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Kirkstall chapter-house: footnotes

1. Those who were to be beaten received their punishment immediately and in the presence of the community. The offender’s robe was loosened so that it fell to his waist and left his flesh exposed, while a member of the community administered his punishment.

2. J. M. Canivez, Statuta Capitulorum Generalium Ordinis ab anno 1116 ad anno 1786 8 vols (Louvain, 1933-41) I, 1181: 2.

3. The Ecclesiastica Officia has been edited several times. For a recent edition see Les Ecclesiastica Officia Cisterciens du xii siecle, ed. D. Choisselet and P. Vernet (Reinigue, 1989), 70 (pp. 202-8).

4. According to the twelfth-century customary of the Order, the first time that an archbishop, bishop, papal legate or king visited an abbey – and whenever the pope arrived – he was to be ceremoniously received by the entire community at the gate and led to the choir of the church. Thereafter he was led to the chapter-house for the blessing and reading; the visitor might address the community after which he was refreshed in the guesthouse, Ecclesiastica Officia 86: 1-12 (p. 246).

5. The twelfth-century customary of the Order stipulated that should a bishop, abbot of monks or regular canons, or even the king himself, enter the chapter meeting, the community should rise in his honour as he passed. If the visitor sought fraternity they were to rise and offer him the book; once the ceremony had been concluded the visitor was led to the guesthouse and entertained. If any monk, cleric or layman sought fraternity the community remained seated and one of the monks led the visitor out, Ecclesiastica Officia 70: 78-82 (p. 208).


Kirkstall Abbey Bibliography