Thematic Divisions in Book 12
1. Exhumations of Bucer and Phagius along with Peter Martyr's Wife2. Pole's Visitation Articles for Kent3. Ten Martyrs Burnt at Canterbury4. The 'Bloody Commission'5. Twenty-two Prisoners from Colchester6. Five Burnt at Smithfield7. Stephen Gratwick and others8. Edmund Allen and other martyrs9. Edmund Allen10. Alice Benden and other martyrs11. Examinations of Matthew Plaise12. Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs13. Ambrose14. Richard Lush15. The Martyrdom of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper16. Rose Allin and nine other Colchester Martyrs17. John Thurston18. George Eagles19. Richard Crashfield20. Fryer and George Eagles' sister21. Joyce Lewes22. Rafe Allerton and others23. Agnes Bongeor and Margaret Thurston24. John Kurde25. John Noyes26. Cicelye Ormes27. Persecution at Lichfield28. Persecution at Chichester29. Thomas Spurdance30. Hallingdale, Sparrow and Gibson31. John Rough and Margaret Mearing32. Cuthbert Simson33. William Nicholl34. Seaman, Carman and Hudson35. Three at Colchester36. A Royal Proclamation37. Roger Holland and other Islington martyrs38. Stephen Cotton and other martyrs39. Scourging of Thomas Hinshaw40. Scourging of John Milles41. Richard Yeoman42. John Alcocke43. Thomas Benbridge44. Four at St Edmondsbury45. Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver46. Three at Bury47. A Poor Woman of Exeter48. The Final Five Martyrs49. John Hunt and Richard White50. John Fetty51. Nicholas Burton52. John Fronton53. Another Martyrdom in Spain54. Baker and Burgate55. Burges and Hoker56. The Scourged: Introduction57. Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax58. Thomas Greene59. Bartlett Greene and Cotton60. Steven Cotton's Letter61. James Harris62. Robert Williams63. Bonner's Beating of Boys64. A Beggar of Salisbury65. Providences: Introduction66. The Miraculously Preserved67. William Living68. Edward Grew69. William Browne70. Elizabeth Young71. Elizabeth Lawson72. Christenmas and Wattes73. John Glover74. Dabney75. Alexander Wimshurst76. Bosom's wife77. Lady Knevet78. John Davis79. Mistress Roberts80. Anne Lacy81. Crosman's wife82. Congregation at Stoke in Suffolk83. Congregation of London84. Englishmen at Calais85. Edward Benet86. Jeffrey Hurst87. William Wood88. Simon Grinaeus89. The Duchess of Suffolk90. Thomas Horton 91. Thomas Sprat92. John Cornet93. Thomas Bryce94. Gertrude Crockhey95. William Mauldon96. Robert Horneby97. Mistress Sandes98. Thomas Rose99. Troubles of Sandes100. Complaint against the Ipswich Gospellers101. Tome 6 Life and Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth102. The Unprosperous Queen Mary103. Punishments of Persecutors104. Foreign Examples105. A Letter to Henry II of France106. The Death of Henry II and others107. Justice Nine-Holes108. John Whiteman109. Admonition to the Reader110. Hales' Oration111. The Westminster Conference112. Appendix notes113. Ridley's Treatise114. Back to the Appendix notes115. Thomas Hitton116. John Melvyn's Letter117. Alcocke's Epistles118. Cautions to the Reader119. Those Burnt at Bristol: extra material120. Priest's Wife of Exeter121. Snel122. Laremouth123. William Hunter's Letter124. Doctor Story125. The French Massacre
Names and Places on this Page
Robert Brassey [or Brassie]Thomas Peacock
Person and Place Index   *   Close
Robert Brassey [or Brassie]

(1509? - 1558)

DD (1557), Provost of King's College, Cambridge (1556 - 1558). Vice-chancellor of university (1557 - 1558). V icar of Preston, Lancs. (1541 - 1558)(Venn)

Brassey interrogated George Marsh at Lathom House. The earl of Derby was confident that Brassey would convert Marsh. 1570, p. 1733; 1576, p. 1479; 1583, p. 1562.

He examined Marsh again, more informally, with John Sherburne. 1570, p. 1733; 1576, p. 1480; 1583, p. 1563.

Together with Sherburne, he presented Marsh with four articles to subscribe to and exhorted him to recant. 1570, p. 1733; 1576, p. 1480; 1583, p. 1563.

Brassey objected to interference in King's College affairs from Cardinal Pole's commissioners. 1563, pp. 1537 [recte 1549]-1558 [recte 1570]

Brassey exempted himself from being deemed present when the commissioners were sent on a visitation to Cambridge in 1557. 1563, p. 1540, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1958.

Cuthbert Scott had an altercation with Brassey on 11 January 1557. 1563, p. 1540, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1958.

Brassey again excused himself at St Mary's church on 12 January 1557. 1563, p. 1540, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1958.

He was called before Ormaneto, who told him he was wicked and in danger of excommunication. 1563, p. 1540, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1958.

The provost of King's College made a protestation to the queen's commissioners on 14 January 1557, to which Scot declared that he knew not why he was making his protestation. 1563, p. 1540, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1958.

Brassey's examination took place before Scot, Watson and Christopherson on 14 January 1557. 1563, p. 1540, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1958.

[Foxe calls him Master of King's. This is a mistake, as the head of the college was the provost.]

[Christopher Haigh has described Brassey as 'a gentle Catholic of the old school' in Reformation and Resistance in Tudor Lancashire (Cambridge, 1975) p. 184.]

Person and Place Index   *   Close
Thomas Peacock

(1516 - 1582)

BD (1554). Canon of Norwich (1554 - 1556); rector of Downham, Cambs (1555 - 1569); and prebend of Ely (1556 - 1559 [deprived]). President of Queens' (1558 - 1559). [DNB; Venn]

Peacock preached a sermon in Latin at the assembly of Cambridge graduates and commissioners called by Cardinal Pole, part of Pole's attempt to reintroduce catholicism at the university. 1563, pp. 1537 [recte 1549]-1558 [recte 1570]

He preached at the burning of Wolsey and Pygot. 1570, p. 1894, 1576, p. 1622, 1583, p. 1715.

Thomas Peacock gave a Latin sermon in January 1557, attended by the queen's commission to the University of Cambridge, in which he preached against Bilney, Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley. 1563, p. 1540, 1570, p. 2144, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1958.

[Stripped of all his preferments at the accession of Elizabeth. Resigned the presidency of Queens' College in 1559 in order to avoid expulsion. DNB]

1980 [1956]

Queene Mary. Visitation in Cambridge. M. Bucer, Paulus Phagius condemned.
MarginaliaAnno 1557. Heere beginneth the XII. Booke, containing the bloudye doings and persecutions of the aduersaries against the Faithfull and true seruantes of Christ, with the particular processes and names of such as were put to slaughter from the beginning of Ian. An. 1557. and the fifte of Queene Marie.
The order and maner of the Cardinals visitation in Cambridge, with the condemning, taking vp, and burning the bones and Bookes of Bucer and Paulus Phagius, An. 1557. Ian. 9.  
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Cattley/Pratt, VIII, 258, fn 2

This account is derived from "Historia vera de vitâ, obitu, sepulturâ, accusatione hæreseos, condemnatione, exhumatione, combustione, honorificâque tandem restitutione M. Buceri et Fagii, etc.," Argentinæ, 1562; "which was quickly turned into English by Arthur Golding, under the title of "A briefe Treatise concerning the Burnynge of Bucer and Phagius at Cambridge,'" etc. 16mo. 1562. See Dibdin's Typograph. Antiquities, vol. iv. p. 500; it will be observed, that Foxe's extracts begin at p. 113 of the Latin. Appendix:The ensuing narrative of the Visitation at Cambridge is merely a reprint of Golding's translation.

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The Exhumation of Bucer and Phagius

This account is almost entirely based on Conrad Hubert's volume on the exhumation, burning and reinterment of the bodies of Martin Bucer and Paul Fagius in Cambridge and of Catherine Martyr in Oxford, the Historia vera de vita, obitu, sepultra condemnatione, exhumatione D. Martin Buceri et Pauli Fagii (Strasburg: 1562). This book was almost instantly translated into English: A briefe treatise concerning the burnynge of Bucer and Phagius, trans. Arthur Golding (London: 1562), STC 3966.

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In the 1563 edition, Golding's translation was simply reprinted. (Interestingly, although a manuscript copy of sections of the the Historia vera survives among Foxe's papers - BL, MS Lansdowne 388, fos. 251r-319v - and although Foxe unquestionably consulted the Historia vera - the 1563 account is not a fresh translation of the Historia vera but a very faithful reprinting of Golding's translation). Foxe also included a poem on Bucer by John Redman and an account of the exhumation of Catherine Martyr's body which he translated from the Historia vera. (Golding had not included this in his translation).

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In the 1570 edition, Foxe once again reprinted Golding's translation but deleted substantial portions of it. Some of this material was removed because it was inflamatory or offended powerful people, and some it was probably judged superflous and too concerned with the parochial affairs of Cambridge University. A large section dealing with the reinterment of Bucer and Fagius was dropped, probably because it took up too much paper, especially in view of the material added to this edition . This material seems to have been drawn from official records of the exhumation, which were probably kept at Lambeth Palace and sent to Foxe by Matthew Parker.

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No changes were made to this account in the 1576 edition. In the 1583 edition, Foxe reprinted the material on the reinterment of Bucer and Fagius which had last appeared in the 1563 edition.

MarginaliaIanuary. 9. Visitation at Cambridge, with the burning of Martyn Bucer and Paulus Phagius bones.CArdinall Poole, three yeares after his retourne into Englande, hauinge somwhat withdrawn his mind from other affaires of the realme, and hauing in all poyntes established the Romish religion, began to haue an eye to the vniuersity of Cambridge, whiche place amōg other, speciallye  

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Cattley/Pratt, VIII, 259, fn 5

"Inespecially." Ed. 1563. - ED. Appendix:"Inespecially" is the reading of the first Edition and the "Briefe Treatise." This word occurs rather frequently in Caxton's books; as in the Golden Legend, fol. ccclxi. verso, &c.

seemed to haue neede of reformation out of hand. To perform this charge, were chosen MarginaliaThe Inquisitours.Cuthbert Scot, not long before consecrated Bishop of Chester, Nicholas Ormanet  
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Cattley/Pratt, VIII, 259, fn 1

"Tra' quali fù non guari dopo Vescovo di Padoua, et ultimamente mori in Madrid nunzio di sua Santita alla corte de Spagna. Il quale come persona di grandissima gravita, e di prudenza singularissima, visito tutti quei Collegi d'Ossonio, e di Cantabrigia, e con grandissimo zelo gli reformo," etc. See "L'Historia Eccles. della Rivoluzion d'INghilterra, da Girol. Pollini," (in Roma, 1594), lib. 3, cap. 19. - ED.

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an Italian, Archpriest of the people of Bodolon,  
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in the dioces of Veron, professed in bothe the lawes, and bearing the name of the popes Datary,  
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Cattley/Pratt, VIII, 259, fn 2

"Datary," the chief officer of the court of Rome for dispensing benefices. - ED.

Tho. Watsou, elected Bish. of Lincolne, Iohn Chrystopherson, elected bish. of Chichester, and Henry Cole Prouost of the colledge of Eaton. There was good cause why the matter was especially cōmitted to these persons. For as touching Ormanet, it is wel knowen that he was a man of much estimation with Iulius the 3. at that time B. of Rome, and was appoynted to come into Englande with Cardinall Poole, because without his knowledge (as in whome hee put his chief trust and confidence) the B. would haue nothing done that was of any importance or weight.

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These persones thus appoynted (in the meane while as the visitors were addressing themselues to their iourney) sent their letters with MarginaliaA Citation sent before to Doctour Andrew Perne Vicechauncellour.the Cardinals Citation before doctor Andrew Perne, Vicechācellor then of Cambridge, with the other Commissioners associate, commāding him to warne all the Graduates of the Vniuersitie in theyr name, to be in a readinesse against the 11. day of Ianuarie, betwixt 8. and 10. of the clocke, in the churche of S. Marye the virgin: willing him especially to be there hym selfe in presence, and also to sette forward all the residue,  

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Cattley/Pratt, VIII, Appendix: ref page 259, line 9 from the bottom

{Cattley/Pratt alters the text to: 'to be there himself in a readiness, and moreover to admonish all the residue'.} This reading is from the original text of Golding's "Briefe Treatise," &c., and Foxe's first Edition. Foxe's altered text is very inferior in sense, and less faithful to the Latin: "In presence, and also to set forward."

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to whose charge it belonged, þt they should search out all Statutes, Bookes, Priuiledges, and Monuments appertaiuing to the Vniuersitie, or to any of the Colledges, or finally to any of thēselues, and these to present the same before them at the day appoynted, and euery mā to appeare there personally: for they woulde not faile, but be there at the same time, to lay before them such things as should seme necessary to this charge of reforming þe vniuersitye, and further to geue charge of all such things as should seeme most for the profit & behoue of the same, together with such thyngs as were to be done on theyr parte, accordinge as shoulde seeme most agreeable to the Decrees of the Canon lawe.

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This citation of the Cardinal being brought to Cambridge by master bullocke, was first exhibited in the Conuocation house of Regents, and there openly redde by the Orator of the Vniuersitie the 11. of December.MarginaliaPreparation in Cambridge toward the visitation.After thys,  

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This description of the establishment of the royal commissioners in Cambridge and their commission to investigate heresy in Cambridge was added in the 1570 edition and must have been drawn from official records of the visitation.

vppon the 24. of December, whyche was Christenmasse euen, the Vicechancellor, wyth the heads of houses meeting together in the Schooles, it was there cōcluded, that the visitors charges should be borne by the vniuersitie and Colledges (which then cost the Vniuersitie an 100. pound thicke) and also that no master of any Colledge should suffer any of the fellowes, scholers, or ministers, to goe foorth of the towne, but to retourne before the Visitation.

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On friday, the 8. of Ianuarie, the Queenes Commissioners, videlicet, Doctor Perne Vicechauncellor, Doctor Segewicke, Doctor Haruy, M. Francke, Kust, and an other who is here namelesse,  

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Surviving records reveal that the unnamed commissioner was Thomas Yale, who, at the time of the 1570 edition, was vicar-general of Canterbury and dean of the Arches [see the Oxford DNB]. It was undoubtedly Yale's prominence, and his close ties with Matthew Parker and Edmund Grindal, which induced Foxe to conceal his activities in Cambridge in 1557.

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Cattley Pratt   *   Close
Cattley/Pratt, VIII, 260, fn 2

The following is the list as given in the MS. of Corpus Chr. Col. Cambridge, and may supply the name of the commissioner, whom Foxe for some reason was indisposed to mention: "At ix. the commissioners viz. the Vic. D. Segswycke, Mr. Yale, syr James Dyer, the recorder, Mrs. Chapman, Frank, Rust, and Evered sat at the Hall." See "A Collection of Documents from the MS. Library of Corp. Chr. Coll Camb." edited by John Lamb, D. D.; Lond. 1838, p. 198. - ED.

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also with sir Iames Dyer, the Recorder, M. Chapman, Euered sitting together in the Hal, certaine were there called by the appoyntment of L. Hawes, and charge giuen what should be done. And first the Commission was read. Then were all the high Con-

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stables called to bring in theyr precepts, and sworne. Also 2. of euery Parishe of 10. or 12. hundredes, were sworne to inquire of heresie, lollardie, conspiracie, seditious words, tales, and rumors against the King and Queene. Item, for hereticall and seditious bookes, for negligences & misdemeanour in the church, for obseruation of Ceremonies, for Ornaments, and stocke of the church.

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We sayd at the first, that the Cardinall thought the Vniuersitie to haue neede of reformation. MarginaliaThe cause why the reformation was taken in hande.The reason whye hee shoulde thinke so, was this: either because the same of long continuance since any man could remember, had cast of the Yoke of the B. of Rome, and cleaued  

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Cattley/Pratt, VIII, Appendix: ref page 261, line 12

"Inclined" would be a better term than "cleaved;" for the Latin says, "Illa ex longa multorum annorum memoria dejecto pontificis jugo ad sanam doctrinam, quæ hæreseos insimulata est, cœpit propendere."

to the wholesome doctrine of the gospel, or els by reason that bothe for the late schisme, not yet worne out of memorie, and for the doctrine of Martine Bucer, who not long before openlye in the sayd Vniuersitie interpreated holy Scripture, they saw many so sore corrupted and spotted with thys infection, that (euen as when a fire is spred in a towne) vnlesse a speedy remedy were adhibited out of hande, it were not possible, to their thinking, to quench it many yeares after. Who also feared (if it were not looked to in time) least this mischief should take rote, and by litle and litle infect al the members next vnto it, which yet were whole and sounde.

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MarginaliaThe comming of the Inquisitors, and of their entertainment.This was the yeare of our Lorde 1556. To the intent therfore to make a salue for this sore, the Inquisitours, of whome we spake before, came vnto Cambridge the 9. day of Ianuarie. And as they were yet on theyr iourney, not farre from the towne, diuers of the Masters & Presidents of the colledges met them, and brought them courteously, first into the town, and after to their lodging. They were entertained in Trinity colledge by M. Iohn Christopherson Master of the same house, and lately before elected MarginaliaM. Christopherson M. of Trinitye Colledge, Bishop elect of Chichester.B. of Chichester. Notwithstanding they were desired, some to one place, and some to an other as occasion serued, eyther to do theyr dueties, or to shew theyr good wils:  

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Cattley/Pratt, VIII, Appendix: ref page 261, line 31

"Invitati alius aliò, ubi subesset aliqua ratio officii declarandi aut ostendendæ voluntatis;" from which it appears that "their" refers to the inviters.

Cole to the kings Colledge, and D. Watson to S. Iohns. But whether it were for the acquaintaunce of Christopherson, or for the largenes of the house, which semed most conuenient for theyr purpose, they al tooke vp their lodgings in the sayd Colledge with M. Christopherson.

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MarginaliaAn Oration Gratulatory at their comming thither.At theyr comming thether an Oration was made by a felowe of the house, who in the name of all the rest, wt long Protestation declared that they were moste heartely welcome thether, & that he and his fellowes gaue them great thanks, that it had pleased theyr lordships to haue so good opiniō of them, as to chuse their house especially to lodge in, whereby they had bothe encouraged them to stande in hope of some further beneuolence towardes them, and also done great worship to theyr Colledge by theyr being there: wherefore they should looke at theyr hand agayne for as much duetie and reuerence, as lay in theyr power to perfourme.

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MarginaliaWatson aunswereth to the Oration.To this Oration Watson made answer, that this forewarde and earnest good willes and mindes of theyrs, in doing suche curtesie, was right thankefully taken, both of him and his, exhortinge them to continue stedfastly in the same, and to procede also when nede should require: for it was so far from any of their thoughts, to stop thē in this theyr race, that they would rather haste them forwarde to runne throughe more speedely, being not wtout good cause perswaded to conceiue good hope of their beneuolēce towardes them, in asmuch as they would do for them, what soeuer might tourne to theyr profit and commoditie.

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MarginaliaIanuary 9.Thys day, for asmuch as it was towarde euening ere they came, and the sunne was going down, was nothing els done. The next day being MarginaliaIanuary 10.the 10. of Ianuarie, they bestowed in recreating them selues after theyr iourney, and in setting other things at a stay. Neuerthelesse to the entent the same should not escape altogether without doing of somewhat, MarginaliaS. Maryes and S. Michaels interdicted because of Martyn Bucer and Paulus Phagius buryall.they interdited the 2. Churches, namely S. Maries, where Martin Bucer, and S. Michaels, where Paulus Phagius lay buried.

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