ditious tumulte of Perkyn Werbecke, Marginalia Perkin Werbecke which fained himselfe to be K. Edwardes sonne. with his retinue. an. 1494. also of Marginalia Blackheath field.Blackheath field by þe blacke Smith. an. 1496. I might also haue recited the glorious commendation of Georgius Lilius in his Latine Chronicle testifiyng of king Henry. 7. howe he sent iij. solemne Oratours to pope Iulius 2. to yelde his obedience vnto the sea of Rome. an. 1506. and lykewise how Pope Alexander 9. Pius 3. and Iulius 2. sent to the sayd kyng Henry 7. three sondry famous Ambassadours with iij. swoordes, and iij. cappes of maintenaunce, electyng and admittyng hym to be the chief defendour of the fayth. The commendation of whiche fact, how glorious it is in the eyes of Georgius Lilius, and Fabiā, that I leaue to them.
Foxe undoubtedly learned of Lily's account of this episode from Bale,who characteristically asserted that Lily 'gloriatur Henricum septimum hanc adorasseBabylonicam bestiam ac monstram Sodomiticum' (Catalogus, p. 645). Bale does notcite Fabyan. The account of the three orators being sent to the Pope is from George Lily, Chronicon (Frankfurt, 1560), fo. 66v. The account of embassies sent by the popes to Henry VII is from Robert Fabyan, The Chronicle of Fabian (London, 1559),STC 10663, p. 535.[Back to Top]
Although Foxe cites Christian Massaeus as his source, he is drawingon Bale, Catalogus, p. 643, which gives the same citation from Massaeus.
The Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges upheld the autonomous authority of the church of France and disallowed papal nominations to vacant benefices. Thesanction was issued in 1438, not, as Foxe claims, in the reign of Henry VII (1485-1509).
And forsomuch as we are fallen in to þe mention of Georgius Lilius, this in hym is to be found not vnworthye notyng, howe after the burnyng of Thomas Noryce, aboue mentioned, pag. 218. at the Citie of Norwiche, Marginalia A note of Gods plagues folowing the burning of his people.the same yeare folowed such a fire in Norwiche, that the whole Citie, wel nere, was therewith consumed.
Bale (Catalogus, p. 644) notes that Lily mentions the fire inNorwich and Bale concludes that it was providential revenge for the execution ofNoris. Lily, who recorded the fire (George Lily, Chronicon [Frankfurt, 1560], fo. 67r) said nothing about Noris. On Noris see John Bale, Scriptorum Illustrium maioris Brytanniae…Catalogus (Basel, 1557), p. 644. Bale has an additional detail not in Foxe: Noris was from Brockforth, Suffolk.[Back to Top]
In the continuation of Fabyan's chronicle, the entry for a devastatingplague in London, immediately follows the entry recording the burning of an 'oldeheretick' in 1500. The chronicler did not associate the two incidents (Robert Fabyan, The Chronicle of Fabian [London, 1559], STC 10663, p. 532). On the heretic burnedin 1500 see The Great Chronicle of London, ed. A. H. Thomas andI. D. Thornley [London, 1938], p. 294 and Fabyan’s Chronicle, ed. H. Ellis [London,1911], p. 687.[Back to Top]
Marginalia The children & ofspring of K. Henry. 7.This kyng Henry 7. finishyng his course in the yeare abouesayd, which was. 1509. had by Elisabeth his wife aboue named, iiij. men children, and of wemen children as many. Of whome, iij. onely suruiued: to wytte prince Henry, Lady Margaret, and Lady Mary. Of whō kyng Henry the viij. after his father succeded. Marginalia Lady Margaret maried to K. Iames 4. of Scotland.Lady Margaret was maryed to Iames the iiij. kyng of Scottes. Marginalia Lady Margaret maried to the K. of Castile.Lady Mary was affied to Charles kyng of Castile.[Back to Top]
Marginalia Prince Arthur maryed to Lady Catherin daughter to the Spanish kyng.Not lōg before the death of king Henry, Prince Arthur his elder sonne had espoused Lady Catherine, daughter to Ferdinandus, beyng of the age of xv. yeares, and she about the age of xvij. Marginalia The death of prince Arthur.and shortly after his mariage, within v. monethes, departed at Ludlow, and was buryed at Worceter. After whose decease the succession of þe crown fell next to kyng Henry the viij. beyng of the age of xviij. yeares, who entred his reigne the yeare of our Lorde. 1509. Marginalia K. Henry marieth Lady Catherin hys brothers wyfe.and shortly after maryed with the foresayd Catherine, his late brother prince Arthurs wife, to the ende that her dowrie beyng great, should not bee transported out of the land. Marginalia Blynd dispensations of the pope.In the which his mariage beyng more politique, then Scripture lyke, he was dispensed with by Pope Iulius, at the request of Ferdinandus her father. The reigne of this kyng continued with great noblenes and fame, the space of 38. yeares. Duryng whose tyme and reigne was great alteration of thynges, as well to þe ciuill state of the realme, as especially to the state ecclesiastical, and matters of the Churche apperteyning. For by hym was exiled and abolished out of the realme the vsurped power of the Bysh. of Rome, Idolatrie & superstition somewhat repressed, Images and pilgrimages defaced, abbays and monasteries pulled downe, sectes of Religiō rooted out, scriptures reduced to þe knowledge of the vulgare tongue, and the state of the Churche and Religion redressed. Concernyng all which thyngs, in the proces of this volume here folowing, we wil endeuour (Christ willyng) particularly & in order to discourse: after that first we shal comprehende a few matters, which within the beginning of his reigne are to be noted & collected. Where, leauyng of to write of Empson and Dudley, who in the tyme of kyng Henry the vij. beyng great doers in executyng the penall lawes ouer the people at that tyme, and purchasyng thereby more malice then landes, wyth that whiche they had gotten, were shortlye after the entryng of this kyng beheaded, the one a knighte, the other an Esquyre: leauing also to intermedel with his warres, triumphes and other temporall affayres,
It is rather remarkable that Foxe mentions Empson and Dudley at all.Edmund Dudley was the grandfather of Robert Dudley, the earl of Leicester, who wasa sponsor of the Acts and Monuments. Foxe probably included this brief mention of them as a warning to evil counsellors. This warning would almost certainly have been more strident if it were not for Edmund Dudley's good fortune in descendants.[Back to Top]
This section of the Acts and Monuments consists of three separatestrands. The first, and largest, is on account of the late medieval debates over the Immaculate Conception, which Foxe casts as a doctrinal schism between theFranciscans and the Dominicans. (Foxe's purpose in this was twofold: to discredit the mendicant orders and also to turn the charge of doctrinal disunity, frequently employed by the Catholics against the Protestants, back upon the Catholics). The second strand is a brief account of a notorious case of fraud that led to the execu-tion of four Dominicans in Berne in 1509; again, Foxe's objective was to discreditthe mendicant orders. He also used the episode to denounce the 'superstition' ofthe Church before Luther (he also used the debate over the Immaculate Conception and the Jetzer affair to denounce this 'superstition'). Finally, Foxe has a caustic summary of the bellicose career of Julius II.[Back to Top]
Foxe's sources for this section are interesting and reveal something of bothhis wide reading in incunabula and his continuing contacts with the Continent. Foxe'saccount of the debates over the Immaculate Conception as taken entirely from Jodocus Clichtoveus's De puritate conceptionis beatae Mariae virginis (Paris, 1513).This work, by a highly respected Sorbonne theologian, sought to defend the immaculist position against Dominican attacks. (For a discussion of De puritatesee J-P Massaut, Critique et tradition à la vielle de la Réforme en France [Paris,1974], pp. 37-45). Foxe cites Peucer's edition of Carion's chronicle, Sebastion Munster's Cosmographia and Bale's Catalogus as sources for his account of thescandal at Berne. Undoubtedly Foxe read their brief accounts of the episode, buthe bases his account on - directly or indirectly - on Johann Stumpf's chronicleand possibly on Thomas Murner's scathing account of the affair. For Julius II, Foxe, as was often the case, turned to Bale.[Back to Top]
Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield
Marginalia Franciscane Friers.The Fraunciscanes were they, whiche did hold of S. Fraunces, and folowed the rule of his Testament commonly called Gray Friers, or Minorites. Their opinion was this: that the Virgine Mary preuented by þe grace of þe holy Gost was so sanctified, that she was neuer subiect one moment in her conception, to Originall sinne. Marginalia Dominicke Friers.The Dominicke Friers were they, which holdyng of Dominicke, wer commōly called Blacke Friers, or preachyng Friers. Their opinion was, that the Virgin Mary was conceaued, as all other children of Adam be: so that this priuilege only belōgeth to Christ, to be cōceaued without Originall sinne: notwithstandyng the sayd blessed Virgine was sanctified in her mothers wombe, and purged from her Originall sinne, so as was Iohn Baptist, Ieremie, or anye other priuileged person. Marginalia A troblous dissension in the church for the conception of the Vyrgin Mary.This friuolous question kindlyng and gendryng betweene these twoo sectes of Friers, brast out in suche a flame of partes and sides taking, that it occupied the heades & wittes, scholes, and vniuersities almost through the whole Church,
Notice how Foxe exaggerates what was admittedly an intense debateinto a virtual schism which threatened to engulf Christendom.
In the meane tyme, as this phantasie waxed hoate in the Church, þe one side preachyng against the other, came Pope Sixtus the iiij. an. 1476. who ioynyng side with the Minorites or Franciscanes, firste sent forthe his decree
All of the material on Sixtus IV's decree comes from Jodocus Clichtoveus, De puritate conceptionis beatae Mariae virginis (Paris, 1513), fos.22v-23v.
Moreouer the same Pope, to the entent that þe deuotiō of þe people, might be the more encouraged to the celebration of this Conception, he added a clause more to the