bread from Bakers, Beer and Broth from Taverns, Innes, & others, or what else any shall provide, for the maintenance and upholding this good worke.
  2 For his better livelyhood, that he provide Bread, and Beer, and such like for the comfort of poor people that work in the house, for they will be glad to have it nigh them, that they may not be hindred of their work: besides, the having of it by small quantities, farthings and halfe penny worths, as they have need.
   These are the cheifest things, that these three officers are to act, for the glory of God, the honour of the Corporation, and the comfort of the poor, that none may perish for want of bread, as many have done of late; witnesse some about Westminster that lived upon Dogs and Cats these deer and hard times; others upon Beasts blood and Brewers graines boyled together, and the poor woman that killed her child, and dyed for it last Sessions 1649. upon her examination, she confest extream need and feare of famine occasioned it.
   To conclude, for the better releife of the poor, it was well observed of one, who said, that England had many hundred of Acres of wast and barren lands, and many thousands of idle hands, if both these might be improved, England by Gods blessing would grow to be a richer Nation then it is now by far.
   A Parliament power would do much towards this work, to make it generall throughout the Nation, by causing all planting of Tobacco to be thrown down in England, which is a hinderance to the poor Englishmen beyond the Seas, and a wrong to the custom, if they sell it in other Countries for want of vent here, that such lands may be imployed in sowing Hemp, and Flax, and Roots, and planting of trees for fruit and fuel, all which would be a great succour to the poor, as well to imploy them, as releive them, the Parliament have intentions to make this good worke of imploying and relieving the poor generally throughout the Nation. The great God of heaven is able to make them act and perform it for a generall good.
                                        FINIS.
          April 12. 1650.    Imprimatur, Iohn Downam.