Roche Buildings: footnotes
1. A. H. Thompson, Roche Abbey (London,
1954), p. 10.
2. The Cistercian Abbeys of Britain:
from the Concourse of Men,
ed. D. Robinson (London, 1988), p. 167.
3. For a list of these works, see D. Bell,
An Index of Authors and Works in Cistercian Libraries in Great Britain (Kalamazoo,
1992), pp. 252-3. For discussion of the manuscript containing Li Romanz
des Romanz and also a moralising poem in French, see A. Ewart, ‘An early manuscript
of the ‘Roman des Romans’ , Modern Language Review 23 (1928), pp. 299-306. Ewart
describes this as ‘the oldest and best version’ of the romance, ibid., p. 301.
4. Those who were to be beaten received
their punishment immediately and in the presence of the community. The offender’s
robe was loosened so that it fell to his waist and left his flesh exposed,
while a member of the community administered his punishment.
5. Les Ecclesiastica Officia
Cisterciens du xii siecle, ed. D. Choisselet and P. Vernet (Reinigue,
1989), 70 (pp. 202-8).
6. Ecclesiastica Officia 70: 78-82 (p.
7. D. Williams, The Cistercians in
the Early Middle Ages (Leominster, 1998), p. 243.
8. Walter Daniel,
Vita Aelredi, The Life of Aelred of Rievaulx, ed.
and tr. F. M. Powicke (Edinburgh, 1978), p. 25.
9. Capitula LXXXVIII , Narrative
and Legislative Texts, ed. C. Waddell (Citeaux,
1999), p. 494.
10. Hailes visitation 1399, see C. Harper-Bill, ‘Cistercian visitation in the late Middle Ages: the case of Hailes
Bulletin of Historical Research 53 (1980), pp. 103-114 at p. 109.
11. C. Waddell, Cistercian Lay-Brothers:
Twelfth-Century Usages with Related Texts, (Brecht, 2000), ch. xvii (p.
12. Examples include the satirical verse, ‘De Visitatione Abbatis’ , which describes how the abbot conducting visitation
indulges in meat and other delicacies from the infirmary, ‘De Visitatione Abbatis’ in The Latin Poems Commonly Attributed to Walter Map, coll. and ed T. Wright
(Camden OS 16, 1841), pp. 184-7 at p. 185 (lines 10-20).
13. Ecclesiastica Officia: 91 (p. 262).
14. References to lay practitioners as
witnesses in charters infer that medics were occasionally called in to minister
to the community. For examples, see C. Talbot and E. A. Hammond, A Biographical
Register of the Medical Practitioners (London, 1965), pp. 50, 71, 200
pp. 2, 241, 272, 326 (Fountains); pp.
1, 23, 50 (Rievaulx).
15. D. Bell, ‘English Cistercians and
Citeaux 40 (1989), pp. 139-73 at p. 152.
16. See Bell, ‘English Cistercians
and medicine’ , pp. 153-7.
17. This is now in Jesus College, Cambridge;
see M. Cassidy-Welch, Monastic Spaces and their Meaning (Turnhout,
2001), pp. 157-8.
18. Statuta Capitulorum
Generalium Ordinis ab anno 1116 ad anno 1786 8 vols (Louvain, 1933-41),
ed. J. M. Canivez, I,
1134: 12 (p. 15).
19. Cistercian abbots at first dined
in the guesthouse with all visitors, but there is evidence that by the late
twelfth century some dined with more distinguished guests in private chambers
while the other visitors dined in the guesthall.
20. See Fergusson, ‘Porta Patens
notes on early Cistercian gatehouses in the north of England’ , in Medieval
Architecture and its Intellectual Context: Studies in Honour of Peter Kidson (London, 1990), pp. 47-59, at pp. 52-55.
21. Canivez, Statutes I, 1134: 7 (p.
14); 1154: 24 (p. 58). The late thirteenth-century Beaulieu Account Book states
that relatives of the community and other women who could not be refused without
scandal should receive bread from the ‘furno’ , beer from the cellarer and pittances
from the sub-cellarer (the guestmaster, however, accounted for this in his
audit), see The Account Book of Beaulieu Abbey, ed S. F. Hockey (Camden Soc.,
4th ser. 16; 1975). This suggests that these women were provided for outside
the precinct - or perhaps even in the outer court. Provisions were not to be
given to prostitutes or local women save in exceptional times, Ecclesiastica
Officia, 120: 18, 19 (p. 334).
22. Canivez, Statutes I, 1157: 10 (p.
61), 1157: 58 (p. 67).
23. Memorials of the Abbey of St Mary
of Fountains I, ed. J. R. Walbran (Durham, 1863), no. xliii,
24. Annales Monasticii II, p. 337. Further
examples of the General Chapter’s hostility include their reaction to Queen
Ingelburga of France’s two-day sojourn at Pontigny in 1205, and reports that
women had stayed at Quarr Abbey on the Isle of Wight for six days in 1205,
Canivez, Statutes I, 1205: 10 (pp. 308-9), 1205: 59 (p. 319).
25. It is not clear whether this was
Henry I’s queen, Adelaide, or Stephen’s queen, Matilda.
26. Gesta Abbatum Monasterii Sancti
Albani, ed. H. T. Riley, 3 vols. (London, 1867-9), p. 79; this was adjacent
to the guesthall erected at this time for the honourable reception of noble
guests, which was probably situated to the west of the cloister, at right angles
to the abbot’s chambers. Note that in 1264 Nicholas de Cauntlow’s wife gave
birth at the Cluniac Priory of Lenton, see J. R. Moorman, Church Life in
England in the Thirteenth-Century (Cambridge, 1945), p.
27. Harper-Bill, ‘Cistercian visitation’ ,
28. See Ecclesiastica Officia 90:
1-75 (pp. 254-6); T. Kinder, Cistercian Europe: Architecture of Contemplation (Kalamzoo,
2002), pp. 278-9.
Roche Abbey Bibliography