The Hartlib Papers

Title:Copy Letter, John Beale To Hartlib
Dating:8 May 1658
Ref:52/44A-54B: 55B, 55B BLANK
Notes:Original at 52/26.
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             Cider and Winy Liquor.
     Hereford May .8. 58.
Sir   I now recollect that I haue not given a full answere to Mr Pells enquiry, how Apples of the wilder sort [&c?] Crabs./ and how the harsher sort of Peares and wild Peares, may be soe ordered, as to produce a rich winy, Liquor that may be compared with some of the richer sorte, of wines, that proceede from the grape, Therefore I will here add somethinge which with the two former letters upon the same argument may alsoe give some Degree of satisfaction to Drs. Worslies Desire, And they must allowe me a kinde of tediousnes, because I haue neede of much warines, beinge one the one hand beinge vnwilling to smother, an Excelent and valluable, Truth, which yf it were generally beleeued) would woonderfully enrich our soyle, and turne these Islands into a pleasant and Bewtifull paradice, and on the other side I am noe lesse vnwillinge to be suspected of the vanitie of falshood, or be taken in the affection of Hiperboles, And in this poynt my Case is more Difficult, Because the best of my obseruations are hard to be beleeued; and are not yet knowen to very many And the very fundamentall poynt, is, Directly opposed by Mr Austen a good Man of much Skill and experience, In this Distress I must Imbarque noe further than
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then I can Carry a kind of Evidence alonge with me to make Demonstration of the truth, which I vndertake; And I must specifie some kind of fruite by such names, as are given them in the places where we haue tryed them, nameing the places and sometymes the persons, because the same fruite may in other places, haue other names and other properties   First I note that for these fower <or> five Last Summers, my Lord Scudamore and Sir Walter Pye had att London out of this Country Cider which was tryed and Compared with wine by the taste and pallate of all the resort of their acquaintance which are not a few, nor vnskilfull to Iudge, both these persons and many of their geuests and visitants beinge accustomed to good wines, I must say noe more, but referr <erased?: it> to your enquirie to the result of their Iudgments, onely this I add, That their Cider was of the one onlie sorte of Redstrakes, which as I oft tymes inculcate, was in memorie famously knowen by the name of the Scudamors Crab, and that it was ordered with no perticular care art or Diligence, It hath the onely excellency of the kinde of fruit, as it hath Constantly beene ordered to my knowledge these 30. or 40. yeares, And it must needs bee somewhat Iumled and altered by the Carriage of a hundred miles by Land in the heat of Summer, Neyther was it seasoned to the full tyme of perfect maturitie, For the best of these kinds of Cider and Perry haue not their full winy strength heat or vigor till a second or third yeare of age I note alsoe that some hogsheads of this kinde of Cider, was put in to the sellour for the vse of his Highnes att White hall, but of that alsoe there was noe Due care taken to keepe it and to [catchword: preserue]
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preserue it from vent till it retaineth, At first yf they had onely Drawen it, after it was throughly settled and Clarified into well Corked Bottles, and had heaped those Bottles, vnder sand or springe water in a Coole Roome, they had then found this sort of Liquor the Richest, the longer they had forborne it though it had beene for too yeares, As soone as this kinde of Cider is fitt to be Drunke it hath a Cleere and trancparant Amber Colour, and then it hath somewhat of the smartnes of Renish wyne in the farewell, which makes Ladys Call for suger But most men loue the gust as quickninge as the Appetite, As it hath more tyme of Maturitie, it riseth to a more fulvous Colour and will shewe a quick strength and heate in fleckinge the Cheeke and Chearinge the harte and Strengthinge the Stomacke as speedily as a good holsome wine, These Aples in some hott soyles, and southerne Dediuities, are soe well insolated that they Deserue the name of Redstrakes and are soe called at Kings Chappell and att Dimocke, where they are best knowen, These beinge allowed their full maturitie, and Culd out by their purple and Tauny Colour and hoorded in a Dry howse about a fortnight, and when ground being suffered for a few Dayes howres a (little more then halfe a Daye) to furment in the must, whether in a fat or in a Crib or (as is more vsually) in a Cake bound vp with wheaten strawe vpon the Cheesering this Liquor will be richer, approachinge to the Colour of some well Commended Greeke wines, at first season of maturitie, redder then purest vine De haye, and raisinge the Colour as it growes by tyme more fragrant, I should in one word give this generall advertisment, that the Richest liquor is that which runns [catchword: first]
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first and Comes from the must with easiest and least Compression as it is in wine, soe it is in Cider, and this care is omitted generally even in all that hath beene hetherto <deletion> sent <to> London neyther is it any wast to reguard this note, for when the winy Liquor is taken for a Cheefe vse, They soake the must in water all night, then Drawe the stone over it the second tyme, and it Cheeres vp the family the followinge Summer when stronger liquor would transforme the husbandman in a Cadmean Host and this second Deduction would originally be a more holsome Diett, yf our luxurie would allowe the frugalitie and sober councell, But yf you meane to haue your Cider truly winy you must allowe noe mixture of water and must, vse the best Causion you can to make your best Cider, before Autumnall showers haue Intermingled themselues in your Apples, as they hange on your Tree, this may make some Differnce, but not enough to Defeat or hazard my vndertakeings, And what the Liquor lacks in fiery strength it repaires in sobrietie and abtnes to quench thirst,/
And it is seldome in this Country that wee tast a Cupp of Cider that hath not by the evidence of good howswyues or by some Dropinge Casualty a mixture of water [deletion], And this I must note that yf water by mingled with Cider in the Mill it is a farr other kind of Liquor; then yf it be mingled afterward or after Drawinge it, as fresh beefe or Neates tonge, Cannot be salted on the trencher to haue the same relish as from the powdringe [Tub?] and Roofe <every> plough Boye will tast and smell the Difference,
The same Causion belongs to the season of mingleinge [catchword: seuerall]
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seuerall kindes of Apples and Peares,/ And thus we may finde simples enought of such Different and Desparate yf not Contrary Nature operation tast and Strength as may make vp a large Alphabett which may fully suffice to the accomodation humour and Conceipt, of every kinde of pallate Complexion and occasions, as five vouells and 20. consonants will make millions of wordes and languages.   Reasonable men will not except, that to maintayne the Comparison betweene this kinde of Liquor and wine of the grape, I should Challenge all kind of wines att a Common or promiscuous, vote, against one sorte of Cider and that raised from this one soyle, before triall be made of the other kindes of soyle, But thus farr wee Dare ingage, that the Cider of the Redstrakes as we haue experimentally found it, in all places of Different soyle whether stiffe Claye or light and sandy, wheresoever a Crab stocke can growe, for there we never saw the Redstrake grafe to faile, (is two indifferent Iudges) as rich as stronge yf Drawen in season, and then as free from rawnes and windines, and to the pallate far more pleasante then the better sort of white wines and Clarett that are found in most provinces of France,/ But this and most kindes of other Cider, is more winy in the hot Rylands in Vrchinfield, then in the Deeper Vale of wheat lands, perticulerly more briske and vigorous att my [Lord?] Scudamores Ham Lacy att Sir Iohn Scudamores Ballingham at Howe Capell and Dymocke, and on the westerne or [catchword: welch]
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welch side of Hereford then nearer the borders of worcestersheire,/ This I note because it is of some vallue to Chuse the grafts from the Kindest soyle, and wee here Doe not Deny grafts to our Enemies much less to a Stranger or vpon the motion of any Neighbour whatsoever,/ And as wee passe in a lyne from the East to the west the Cider of Lugwardine within two miles of Hereford is better then the Cider of Ledburie which lies in the Mid waye betweene worcester and Hereford, the Cider on the west side of Hereford in many places is better then that of Lugwardine., Now to prosecute the Alphabett of single kindes of Cider I must first mention knowne and Common kindes Pippins and Quince Apples and Queeneings and the best sorte of winter Apples make smooth and holsome Cider. Pearemaines somewhat quicker and more gustfull, And those that haue a more pungent relish as Eliotts and especially Portingalls require more tyme to Digest their windenes, and to mittigat the tartnes of the Liquor., The Liquor of Portingalls beinge best the second yeare, But non of these or any other kind of Mellowe Apples is soe kinde for Cider or other liquor as those which we call our right Cider fruite, which as they are more hartie, and beare more incessantly resistinge frosts and satisfied with the soyle of the Common Errable soe they [l?] may be knowne by the boundance of Liquor apt to gush out as soone as our teeth enter into them, and for ought we Can yet find, haueinge wayed Mr Austins objections and examined them in thousands of experiments where the liquor where the liquor of the Apple taken from the tree, tasteth more austeerly, there the Liquor proues more rich and winy, If the [catchword: Liquor]
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Liquor Devides from the pulp, and Disolues like sugar on the tongs end, it Commonly proues a fainte Liquor,/ Foresignifiinge that I Dare not be peremptorie in heightninge this Discourse into vniuersall Conclusions, I will a little more insist vpon this poynt, as farr as I hope it maye be helpfull to facilitiue the Discouerie of more kindes of exelent Cider fruite, sometymes the Liquor.of the Apple or Peare, hath an eger sowrenes as in the great Droppinge white must of which kinde of Cider I can promise noe great Improuement to the purpose of our Discourse, Onely Its a frugall Liquor a small quantity of it, mingled in the Mill with store of water will pleasure the howse Keeper, it being a verie houlsome Drinke for Day laborers
Sometyme the fruite passeth well at the Table not for the excellencie of the Liquor, (but by a Deception of sences because the pulp Dissolueth with a pleasinge insinuacion to the pallate, haueinge yf well obserued a weake or waterish Liquor. Of this kind there is small hope to our purpose, yet to allaie a Crab, or harsh Peare that is too full of rigorus Spiritts, this Does sometymes as well as rose water and suger with the stronger kinde of white wyne/ Sometymes the Iuice is most gratefull and D
delitious, but the pulp beinge stronge or greetie it Derogates from the Choice of the fruite,/ Of this kind is the Callaway a round yellowe Peare of a rough pulp, whose pleasant Iuyce makes such full [catchword: recompence]
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recompence, that it Claimes a precedence att their Table in Shropsheire,/ And of this kinde is the Peare which is here called the may Peare a longe greene Russett, and full of a most gratfull Iuice, and one tree of these Peares will saue the Ladys some cost, Loades of suger canes, yf they Desire the best way to allay the tartnes of winy Cider,/ somtime the pulp Devides from the Iuice in the Chewinge and then though the Iuice of it selfe give me noe, offence or be gratefull yet the pulp Doth not easilly passe Downe the throate, and tis too apparant in many kindes of Choake peares, and yf it be well obserued, you may find this in some Degree in the Gennett Moyle, for when the Gennett Moyle is fully ripe it hath a peculier fragrancie, and the Iuice verie Delitious, and yet then it is very passable for a Table fruite, but the pulp is fitter to be spitt out of the mouth [deletion] then to be swallowed   And these kindes of Delicate and pleasant Liquors, Doe not assume a winy vigour, to indure the heate of the followinge summer,/ It better suites with female appetite, then for men, And yf it be for Peares, it weakens the stomac and breedes wynd; and becomes roapie in a hott May, yf the Iuice of the fruit be soe austeere that it teares the rough of the mouth as yf a Man had Chrusht a whole mouthfull of sloes or Bullace, or as our Clownes here say, as yf the rough of the mouth [deletion]<had beene> filed away, This is the Liquor that makes your Smirnian or Allegant or some rich sorte of Greeke wine/
The most famously knowne of this kinde is the Bosbury bare land Peare, of which I lately said, that a hungry pigg will not vouchsafe to smell after it, But a Country Man latly told me that findinge one of these Peares soe over ripe that it [catchword: broake]
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broake in his hand, he threwe it to a hungry sowe and the sowe bytinge it, felt the smart of the liquor, and hastily Cast it out of her mouth,/ This is the liquor that is ordinarily, best att three yeares age, but (yf ordered to the best, you must reckon the age by Consullors or Parliaments or formes or Changes of Goverment for noe Mortall Can yet saye, att what age it is past the best,/ This wee Can say that we haue kept it til it burne as quickly as sacke, and Drawes the flame like Naphtha and fires the Stomacke like aquavite Neyther must we Dwell or ly relie vpon this kinde of Peare, or vpon Peares in generall for the prop of this Discourse,/ Onely as a very late Discouerie to some fewe knowne/ This I must here advirtice, that yf you would Drinke the liquor of this Peare, and such kindes of fruite, the first yeare then you must suffer them to ripen on the tree, till they be fully ripe almost ready to Drop Downe, and lett them lye on the heape as longe as may be without perill of Rottinge, But yf you will retaine the Liquor in perfection of maturitie then lett noe Rinde of Apple or peare hang on the Tree til it becomes mellowe, by a full mellownes the Liquor. is weakened and inclinable to roapines, And now you knowe how to Guard these fruites in our remote groundes from the theefe, A theefe Dares not bite them nor Drink of the Iuice in hast, And such persons haue seldome the patience to be prouident for followinge yeares much lesse for succedinge ages/ [catchword: for]
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For more exact and more Curious Direction in this pointe, lett the Masters of Iudicious gust obserue it and they shall find, that the May Peare and some other kindes of Delicate fruite, is then most plesant when by a gentle winde or other shaking it is taken from the Tree, till it be more yellowed and more Mellowed by the Sunn will be lesse, and some Peares, as well as generally all Grapes are more pleasant, yf when they come to a fitt ripnes they be horded a fewe Dayes,/ Hence you may Collect the fitt tyme of gatheringe, and the proportion of tyme for hordinge all these Kindes of austeere fruits, for the vse of Cyder and Perry,/ Lately neare Rosse the Minister of walford acquaints his friends there Called Iiny Winter Colonell Kirle and that Neighbourhood are said to take much <pleasure> in the Iuice of it, yf a theefe make hast to Drinke of the Liquor before it be Mellowed by tyme, it stupifies the rough of the mouth assalts the braine and purgeth more violent then a Galenist, In tyme it becomes a robust stomackfull and lusty Liquor.
I knowe an old Man of Malfill in Allensmore parish whoe hath in late yeares, sold a Kinde of Perry for the strongest sorte of Cider, This is not to the praise of his honest word, But he hath Doun soe little wronge in it that noe man could yet Discouer it, by tast or other operation,/ In this Discourse you still remember that the seene, is Herefordsheire where noe Perry is Comparable to Cider, but the longe Red horse Peare is generally knowne to yeeld the best sort of Perry,/ At Castle Froome they [catchword: preferr]
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<preferr> the white Horse Peare, there it proues kinder and is the more pleasant Drinke, for the Ladyes about the end of Summer, of a bright amber Colour, And those Peares Doe make a winy Liquor, yf well mingled with store of the best sorte of Crabs, of the redstraked filled, which becomes a faire tree, and of the Red Cheekt Must I haue formerly given an accompt, that they are vulgerly knowne, to yeeld an excellent Cider next in Degree to the fore mentioned Redstrade which is a Shrub, Tree, the greene filled, yf gathered in the next approch to ripenes, and hoorded one fortnight may be retained till it hath much of the vigour and a truer Greenish then the Rhenish,/ Now to Choose the Crab which shall to our purpose become winy our best of all to mingle with the foresaid, Peares especially to strengthen and make houlsome a weake kinde of Perry   Besides what I haue already said for a generall vindication, I must first perticulariz the Broome bury Crab[altered] Tis not aboue 4. or 5. yeares a goe, since one of Sir Henry Lingens, tenants prouided a triall of it for his Land Lord, and it was by them adiudged a richer stronger and more winy Liquor then the Redstrake, It seemes to Call to the Ladys for suger as smartly as Bacca, And then they saye it Deserues it as well, The reputation hetherto increaseth and we haue lernt to saue our suger by hoordinge it a fewe weekes the longer, or by the mixture of a fewe Red horse Peares or May Peares,/ Others find it a farr stronger pleasure [catchword: in]
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in minglinge it with austere Perry, the fruit soe ripened as is mentioned,/ More lately we Cry up the Croft Crab a very Crab, as the Narrow leaues of the tree will shewe, The Liquor is more pleasant then the Bromsbury Crabes and more Fragrant then the Redstrakes, vesseld by it selfe, and our Alewiues haue learnt to mingle it with the Bosbury bare land, and then to Challenge all the vintners <round> aboute them although, they Dringe it before yt comes to the winy strength, But I must haue the modesty[altered] to strike saile heare,/ This I may add, that yf att our begininge in one very small sheire, we haue already soe farr advanced, why should we Despaire of a further progresse in a shorte tyme,/ Or how will other parts of the same soyle excuse their lazines since we began this honest Emulation within tenn miles of this place we haue already raised, aboue fiftie thousand hogsheads of this winy Liquor in one yeare, And I lately offered to make oculer Demonstration, to you and wittnesses of your acquaintance and familie that in some and not a fewe places, one tree beares yearely and Constantly, aboue one hundred statute gallons of this liquor, in some places 200. such gallons, And in one place namely at my Lord Scudamores Ham Lacy and Leaden and at Lullan aboue 300, gallons, If the Spaniard accompt an Oliue tree a sufficient legacy for releefe of their numorous posteritie, may not we in England Call [deletion] one of these Trees a fairer inheritance, I may not tell [catchword: you]
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you howe longe together one of those Trees haue made all the village merrier then they should bee,/
An objection, is made by some body as I tould you that the Stocken Apple and May Peare may be mingled into a richer Liquor, then any yet named, I should be glad of it, for I haue noe heate against any objections But Mr Phillips Minister of Lugwardine, a very hostpitable good man Caused one of his Tenants to make him, a hogshead of the Liquor of the Stockin Apple, and it proued but a weake Drinke in Comparison <of> these & I soe often tried the May Peare, that I am sure it would not haue added strength, but haue increased of the liquor the liquor, of the best sort of French Cornells is the best and pleasantest of any, Apple that is plesantly eadible from the Tree tis fullest of liquor, and the liquor not lussious but pungently gustfull without troublesome wyndinesse and it makes hast to be ready in Autumne, when other Cider is to hot and stronge for the heat of the [deletion] weather, but I thinke it wanteth of the winy vigor, as good healinge Kentish ale wanteth the strength of the best March beere,/
I hould not my selfe bound to answere Philosophicall objections how the windy Apple should yeeld the wine But why not as stronge liquor [deletion] from an Apple Tree as from a Craulinge vine, At leasure I should shewe that the highest Degrees of heate, are sometymes ymprisoned vnder a cold filme, All mettalls and flints [catchword: and]
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and fat liquer will shewe it, Our touch feeles it a frost when fire is in the Center, give the rough liquor tyme, and the fire will breake out into flame and sparkel in the Cup at the heat and in the braine, But he answeres in the best Phylosophie whoe to the question Can answere
          our tongs and pallates without much skill in Philosophie, will find that the liquor in these and many other kindes of wild Apples and peares are as full of firerie spiritts as pungent, and stronge as the grape of <the> Allogant wine and as gentle Noble and Cordiall, yf they be allowed all the Degrees of maturity on the Tree in the heape in fitt vessells and in coole places, The more intollerable you find the austeritie of the spirittuous Liquor the more fully it must be suffered to be melloed to a Dropinge ripenesse on the tree, and the longer to take acqhaintance on the heape together before you grind it,/
Now yf the fruite runn before the stone, this is a Dialect which you will not vnderstand till you knowe, the best art of grindinge Cider fruite, then we haue our remeady for it when you haue ground it in a [space] Mill soe finely that it lookes like pap of a well rosted Apple, rather with a higher stone then with a stone that Crusheth kirnells and all the Drosse together, not stampinge it as some Doe stamp Crabs for verguice as you grind it put it into a Crib or rather into a fat the fat beinge like a brewinge vessell in Country howses, there it may ferment for [catchword: halfe]
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halfe a Daye or more the first runinge which Comes easily from the Peares, as is said before, is the best yf you now speedily vessell it, and vse the same care for the vessell season and Manner of Drawinge it as you would to preserue the flauour and richnes of wine you shall find it as briskely Dauncinge in the Cup, as much Coroberatinge the Stomac Comfortinge the harte preserueinge the balsome of Nature, purginge Corupt humours, [Clensinge?] the Raines and Kidneies Disolving the formed stone in the blader and all tarterous matter and alsoe yeeldinge a very rich tartar for aquavite,/ That more excellent qualities Cannot be attributed to any kind of wine, that I can here of The salubritie of the best of these liquors is sufficiently attested by the health and longe life of many thousands, that for some ages in this neighbourhood haue beene accustomed to this Drinke more then to any other,/ Haueinge recited experience, lett vs examine the Philosophie, first I Confesse, a cold rawe and windy substance in must and new Cider soe the fire of flints marbles Iewells mettalls had neede of stronger bonds of violent Cold to Constraine itt in prison, soe our stomac findes in the same foode, some parts inflameinge with heate, and some parts oppressinge with cold as all kind of fat is of neere kindred to flame Doe is the best marrowes, Cloged with a cold filme that [catchword: lieth]
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lieth heauy on the stomacke, and in these winy Liquors the firie spirits yf they be restraind to Driue their opperations towards and aboute the Cennter, and not suffered to expire and to Desert their proper interest, and to breake the Covenant of vnion, then they will feede on the Center parts and Consume them, or Convirt them into the like noble substance, or quench some of their owne furie in reduceinge their adversarie into a better accord,
Thus we see how salt in tyme, Consumes the [deletion] Rhumatique grosnes of beefe bacon and most sorts of viands into a seasonable realish, and with the helpe of Runnet will in two <or> three yeares, make Cold Cheesecurd as hot in the stomack as Spanish wines, and somtymes your eyes may behold in it a pregnant animation
    The like will I vpon the same sure ground and vpon infaileable experience, promise for the roughest of these Craby Liquors, soe Chosen as I haue twice repeated yf they be Duelly laid vp for posteritie, as China ware is said to be,
    Here yf I am Rightly apprehended I shall seem to retract my former sentence, that water Doth best agree with Cider, yf mingled with it att first in the Mill, for by this last Discourse, you may Diserne howe water weakneth the firie spirits, and assisteth the windy and cold subsance to the victorie and oppression of the Liquor./ I must graunt it vpon experience and obvious reason that [catchword: much]
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much water hinders it, from recoueringe a winy vigor, But yf we could bringe our English pallates to the vse of water taken from the pure fountaine streame or springe as Nature ordeined it, and most of the wide world, except ourselues, and some fewe of our <northen> neighbours are accustomed, then we should find the like help from meere Cider of the Strongest kinde as from the wine of the Grabe,/ And thus we might saue our Barly for bread, and our Orchards would beare vs meate fitt to be eaten, Rawe Rosted Boyld or Baked, every Cottier would find a plentifull Cheerefull and plesant sustenance in one Tree, that might border on the Commons or on the Highwayes or wast groundes/
    And what life or harte would there be in the wine of the Grape, yf it were overcharged with more then halfe water in the wine presse, gathered before ripe sqeesed all together Kirnells and vnripe, and noe care had of the vessellinge, or Drawinge, of it in season,/ As our Common Cider by Diligence, may be made richer then the Common wine, of our next Neighbours of France, soe it will beare more iniuries, still reteyneinge a good a good strength and solubrity. Tis possible our exise office may in tyme bring the Common people to the Vse of water from the River that their meere Cider maye be Conteined in [catchword: fewer]
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fewer vessells, and Decline the Inventorie of Charge and envie, and then the sweetest fruite will be acknowledged to haue a spreadinge virtue/
    But to returne to my former Iudgment, without affront to the last mentioned Philosophy as the great Cheese, by tyme becomes mellowe, soe yf an equall porcoin of water be mingled in the Cider Mill with a stronge kinde of Cider in the heate of the next summer, it will be Coroborated into a houlsome and pleasant wine, and verie many will prefer it before the best meere Cider, yf a third parte onely be water, I haue seene our great pretenders of<to> gust pallate and high Liquor mistake their owne purpose, and preferr this mixture before meere Cider, yf two parts be water, a third of the best Cider, then I Dare not call it wine, but Cider and yet yf well ordered in this Degree it will excell a good white white wine with a like quantitie of water, the suger beinge excluded, that the Comparison may be vpon equall termes,/   But Cider that is over Charged with water Doth seldom retaine a gustfull plesantnes, to hould out against the heat of the latter harvests,/
    You may here obiect that I haue named but fewe kindes of this richer sorte of winy Apples I grante it but how shall <I> help it, when the best that I Doe knowe of this kinde are as it were newly raised or Discouered by Chance, and Doe as yet beare noe other name then [catchword: of]
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of Crabs or wild Apples,/ generally they are larger, then Crabs, and much fuller of Iuice, and frequetly more ruddy and high Colored as well within the pulpe as, on the wine, and the Discouerie is made very lately in seuerall places here and there, and I list not to be ingaged, as a sole Iudge or vmpier but will waite for the result of a Concurrent vote
    For fuller satisfaction in this point in a followinge Discourse, I intend to shewe you the art of Raisinge Diuerse kindes of these best Cider fruites and for ought I knowe I am the onely Philosopher that Doe Cerisously prosecute this art, and possibly I may teach all Men to be more experte in it then myselfe accordinge to the prouerbe
          By readinge old Bookes and Comparing our new successes, I see already that wee haue farr exceeded the ancient and haue advanced verie farr to obliege all posteritie/
    And because this will be like a Pattent vnder the greate Seale, not a worke of expedition, but rather like a wast of halfe a Dozen [deletion] yeares tyme   Therefore for a further recompence in another breefe Discourse, I will shew you how we Doe here Plant a Cider Orchard att verie small and inconsiderable Charges, that within 5. yeares Doth returne a plentifull reward in our Country where Cider is [catchword: verie]
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very Cheape, It is oft tymes in the prime of perfection within tenn Dayes yeares, for the Must and best sorte of Cider Apples especially the Redstrake, come on a great Deale faster then Pippens or peare Maynes and other winter fruite, and out of these rich either apples or peares, yeeld more Liquor then two pippenes,/ And besides this our ordinary Diligence, I shall shew by what Art a Tree shall growe, and beare as much in one yeare as ordinarily in two, as much in five yeares (by the course which I shall prescrube) as vsually in tenn yeares not by violence or pracipitation, but by Naturall ayd and true Improuements and this must be of some vallue to them whoe haue noe store of it in the Neighbourhood and will vse it as wine/
    I will not onely give the rules and shew the examples but alsoe send the Artists, that shall performe all these thinges for the gratification of Noble persons,/ A word more I should add, Concerninge the vessellinge of it All our Clownes Descerne that noe beere vessell is fitt to receive Cider, the worst sort of Cider is too good to succeede the Strongest March beere,/ A new vessell gives the Cider a little tatch of the wood att least till some gallons, are Drawne off from the head of the vessell I meane att the first runinge/
A fresh Caske that retaines the Lees, of sacke helps to hasten to maturity some fill the vessell up to the bunhole and leaue there a smale passage open that the Cider may purge and worke for a fortnight, and then they fill [catchword: vp]
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vp the vessell quite to the bunhole with more of the same Cider and soe stop it vp,
    Some thinke best to hinder the wast of spiritts by vent and to prevent the Danger of breakeing the hoopes of the vessell by the force of firmentation they fill not vp the vessell quite to the bun-hole & haue an eye to it to open a vent yf they finde the Liquor unruly,/
    When the Liquor hath beene settled and Clarified by the winter frost in a larger vessell, then at the beginninge of the Springe, it is the best season in a Cold Eveninge or morninge to Drawe it into Bottles, yf we Can allowe that Charge, and then the Bottles well Corked will preserue it in a Coole roome to what strength you please, For your better Safeguard the Corks may be luted or bound with a searecloth of wax or pitch <as> in the ancient,/ wee here abhorr all mixtures whatsoever, The best approued is a pynte of Mustarde Seede, or halfe soe much to every hogshead, bruised and mingled with Sacke or the same Cider it Doth hasten Clarification,/
   Some fewe Doe fill the vessell with the smoake of sulphur, before they putt in the Liquor vppon Old Catoes Comendation I tryed halfe a pound of Iuniper Berries, but had noe thanks [catchword: for]
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for this Diligence, It might be for some more holsome, but others would not pardon it,/
    If this Discourse be Duly vallued wee neede not raise warrs to Distroye on another or eate vpp one another, as wee Doe, In a shorte tyme, wee may be provided of foode enough for another world as bigge as this, and soe make this a true Parradice