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966 [966]

K. Henry. 8. Persecution in London dioces. Examinations.

Turone in Fraunce, an. 1510: MarginaliaPope Iulius playeth the warrior.and yet all this could not assuage the furious affection of this Pope, but the same yeare he inuaded the Citye Mutina and Mirandula in Italie, & tooke them by force of war.  

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This summary of the wars of Julius II is drawn entirely from Bale, Catalogus, pp. 636 and 643-44.

The pope ouercome in Battaile.
Which Pope Iulius not longe after, in the yeare of our Lorde. 1512. refusing peace offered by Maximilian Emperour, was encountered by Lewes the French kyng, about Rauenna, vpon Easter day, where he was vanquished, and had of his armye slayne to the nūber of xvi. thousand. Ex Chro. Carion. Marginalia1513.
The death. of pope Iulius
And the yeare next folowynge, an. 1513. this Apostolicall warriour, whiche had resigned his keyes vnto the riuer of Tybris before, made an end together both of fightyng, and lyuyng, after he had reigned and fought 10. yeares. MarginaliaPope Leo. x.After whom succeded next in þe sea of Rome, Pope Leo. x. About the compasse of which tyme, great mutations and styrres began to woorke as well in states temporall, as especially in the state of the Churche.

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MarginaliaThe state and succession of princes.

Pope Leo x. in 1513.

Charles v. Emperour in
an. 1519.39.
Fraunces K. of 1515.32.
Henry 8. K. of 1509.38.
Iames v. K. of 1514.

In the tyme of whiche Pope, Emperour, and kynges of Englande, and of Fraunce, great alterations, troubles, and turnes of Religion were wrought into the Churche, by the myghty operation of Gods hande in Italie, Fraunce, Germanie, Englande, and all Europe, such as haue not bene sene (althoughe much groned for) many hundreth yeares before: as in further discourse of this hystory (Christ wyllyng) more manifestly shall appeare.

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But before we come to these alterations, takyng the tyme as it leyeth before vs, we will first speake of Rich. Hunne, and certain other godly mynded persons here in England afflicted  

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Persecution of Lollards

As Foxe's opening comments indicate, this section was intended as a preface for Foxe's account of the Hunne case which follows it. Foxe's purpose indescribing these late Lollard martyrs and confessors was, as always, to demonstrate the existence of the True Church before Luther (using the existence of the Lollards). Foxe also probably wished to make's Hunne's ordeal seem less exceptional and more part of a general pattern of persecution. With the exception of John Browne (see 1570 pp. 1453-1480; 1576, pp. 1239-41 and 1255; 1583, pp. 1276-1293), all of these Lollards are from the diocese of London. Foxe's source for these martyrs - except for his account of John Browne - is the register of Bishop Fitzjames or diocesan courtbooks that have not survived that Foxe drew upon.

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Both the records and the Lollards themselves gave Foxe a good deal of trouble. The records not only listed numerous abjurations by the Lollards, they alsolisted of opinions they held which were embarrassing to Foxe. Occasionally Foxe tried to explain these inconvenient facts, more frequently, however, Foxesimply excised the offending passages from the documents that he quoted (as in the accounts of Joan Baker and William Pottier).

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Thomas S. Freeman

for the woorde of Christes Gospell in great multitude,  
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In this case 'great multitudes' actually means around 40 people.

as they be founde and taken out of the Registers of Fitziames Byshop of London, by the faythfull helpe and industrie of R. Carket Citizen of London.  
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This is a very valuable (and rare) indication by Foxe of the assistancehe received in having official transcribed. It also indicates that, even for records in London, Foxe relied on transcriptions of archival documents, rather than examiningthe documents himself.

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¶ The hystory of diuers good men and wemen persecuted for Religion in the Citie and dioces of the Bishop of London, briefly extracted out of the registers of Richard Fitziames.

AMongest and besides the great nomber of the faythfull Martyrs and professours of Christ, that constantly in the strength of the holy Ghost, gaue their lyues for the testimony of his truth, I finde recorded in the Register of London, betwene the yeares of our Lord. 1509. and. 1527. MarginaliaEx Registro Fitziames.the names of diuerse other persons both mē and women: who in the fulnes of that darke and misty tymes of ignoraūce, had also some portiō of Gods good spirite whiche induced thē to the knowledge of his truth and Gospell, and were diuersly troubled, persecuted, and imprisoned for the same:  

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Here, and in the following passages, Foxe tries to justify both theoccasional 'erroneous' beliefs of the Lollards as well as their readiness to abjuretheir believes rather than die for them.

notwithstandyng by the proud, cruell, & bloudy rage of the catholique seate, and through the weakenes and frayltie of their owne nature (not thē fully strengthned in God) it was agayne in them, for þe tyme, suppressed and kept vnder, as appeareth by theyr seuerall abiurations made before Richarde Fitziames then Byshop of London (in his tyme a most cruell persecutor of Christes Church) or els before his vicare generall deputed for the same. MarginaliaThe profession of the Protestantes no new doctrine.And forasmuch as many of the aduersaries of Gods truth, haue of late dayes disdaynfully and braggingly cryed out and made demaūds in theyr publicke assemblies and yet do, askyng where this our Churche & Religion was within these 50. or 60. yeares:  
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Foxe is stating here precisely why these Lollards were importantassets to his history, despite the their theological imperfections and 'weaknesses';they provided evidence that there was a church before Luther despite Catholicclaims to the contrary.

I haue thought it not altogether vayne, somwhat to stop such lyeng crakers, both by mēcionyng their names, and lykewise openyng some of the chief and principall matters, for the whiche they were so vnmercyfully afflicted and molested, thereby to geue to vnderstand, aswell the continuance & cōsent of the true church of Christ in that age, touchyng the chief pointes of our faith, though not in lyke perfection of knowledge and constancye in all: as also by the way, some thinge to touch what fonde and friuolous matters the ignoraunt Prelates shamed not in that tyme of blindnes to obiect agaynst the poore and simple people, accomptynge them as heynous and greate offēces, yea such as deserued death both of body & soule.  
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Here, and in the following passages, Foxe tries to justify both theoccasional 'erroneous' beliefs of the Lollards as well as their readiness to abjuretheir believes rather than die for them.

But lest I shoulde seme too prolixe and tedious herein, I will now briefly procede with the story, and first beginne with their names, whiche are these.  
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Foxe asserts that these names came from Bishop Fitzjames's register.Some of these people are mentioned in Fitzjames's register; most are not. Instead,Foxe was almost certainly drawing on a courtbook, now lost, of heresy trials in thediocese during this period (There is corroboration for these heretical trials in notes made by James Ussher (Trinity College, Dublin, MS 775, fos. 122r-125r).

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Anno.Ioanne Baker.Lewes Iohn.
1510.William Pottyer.Ioane Iohn.
Iohn Forge.Iohn Webbe, aliâs
Thomas Goodred.Baker.MarginaliaAnno. 1512.

Thomas Walker,
Iohn Houshold.
aliâs Talbot.Robert Rascall.MarginaliaAnno. 1517.
Thomas Forge.Elizabeth Stāford..
Alyce Forge,George Browne.MarginaliaAnno. 1518.
Iohn Forge, their son.Iohn Wykes..
William Couper.Richard Butler.
Iohn Woodrofe.Iohn Sowthake.MarginaliaAnno 1521.
Iohn Caluerton.Richard Butler..
Iohn Woodrofe..Iohn Samme.

Richard Wolman.William Kyng.MarginaliaAnno 1521.
1511.Roger Hyllyar.Robert Durdant.
Alyce Couper.Henry Woolman.
Thomas Austye.Edmond Spilmā.MarginaliaAnno. 1523.
Ioanne Austye.Iohn Hygges, aliâs
Thomas Graunt.Noke: aliâs Iohn-
Iohn Garter.sonne.MarginaliaAnno. 1526.
Christofer Rauins.Henry Chambers.
Dioniss Rauins.Iohn Hynggyns.
Thomas Vincent.Thomas EglestōMarginaliaAnno. 1527.

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¶ Here foloweth the particular examination of all these hereaboue named.

To these were diuerse and sondry particular Articles (besides the common & generall sorte accustomably vsed in such cases) priuatly obiected, euen such as they were thē accused of either by their curate, or other their neighbours. And because I thinke it somewhat superfluous to make any large recital of al and euery part of their seueral processe: I mynde therefore onely briefly to touche so many of their Articles, as may be sufficient to induce the Christen reader to iudge the sooner of the rest: beyng (I assure you) of no greater importance, then these that follow: Except that sometime they were charged most slaūderously with horrible and blasphemous lyes, against the maiestie & truth of God. Which as they vtterly denyed: so do I now, for this present, keepe secrete in silence, aswell for breuitie sake,  

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Foxe never does anything for the sake of brevity and that this is, in effect, a warning that he has edited these accounts to remove materials he found un-desirable.

as also somewhat to colour & hide the shameles practises of that lying generation. But to our purpose.

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MarginaliaEx Regist. Rich. Fitziames.
Ioanne Baker
THe chiefest obiections agaynst Ioanne Baker, was  

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Foxe abridges the articles against Joan Baker, although for the most part, he prints them accurately. Occasionally he refines Baker's language (sheactually said that she would do no more reverence to the crucifix in church than to a dog), but most importantly he supresses two of her replies. Interestingly, in bothcases where he did this, in was to conceal her anti-clericalism, not any doctrinaldeviance. Foxe omitted her statement that she could hear a better sermon at homethan any priest or doctor could give at Paul's Cross or anywhere else. Foxe alsodeleted her denunciation of clerical tithes (cf. Guildhall MS 9531/9, fo. 25r-v).Richard Hunne came to the attention of the auorities trying to defend Joan Baker(One of the articles charged against him at his posthumous heresy trial was that he had declared that Joan Baker - who was forced to do public pennance for her outspokenly heretical beliefs in 1511 - held correct views and that the bishop of London was more worthy of punishment than Baker.).

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that she would not only her self not reuerēce the Crucifixe: MarginaliaAgainst worshipping of the crucifixe or crosse.but had also perswaded a frēde of hers lying at the pointe of death, not to put any confidence or trust in the Crucifixe, but in God whiche is in heauen, who onely worketh all the miracles that be done, and not the dead Images, that be but stockes and stones: and therfore she was sory, that euer she had gone so often on pilgrymage to S. Sauiour and other Idols. Also, that she did hold opinion that the Pope had no power to geue Pardons, MarginaliaTestimony for the Lady yong Martyr.and that the Lady Young (who was not long before þt tyme burned) dyed a true Martyr of God, and therefore she wished of God, that she her selfe myght doo no worse thē the sayd Lady Young had done.  
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There is actually no evidence that Lady Jane Young, the wife of Sir John Young, a wealthy draper and Lord Mayor of London, was ever burned.Andrew Hope has argued that Joan Baker confused Jane Young with her motherJoan Boughton, who was burned at Smithfield on on 28 April 1494. It is true,however, that Jane Young was herself suspected of heresy. (See Andrew Hope,'The lady and the baliff: Lollardy among the gentry in Yorkist and early TudorEngland' in Lollardy and the Gentry in the Middle Ages, ed. Margaret Aston and Colin Richmond [Stroud, 1997], p. 260 and J. A. F. Thomson, The Later Lollards,1414-1520 [Oxford, 1965}, pp. 156-7).

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MarginaliaWilliam Pottier.
False slaunder of the aduersaries.
VNto William Pottyer, besides diuers other false and slaunderous Articles  

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The charges against William Pottier, and his replies to them, are obscure and clearly baffled Foxe, who was unusually candid in printing as much of them as he did. Pottier did, in essence, deny the benefit of Christ's passion, bystating that a person who committed a mortal sin was damned. (Perhaps this wasan attempt to deny the power of pennance or confession to absolve mortal sin). PaceFoxe, Pottier did not confess that the Trinity was only one God (Guildhall MS9531/9, fo.26v). Andrew Hope has persuasively argued that Pottier's confusing belief in six gods was a distortion of views commonly found in Lollard treatises(Andrew Hope, 'Lollardy: the Stone the Bulders Rejected?' in Protestantismand the National Church in Sixteenth Century England, ed. Peter Lake and MariaDowling [London, 1987], p. 18).

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(as that he should denye the benefite and effect of Christes Passion) it was also alleged that he shoulde affirme, that there were vi. Gods. The firste three was the holy Trinitie, the father the sonne, and the holy ghost. The fourth was a priestes concubine beyng kept in his chamber. The fift was the deuell. And the vi. that thing that a man setteth him minde most vpon.

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MarginaliaAnswere.The first parte of this Article he vtterly denyed, confes-