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Kirkstall Abbey guesthouse: footnotes

1. W. H. St John Hope and J. Bilson, Architectural Description of Kirkstall Abbey (Leeds, 1907), p. 60.

2. S. Moorhouse and S. Wrathmell, Kirkstall Abbey Vol I: the 1950-64 excavations; a reassessment (Bradfield, 1987), p. 108.

3. S. Wrathmell, et alia, Kirkstall Abbey: the guesthouse (2nd edn., Wakefield, 1987) p. 12.

4. Wrathmell, et alia, Kirkstall Abbey: the guesthouse, p. 21.

5. Wrathmell, et alia, Kirkstall Abbey: the guesthouse, p. 8.

6. Wrathmell, et alia, Kirkstall Abbey: the guesthouse, p. 17.

7. Whilst the Cistercian houses were exempt from diocesan visitation, the archbishop of York was entitled to claim hospitality on his first visitation of the diocese, but he was expected to give adequate warning: on 31 May 1301 Thomas Corbridge notified Kirkstall that he would be visiting on 20 June; William Greenfield gave notice of his visit on 3 June on 15 May; in 1408 Henry Bowet spent Ascension Day at Kirkstall, John Kempe visited the community in March 1441, Reg Corbridge, p. 51; Reg. Greenfield II, p. xxii, Reg. Bowet and Kempe, pp. 138, 249. The monks might, however, welcome their diocesan on other occasions – Archbishop Greenfield was at Kirkstall in November 1310 and October 1313, Reg. Greenfield IV, p. 85; V, p. 29.

8. It was probably at Kirkstall that, at Edward III’s command, Lord John stayed with his men while the king waited in Yorkshire to attack the Scots; he may, however, have stayed at Byland, F. Mullin, A History of the Work of the Cistercians in Yorkshire 1131-1300 (Washington, 1932), p. 89.

9. Wrathmell et alia, Kirkstall Abbey: the guesthouse, p. 26.

10. Wrathmell et al., Kirkstall Abbey: the guesthouse, p. 24.

11. J. M. Canivez, Statuta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis ab anno 1116 ad anno 1786 8 vols (Louvain, 1933-41), I, 1134: 7; 1154: 24. The late thirteenth-century Beaulieu Account Book states that relatives of the community and other women who could not be refused without scandal should receive bread from the ‘furno’, beer from the cellarer and pittances from the sub-cellarer (although the guestmaster accounted for this in his audit), see The Account Book of Beaulieu Abbey, ed S. F. Hockey (Camden Soc., 4th ser. 16; 1975). This suggests that these women were provided for outside the precinct – or perhaps even in the outer court. Provisions were not to be given to prostitutes or local women save in exceptional times, Ecclesiastica Officia, 120: 18, 19 (p. 334).

12. Statutes I, 1157: 10, 58.

13. Memorials of the Abbey of St Mary of Fountains I, ed. J. R. Walbran (Durham, 1863), no. xliii, pp. 205-6.

14. Annales Monasticii II, p. 337. Further examples of the General Chapter’s hostility include their reaction to Queen Ingelburga of France’s two-day sojourn at Pontigny in 1205, and reports that women had stayed at Quarr Abbey on the Isle of Wight for six days in 1205, Canivez, Statutes I, 1205: 10, 59.

15. It is not clear whether this was Henry I’s queen, Adelaide, or Stephen’s queen, Matilda.

16. Gesta Abbatum Monasterii Sancti Albani, ed. H. T. Riley, 3 vols. (London, 1867-9), I, p. 79; this was adjacent to the guesthall erected at this time for the honourable reception of noble guests, which was probably situated to the west of the cloister, at right angles to the abbot’s chambers. Note that in 1264 Nicholas de Cauntlow’s wife gave birth at the Cluniac Priory of Lenton, see J. R. Moorman, Church Life in England in the Thirteenth-Century (Cambridge, 1945), p. 355.

17. C. Harper-Bill, ‘Cistercian visitation in the late Middle Ages: the case of Hailes Abbey’ Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 53 (1980), pp. 103-114, at p. 111.

Kirkstall Abbey Bibliography