K. Henry. 8. Defence of Richard Hunne agaynst Cope.
thyng. For what if I should take no more, but hys owne very wordes and say, that hee was knowen to bee an heretique, as Cope doth affirme?
Cope. ibid.what could I say more, seing he died for there heresie, to proue hym to dye a Martyr? For to dye an heretique with the Papistes, what is it els (to say truth) but to dye with God a Martyr?[Back to Top]
But how soeuer it pleaseth either Syr Thomas More to ieste, or Alen Cope to skolde out þe matter, and to stile Richard Hunne, for a knowē & desperate heretique
See CWTM, 6, I, p. 327 and Dialogi sex, p. 848.
: yet to all true godly disposed mē, Hunne
may well be knowē to be a vertuous and godly persō: no heretique, but faithful & sound, saue þt
onely he semed rather halfe a Papist:
Hunne no full Protestant.
at least no full Protestant, for that hee resorted dayly to Masse, and also had his beades in prison with hym, after the catholique maner: albeit hee was somewhat inclyning (as may appeare) toward the gospell.
This is an interestng concession by Foxe (and one made for tactical forensic reasons in his exchange with Harpsfield) that Protestant doctrines were not all held by Lollards and proto-Protestants . Hunne's rosary is mentioned in the report of the coroner's jury. Whether Foxe knew, or assumed, that Hunne attended Mass daily is unclear, although he may have learned of this from Dunstan Whaplod.[Back to Top]
And if þe
name of a Martyr bee thought to good for hym: yet I trust M. Cope
will stand so good maister to him, to let hym at least to be a Martyrs felowe. But what now if I go further with maister Cope,
and name Richard Hunne
not onely for a Martyr but also commend hym for a double Martyr? Certes as I suppose, in so saying I should affirme nothyng lesse then truth, nor any thyng more, then truely may be said, and iustly proued. But to geue and graunt this contention vnto the aduersary, whiche notwithstandyng might be easely proued: let vs see nowe the proofes of M. Cope,
how he argueth that Rich. Hunne
is no Martyr: because, saith he, true men being killed in hye wayes by theeues and murtherers, are not therfore to be counted Martyrs. &c
This is Foxe's loose, but not substantially inaccurate, translation of Harpsfield's 'nisi volumus eos, qui in publiciii viis a latronibus interimuntur, in Martyrum quoque album referre' (Dialogi sex, p. 847).
. And was there nothing els in the cause of Hunne,
but as is in true men kylled by theeues & murderers? They that are killed by theeues and murderers, are killed for some pray, or money about thē. And what praye or profite was in the death of Hunne
let vs see, to redound to them, whiche oppressed him? If it were the mortuary, or the bearing cloth, that was a smal thing, and not worthy his death. If it were the premunire,
the daūger therof perteined to the priest, and not to them. If they feared leste the example therof once begonne, should afterward redounde to þe
preiudice of the whole Church, then was the cause of his death not priuate, but publike tendyng to þe
whole Church & clergie of Rome:
and so is his death not altogether like to the death of thē, which for priuate respectes are killed of theeues and murderers.[Back to Top]
But he was an heretique saith Cope. By the same reason, that Cope taketh hym for an heretique, I take hym the more to be accepted for a Martyr. For by that waye, which they call heresie, the lyuing God is serued, by no way better. And if he were an heretique, why then dyd they not procede agaynst hym as an heretique while he was a lyue?
The cause of Hunnes secret murther discussed.when they had him at Fulham before them, if they had bene sure to entrappe him in that snare, why did they not take their aduauntage, when they might wt lest ieoperdy? why did they not procede & condemne him for an heretique? why made they such hast to preuent his death before? why did they not tarye þe sentence of þe law, hauing þe law in their owne handes?
These are good questions. It may be that the authorities chose to wait until Hunne's praemunire case was settled before trying Hunne for heresy. It may also be that they were reluctant to try Hunne for heresy at all and were intimidating him in the hopes of securing a recantation, or at the least, his silence. What is certain, however, is that Hunne's posthumous heresy trial was an emergency measure triggered by his sudden death and Joseph's sudden flight.[Back to Top]
But belike they perceaued þt
he could not be proued an heretique while he liued: and therefore thought it best to make him away priuely, and to stoppe þe premunire,
& afterward to stoppe þe
pursuyt of his death, by makyng him an hereticke:
And therefore were articles deuised by þe
Chauncelour (as is proued by witnes of Charles Ioseph
& other, pag. 935.) agaynst hym & he condēned for an heretique, & all hys fauourers also, whosoeuer durst styrre to take his part, & so therupon was cōmitted to þe
secular power, & burned.
Hunne had double wrong.
Wherin they did hym double wrōg, first in that they burned hym for an heretique, hauyng before submitted hym self to their fauorable correction, as it appeareth yet in þe
bishops Registers by his own hand, as it is their pretended: whiche was agaynst their owne lawes. Agayne, if he had not submitted hym at that time, yet they did him wronge to burne hym, before they knewe and heard hym speake (as Tyndall
William Tyndale, An Answere Unto Sir Thomas Mores Dialoge, eds. Anne M. O'Donnell and Jared Wickes (Washington, DC, 2000), p. 168.
whether he would recant or no. And yet admitte, that he was condemned and burned for an heretique, yet to be killed and burned of them, an heretique, þt
taketh not frō him þe
name of a Martyr, but rather geueth him to be a double Martyr. But Cope
yet procedyng in hys hoate coler agaynst Rich. Hūne,
after he hath made him first no Martyr, & then an heretike, thirdly he now maketh hym also a murderer of hym self, and sayth that no other man was any parte of his death, but onely his owne handes,
Copes reasons why Hunne shoulde hange hym selfe.
and that either for indignation and anger, or for desperation, or for some cause, hee knoweth not what. And in his epilogus
to make it probable, he allegeth the example of one, but nameles, who in Queene Maries tyme, in lyke sorte went about to hange him self, had he not ben taken in the maner and rescued.
Furthermore, as touchyng the Chauncelour, he argueth that there was no cause, why he should attempt any such violence against hym, both for his age, for his dignitie, for his learnyng, and for the greatnes of hys owne perill whiche might ensue thereof. Who if he had maligned the man, and had been so disposed to worke his destruction, had meanes otherwise without daunger, to bryng that about, hauyng hym within his daunger conuicte and fast tyed for heresie.
Copes reasons aunswered.
Wherunto I aūswere, that to all this matter, sufficient hath bene aunswered by the story it selfe of his death, aboue specified.
Proufes that Hūne dyd not hange hym selfe.
Where by the maner of his death, by circumstāces of hys handlyng, and hangyng, by his necke broke, by his body loose, by his skynne fretted, by his wrystes wrong, by his gyrdle in such shortnes double cast about the staple, by his cappe right vpon his head, by his heare kemmed, by his eyes closed, by the cake of bloud found in the floore, by his shyrt coller, dooblet, Iacket, and other outward partes of hys garmentes without droppe of bloud vnspotted, by the stoole so standyng vpon the bolster, by the Chauncelours murrey gowne found the day after vpon the stockes
The coroner's jury declared in their verdict that there was a murrey (i.e., a mulberry coloured) gown lying on the stocks in Hunne's cell, although they also declared that the gown was whisked away from the cell before the jury visited it. The jury clearly suspected that the gown belonged to Horsey but they explicited stated that there was no proof of this. Foxe is accepting as absolute fact that the gown was present in Hunne's cell and that it belonged to Horsey.[Back to Top]
, the waxe candle fayre put out: furthermore by the verdict of the enquest, by the attestation of the witnesses sworne, by the Crowners iudgemēt, by þe
assent of the Parlament, by the kinges letters assigned, and broad seale for restitutiō of his goods: and finally by the confession of þe
parties them selues whiche murdered him. &c. and yet thinketh Cope
to make men such fooles, hauyng their v. wyttes to weene yet that Hunne
did hang hym selfe, after so many demonstracions and euidences to the contrary, as in euery part of this story may appeare. And though it were as it was vnlike, & hard for a mā to beleue, that D. Horsey
a man of such age, dignitie and learnyng would so much forget hym selfe to attempte such a vilanie
Harpsfield makes this argument in Dialogi sex, p. 848.
, yet so great is the deuill sometymes with man (where God permitteth) that hee woorketh greater thynges then this and more vncredible. For who would haue thought it lyke, that Cain would euer haue killed Abell his owne naturall brother? whiche was more then a Byshops Chauncelour to kill a Citizen: yet so hee did. And where Cope
pretendeth the causes of anger, and desperation wherby Hunne
did hang him selfe:
Manifest vntruth in Cope.
how is it like, or who did euer heare, a man beyng in such extremitie of desperation to stand first trymming him selfe? and kemmyng hys head, before hee go to hange hym selfe? Nolesse credite is also to be geuen to that which foloweth in the same Cope,
where hee sayth,
An other vntruth noted in Cope.
that Richard Hunne
beyng in prison, was conuicte of heresie
Harpsfield, at one point, speaks erroneously of Hunne as having been 'held in prison and convicted of heresy' [haereseosque convictum et constrictum teneret] (Dialogi sex, p. 848). Foxe is correct to point out that Hunne was only convicted of heresy posthumously.
. By the whiche woorde conuicte, if he meane that Hunne
was proued an hereticke, that is false, for that he beyng at Fulham examined vpon certeine Articles, both denyed the articles to be true, as they were obiected, & also if they were true, yet he submitted hym selfe to their fauorable correction, and therfore not standyng obstinatly in the same could not bee proued an heretique.
An other vntruth noted in Cope.
And if by his terme conuict, he meane that he was by sentēce cast, so was Hunne
neuer cast by any sentence for an heretique so long as hee lyued, but after his death, when he could nothing aūswere for him selfe.
Cope hudleth out vntruthes.
And because this vntruth should not go without hys felow, see how he hudleth vp one false narration in þe
necke of an other: affirming moreouer that Hunne
was cast in prison, before he entred his suyt of premunire
agaynst the Priest. Whiche is vtterly false and vntrue, both dis-[Back to Top]