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Roche Buildings: footnotes

1. A. H. Thompson, Roche Abbey (London, 1954), p. 10.

2. The Cistercian Abbeys of Britain: Far from the Concourse of Men, ed. D. Robinson (London, 1988), p. 167.


3. For a list of these works, see D. Bell, An Index of Authors and Works in Cistercian Libraries in Great Britain (Kalamazoo, 1992), pp. 252-3. For discussion of the manuscript containing Li Romanz des Romanz and also a moralising poem in French, see A. Ewart, ‘An early manuscript of the ‘Roman des Romans’ , Modern Language Review 23 (1928), pp. 299-306. Ewart describes this as ‘the oldest and best version’ of the romance, ibid., p. 301.


4. Those who were to be beaten received their punishment immediately and in the presence of the community. The offender’s robe was loosened so that it fell to his waist and left his flesh exposed, while a member of the community administered his punishment.

5. Les Ecclesiastica Officia Cisterciens du xii siecle, ed. D. Choisselet and P. Vernet (Reinigue, 1989), 70 (pp. 202-8).

6. Ecclesiastica Officia 70: 78-82 (p. 208).


7. D. Williams, The Cistercians in the Early Middle Ages (Leominster, 1998), p. 243.


8. Walter Daniel, Vita Aelredi, The Life of Aelred of Rievaulx, ed. and tr. F. M. Powicke (Edinburgh, 1978), p. 25.


9. Capitula LXXXVIII , Narrative and Legislative Texts, ed. C. Waddell (Citeaux, 1999), p. 494.

10. Hailes visitation 1399, see C. Harper-Bill, ‘Cistercian visitation in the late Middle Ages: the case of Hailes Abbey’ , Bulletin of Historical Research 53 (1980), pp. 103-114 at p. 109.


11. C. Waddell, Cistercian Lay-Brothers: Twelfth-Century Usages with Related Texts, (Brecht, 2000), ch. xvii (p. 190).


12. Examples include the satirical verse, ‘De Visitatione Abbatis’ , which describes how the abbot conducting visitation indulges in meat and other delicacies from the infirmary, ‘De Visitatione Abbatis’ in The Latin Poems Commonly Attributed to Walter Map, coll. and ed T. Wright (Camden OS 16, 1841), pp. 184-7 at p. 185 (lines 10-20).

13. Ecclesiastica Officia: 91 (p. 262).


14. References to lay practitioners as witnesses in charters infer that medics were occasionally called in to minister to the community. For examples, see C. Talbot and E. A. Hammond, A Biographical Register of the Medical Practitioners (London, 1965), pp. 50, 71, 200 (Kirkstall); pp. 2, 241, 272, 326 (Fountains); pp. 1, 23, 50 (Rievaulx).

15. D. Bell, ‘English Cistercians and medicine’ , Citeaux 40 (1989), pp. 139-73 at p. 152.

16. See Bell, ‘English Cistercians and medicine’ , pp. 153-7.

17. This is now in Jesus College, Cambridge; see M. Cassidy-Welch, Monastic Spaces and their Meaning (Turnhout, 2001), pp. 157-8.


18. Statuta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis ab anno 1116 ad anno 1786 8 vols (Louvain, 1933-41), ed. J. M. Canivez, I, 1134: 12 (p. 15).

19. Cistercian abbots at first dined in the guesthouse with all visitors, but there is evidence that by the late twelfth century some dined with more distinguished guests in private chambers while the other visitors dined in the guesthall.


20. See Fergusson, ‘Porta Patens Esto: notes on early Cistercian gatehouses in the north of England’ , in Medieval Architecture and its Intellectual Context: Studies in Honour of Peter Kidson (London, 1990), pp. 47-59, at pp. 52-55.


21. Canivez, Statutes I, 1134: 7 (p. 14); 1154: 24 (p. 58). The late thirteenth-century Beaulieu Account Book states that relatives of the community and other women who could not be refused without scandal should receive bread from the ‘furno’ , beer from the cellarer and pittances from the sub-cellarer (the guestmaster, however, accounted for this in his audit), see The Account Book of Beaulieu Abbey, ed S. F. Hockey (Camden Soc., 4th ser. 16; 1975). This suggests that these women were provided for outside the precinct - or perhaps even in the outer court. Provisions were not to be given to prostitutes or local women save in exceptional times, Ecclesiastica Officia, 120: 18, 19 (p. 334).

22. Canivez, Statutes I, 1157: 10 (p. 61), 1157: 58 (p. 67).

23. Memorials of the Abbey of St Mary of Fountains I, ed. J. R. Walbran (Durham, 1863), no. xliii, pp. 205-6.

24. Annales Monasticii II, p. 337. Further examples of the General Chapter’s hostility include their reaction to Queen Ingelburga of France’s two-day sojourn at Pontigny in 1205, and reports that women had stayed at Quarr Abbey on the Isle of Wight for six days in 1205, Canivez, Statutes I, 1205: 10 (pp. 308-9), 1205: 59 (p. 319).

25. It is not clear whether this was Henry I’s queen, Adelaide, or Stephen’s queen, Matilda.

26. Gesta Abbatum Monasterii Sancti Albani, ed. H. T. Riley, 3 vols. (London, 1867-9), p. 79; this was adjacent to the guesthall erected at this time for the honourable reception of noble guests, which was probably situated to the west of the cloister, at right angles to the abbot’s chambers. Note that in 1264 Nicholas de Cauntlow’s wife gave birth at the Cluniac Priory of Lenton, see J. R. Moorman, Church Life in England in the Thirteenth-Century (Cambridge, 1945), p. 355.

27. Harper-Bill, ‘Cistercian visitation’ , p. 111.


28. See Ecclesiastica Officia 90: 1-75 (pp. 254-6); T. Kinder, Cistercian Europe: Architecture of Contemplation (Kalamzoo, 2002), pp. 278-9.


Roche Abbey Bibliography