The Hartlib Papers

Title:Copy "Profits Humbly Presented To This Kingdom" In Hand B, [Benjamin Worsley?]
Notes:Much of the punctuation appears to have been added by Hartlib; other copies at 25/3/7 and 53/32/1.

[top right corner, Hartlib:]        Opera Parlament
[hand B:]
    Proffits humbly presented to this Kingdome.
[left margin: First]
To exhibitt a way of producing of Salt-petter, in greater plentie then ever heretofore and that without diging of houses or Sellars or that great charge and burden generally complained of in the commonwealth.
[left margin: Secondly]
To improove the Hussbandrie of the Land, throughout the whole Kingdom by setting downe [left margin, H: 1] certaine wayes to command[H deletes] <H: to amend> some barren grounds. 2dly of better manuring, & fatning good ground[H alters from groundes] then hath as yet beene used. 3dly of preparing the seed for the ground. 4ly of ordering the seasons for Tillage, otherwise then before, of[H deletes] <H: in> preventing [left margin, H: on?] of milldewes Blastings and the like inconveniences. 5thly of Tilling, and labouring the ground affter a more an[H deletes] excellent <H: and ready> manner. In a way much differing and more proffitable then the practise now followed. All which things wee have all ready experimented and being once generally assumed, will bee found exceedingly for the increase[altered from increasse] of all sorts of grayne and fruits proper to this Kingdome.
[left margin: Thirdly.]
To better the fishing of this Kingdome First in great Fishes by using another kind another kind[H deletes] of Salt, which likwise wee will furnish cheaper; by shewing also another[H alters] <left margin, H: Course> kind[H deletes] of drying and curing them, then hath beene hetherto observed both for the making of them more whollsome and gratefull to the palate[altered from palate] and stomack, and that way more salliable, and also more merchantable in regard of Colour and [word deleted] [durance?] For whereas Fish, both North Sea, - Codd & new found-land fish are now soe handled as that diversse of them within a litle whille change their white and Fresh collour, turne black, Heate, and grow strong and moist, nor will endure above a yeare or such a matter, by which the Fisher man looseth much off his price The merchant man of his Gaine[H capitalises] offt times and the common wealth her riches
These may be remedied and the matter soe ordered & provided for as they shall both retaine their colour bee preserved from Sweating Heating and putrifing[H alters] one another, and soe lost and endure much longer. Secondly for smaller fishes[H alters] as Herrings by proposing of other kind[altered from kinds] of nets & another manner of Fishing For them.
[left margin: 4ly]
To improove the woolls of the Kingdome by a better order and manner of feeding of sheep and preserving them from sicknces.
[left margin: 5tly.]
That whereas there are severall commodities both of necesitie and pleasure that wee are forced to fetch out of other Countries: some with ready money and others with the exchange of our proper commodities; as out off Spaine Italy and Turkey and the rest to the wasteing of the estate of the Kingdome Wee humbly offer to make it most [evidently? MS edge] appeare. That by such a well regulated plantation as wee shall cleerly and ordely[altered from ordely] describe with such lawes and constituons in it That the most generall of those commodities wee now fetch from other partes, may bee had within [catchword: our]

within our owne dominions and that at very[altered from every] inferiour rates especially those Countries we will plant being also ordered and improoved, according to the former [letter deleted?] manner, & goverment of our præscribed Hussbandrie. For those Southern and Westerne partes being by nature, without any art used [I either? H deletes] <H: richer> of themselves, then any groundes in any part of christendome[H alters from chrisdome] whatsoever[altered], Must needes be farr richer being further improoved and Cultivated by a more then ordinarie and excellent. way of Industry[altered].
By the putting of all which things into excution; if we may be permitted it will bee soone made appeare these ensuing Benefits will necessarily succed[H deletes] <H: succeed.>
7. It being allready premised[H alters from premissed] The Plantation land to bee richer of itselfe then any other now inhabited in any <other> part now inhabited in any part of Christendome & to be also affter a better way then any countrey yet ever was Husbanded and cultivated[H alters], and the Planters themselves according to the constitutions fittest the generall[altered from gennerall] good of the Kingdome disciplined and governed, It must needes follow the commodities it shall beare, whether Wines, [Fruyts? H alters], Sugars, [Drugs? H deletes] <left margin, H: Drugs> and others will bee brought forth farr more <left margin, H: abundantly and plentifully and consequently will bee afforded farre more> cheape and more reasonable[H alters] by many degrees then those from other partes, now brought us. From[H capitalises] this a first[H alters] branch & the having of them within our selves These following proffits will naturally spring.
1 Much Bullion the riches[H alters] of any Kingdome; now sent for them, may be spared. For it is well knowne, wee buy all our Currantes with ready plate, without the Exchange[H alters from Exchang] of Commodity at all to vallew. The Custome of which comming[H alters] heere to many 1000lb a yeare, wee may give, much a larger allowance to the Principal and yet this is but one among those[H alters] that are brought in./
2 By this cheapnesse as without so a vast expence of money within the Commonwealth of this Kingdome, will bee exceedingly saved, and preserved and First in privat expences if soe much wine as men now give 7[lb?] or 8[lb?] for, they shall hereaffter bee certainly furnished with 2 or 3d. Here[H alters] /will bee halffe the privat expences[H alters] saved throughout the Kingdome. Besides which it may bee expected[H alters from expect] when wine shall bee more plentifull[H alters], Gallantes will drinke lesse intemperatly. Every man knowing drunkenes rageth least in those Countries where wine is easiest to bee had. [left margin, H: Secondly in House keeping.] For[H capitalises] a privat Gentelman allowing himself 200lb a yeare for Hous heeping wee cannot esteeme[H alters] his expences at lesse[H alters] [H deletes word] <H: then> 20lb a yeare in wine, Fruits and Sugar, which is the 10th part According to which, Wee[H capitalises] may <H: within compasse> vallew the expence of most hous keepers [H deletes word] <H: within> the Kingdome. If now these Commodities bee afforded at half the rates they [catchword: now are]

now are, accordingly the 20th part of expence in Housekeeping will bee saved throughout the whole Kingdome. Now[H capitalises] if to this wee shall adde the cheapnesse of graine and Fish by the improovment Graine and Husbandrie Fish by the improovement of our owe Husbandrie and fishing &c <H: it> will bee impossible to auditt or cast up the proffit of this benefit only.
3. When these commodities are so cheap if there be any extraordinary occasion[altered] for monyes, they will easily beare the greater excise, and that with more cherfullnes and lesse trouble to the subject; a consideration of no slight vallew.
4. The Ground being richer and the way of mannaging more excellent it is probable that the commodities thence, especially such druggs as shall bee planted there will bee fresher, better & more healthy. Againe wee observe the Raysins to be much fairer in Barbary & Siria then in Spaine and Italy.
5. All the poore in the <[whole? MS blotted]> Kingdom maybe this way maintained, all industrious willing laboring mindes in any Art, may by thus[H alters] set <H: a> worke & releeved. Gentelmen and others of Estate vndone by the warres may be here succored, and not only so, but All these may live plentifully and be inriched. Whence also all the inconveniences comming from having many poore in a Kingdome of Begging - stealing - wandring lazily, and all Habitts of idlenesse will be removed. And all Heartes made happy and gladded.
Secondly. Whereas the Hollander trading into the same places with us now for those commodities serves not only his owne but other Kingdomes with them as France Denmark Poland & all the Easterne and Northern Clymats[H alters] thereby imploying his shipping and stock and ingrossing to himselfe much proffit, being every way[H deletes]
<H: where> able to undersel us by reason of the cheapnesse of his sayling. We furnishing[H alters from furnish] those Northern Regions with the same commodities by our owne shipping, from our owne Plantations, shall from this 2d branch gaine these considerable advantages.
Increass of Trade, and imployment for more shiping.
Wee shall give a check to prevent the Hollanders overgrowing us.
Our Nation receiving the wholl benefitt both of the Commodities itselfe and monopolizing[H alters from monopoling] also the trading for them into their owne hands, it will bee like as but somewhat more, then if Spaine Italy and those Countryes which now vent those [catchword: Commodities]

Commodities wer ours by Conquest and possesion. Because this way we speake of wee can afford their commodities cheaper then wee could by having their countries in [subjection? MS edge] Therefore the Gaine is cleerly greater then would be the conquest of theme)
This[H deletes] <H: These> Commodities will either bring into the Planter[H alters] Sayler[H alters] Merchant and so to the whole Kingdome, most of all the Bullion in those partes, into which they are traded for, because wee are able now, to afford them much cheaper, then they formerly had [before? H deletes] <left margin, H: them> or else it will at least make their commodities much cheaper to us, being bartered[H alters] at the rates[H alters] customarily used, which if wee ourselves stand not in need off, wee may the better export to the parts, that doe most want them.
Thirdly this enlargment of our Dominions & this encrease & improovement of our Nationall <left margin, H: Commodities> [H deletes 2? words] <H: and> trading, will much spread the glory & add to the power & strength of this Kingdome.
[left margin, H: In] Increasse of our Shipping[H capitalises] which will arise[H alters from arrise] partly through the increasse off imployment, partly by the cheapnesse of matterialls, some of which <left margin, H: Our> plantations may afford, and the rest by our trade into the Easteland[H alters] will bee also more easily and cheaply procured.
By the proffits arising[H alters from arrising] from the tythes or Dutyes which shall be payd from this Plantation & from the Husbandrie and fishing being improoved, may the Royall Navy[H capitalises] be much augmented and a continuall great fleet without all charge[H alters from charg] and burden to the subject maintained By merchants goodes better then heretofore[H alters] guarded & defended from[H alters] the Turkes or other Pyratts abroad/.
Revenues of the Crowne and commonwealth will by this meanes be vastly accumulated. For[H capitalises] the Customes will be increased through the increase of trading, and the employment of them through[H deletes] <H: toward> the repayring or maintaining of a fleet will be wholly suspenced And therefore they may the more freely to any other Public use bee dispossed[H alters from disspossed] and converted <H: or> according to ancient custome[altered] Threasurd.
From this Plantation in time of warre or off necessitie may this [catchword: Kingdome]

Kingdome be exceedingly assisted & releeved with shipping men mony & provision[H alters from provission] like or affter the Custome[altered] of Confederats. To which advantage wee may add The spirits of men will bee more heightned, and their mindes to all generous and greatt actions more fitly disposed[H alters from disspossed], when through these meanes want misery[H alters from missery] and servitude shall be wholly turned out of doores./ And of what conducement to valour & great undertakings the freedome[H alters from freedomes] of mens[H alters] mindes is, Let not only learned Verulam[H alters] judge, but let the differneces between the actions & achivments of the English compared[H alters] to other Nations, wittnesse.
The rates[H alters from rattes] and prices of the Commodities[H capitalises] properly apertaining to this Kingdome, as woolles, Cloathes, Tinne Lead [H deletes word] <H: etc> will or may easily bee inhaunced, & bettered. For iff wee now stand not in need of the commodities of those other countries for the returne and gaine of which Wee formerly sent ours thither; it becommeth an obligation to them that wee trade with them, they standing in want of ours: wee noe wayes in necessitie of <H: theirs and> therfore[altered] seeming to bee noble and charitable to our neighbour or allied[H alters] kingdomes rather then to seeke a benefit by them, or our owne gaine from them.
Standing in the Condition & Relation now named, wee must in the exchange of our owne commodities necessarily, continually import & bring in Bullion. And many occasions being now taken away of wastfull expence of it within the Kingdom and of transporting it againe (as formerly) out of the Kingdom, We[H capitalises] may in time become the worlds - cash keepers.
Bullion and money thus Banckt & Foorded, all thinges may then more & more conveniently bee done, that shall bee thought further to concerne the Splendor, Glory, honour, & wealth of this Kingdom as Ambassodors may bee more Gallantly heere then in other partes entertained or more noblely if welcome, rewarded or our owne more richly and eminently disspatched and attended[altered]. But[H capitalises] especially new discoverie of the Eastherne and Southerne or [Popular? H deletes] <H: Polar> partes of Terra Australis, Chyna, Tartary, Iapan, Streights of Anian or North-west passage soe offten and soe earnestly desired may be againe now seasonably revived and made, and the riches of then soe found may bee conveyed
[catchword: 8 All]

All commodities in the world being either naturall, or artificiall & the artificiall being framed of the Naturall If then the Naturall be afforded more cheape, and plentifully the Artificiall will be soe also, so that by encreassing and ingrossing of naturall commodities besides the employing and setting of more men on worke we thereby likwise ingrosse Artificiall.
The riches wealth and eminency of any Kingdom will strongly invite all sorts of Artists[H alters] & ingenious men from all places to them; especially if any immunities privyledges or honours be graunted to encourage them, by which we may as certainly deprive our neighbour Kingdoms of their rich manufactures, as wee have, or may[H alters] doe, of those other naturall Commodities[H capitalises], which yet will add more glory and more wealth to the Kingdome, because those manufactures or Arts, which togeather with themselves, were strangers, will now togeather with them become free denyzons, and in the ensuing age natives). And of what exceeding consequence to a Kingdome the [inffluence? altered] and resort of ingenious men, and Artists of all sorts, will bee, what riches proffit and advantage if encouraged; they will [H deletes 3? words] <H: bring> he that is but a novice in Policy, will disscerne. Manufacture being halfe if not the major part of the riches of all Kingdomes. History, and Observation[H capitalises] being full of nothing more, then of presidents of countryes, raysing themselves from Nothing to a greattness solely by them. The Gayne of which wee may the better assigne if wee shall consider the income traffique riches and trade, procured to severalls Kingdomes by one ore 2 Arts[H capitalises] alone, as off Cloaths[H alters] and Stuffes in our owne land, of Glasse, & paper in Fraunce, & Venice, of silke in Florence and paper in Fraunce and Venice of minemen and Founders in Savoy, Germany, Denmarke and [Swethd.?] an advantage of which last, wee have about most, if not above all Kingdomes, were such men encouraged and these Kingdomes and our forraine plantations well searcht and this way improoved.
It will follow as a thing of not the least moment, that as wee shall and may thus daily raise and strengthen ours: so the Kingdoms about [catchword: us] [bottom of page, faintly written: Londb?]

will, and must neccessarily as much decay and weaken. For as wee shall sending our owne commodities every where [abroad? MS edge] and that at gainfull rates[H alters from rattes], not standing in need of returning others for them, dayly take in without laying out, and soe stil add and improove the wealth and stock of the Kingdome. They contrarily being forced to by[H deletes] <H: buy> the commodities of others, at great prices, and either transporting or selling none of their owne, or but at low and meane prices, doe dayly /lay out without taking in, and therefore must[H alters] <H: needes> continually decay and weaken. By which meanes as wee shall bee secure from all feare off them soe wee shall bee able to give, and to dictate lawes to them, which advantage may bee turned to a most pious and Christian end in preserving peace Universally amoungst them. For how much the favour and siding of any potent and wealthy Kingdome will ballance[H alters] and sway the Negotiations of the neighbour Kingdoms, is obvious[altered] to the knowledge and observation of every intelligent man, and soe wee may sitt as judge and Vmpire[H alters] of [all? MS edge] Christian differences, and may draw and ingross the blessings and promises to ourselves that are made to the Peace makers.
If to this wealth and honour thus feasably to bee attained, shall bee annexed a Reformation of laws, and /an establishment of rightousnes amoungst us, then to these may wee yet promisse to ourselves more glorious thinges as First a Propogation of the Gospell into other unknowne partes wherby Gods name and Love to mankind may be <H: more> spread and made manifest 2dly a Reformation of Education & soe of all the Vnhappinesse[H alters from unhappinesse] hitherto thence springing, by the setting vp[H alters from up] and ordaining other and[H deletes] <H: kind> of schools and teaching. 3dly Advancement of Learning[H capitalises] by men appointed[H alters from appointment] and maintained to keep an Vniversall[H alters from universall] Correspondency, by erecting of Threasure[H capitalises] Houses[H capitalises] for the Collection[H alters from Collecting] <H: of> the History of nature, for experiments both Chymicall[H capitalises] and Mechanicall[H capitalises] <left margin: &> by increassing of choice and public Libraries[H capitalises] 4thly endeavoring[H alters from endeavong] the Conversion[H alters from converssion] of the Iewes a worke as most Divines [catchword: conceave]

conceave shortly to be expected and without doubt at hand, and such [letter deleted?] <H: as> [would? MS edge] not bee only bee a temporall, but a /true and eternall Honour to them that sought or furthered it. 5thly The indeavouring an Union and reconciliation throughout all the Christian at least all the Protestant Churches.
These being the most Glorious magnificent[H alters] & Honourable vndertakings[H alters from undertakings], that may bee thought of; for any Nation. But not to bee undergone without much Charge and therefore soe fitt for none, as <H: as> such a qualified Kingdome as wee speake off and have here set downe. Wee humbly beseech[H alters] the Father of all mercyes of his infinite love to mankind through his only and true Sonne, by his power and goodnesse, to bring that into perfect Act, that wee have begun to demonstrate in a fayre and easy potentia.
    m o