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Footnotes: Lay-brothers

1. Capitula XXII in Narrative and Legislative Texts from Early Cîteaux, ed. C. Waddell (Cîteaux, 1999), p. 412.

2. Cistercian Lay Brothers: Twelfth-century Usages with Related Texts, ed. C. Waddell (Brecht, 2000), ch. IX (p. 182).

3. G. J. McFadden, ‘An edition and translation of the Life of Waldef, Abbot of Melrose, by Jocelin of Furness’ , Ph.D. thesis (University of Columbia, 1952), p. 328.


4. Waddell, Cistercian Lay-Brothers, p. 193 (note to chapter XXI).


5. Statuta capitulorum generalium ordinis Cisterciensis ab anno 1116 ad annum 1786, ed. J. Canivez (8 vols; Louvain, 1933-41), I, 1188: 8 (p. 108).

6. Walter Daniels, a monk of Rievaulx and the biographer of Aelred cites two lay-brothers of the abbey - Argar, a shepherd, and Baldric - as reliable witnesses of Aelred’s miracles, ‘Letter to Maurice’ in Walter Daniels, Vita Aelredi, The Life of Aelred of Rievaulx, ed. and tr. F. M. Powicke (Oxford, 1950), pp. 68-69.

7. Memorials of the Abbey of St Mary of Fountains, I, ed. J. Walbran, Surtees Society 42 (Durham, 1863), pp. 117-119; see M. Cassidy-Welch’s discussion of Sinnulph in Monastic Spaces (Turnhout, 2001), pp. 191-193.


8. Walter Daniels, Life of Aelred, p. 38. At Waverley in the twelfth century there were some seventy monks and 120 lay-brothers.

9. Cited in Cassidy-Welch, Monastic Spaces, p. 185. The abbot of Meaux took steps to humble the pride of lay-brothers of the abbey in c. 1220; he removed the prompted their abbot to enforce measures to humble their pride - he removed the offenders from the charge of the farms and granges and put them to the more demeaning work of caring for the cattle and pigs, Meaux I, p. 432.

10. Canivez, Statutes I, 1206: 23 (p. 324).


11. Waddell, Usages, ch. XII, p. 185.

12. Waddell, Usages, ch. XI, p. 186.


13. Waddell, Usages, ch IX, p. 182.


14. Waddell, Usages, ch. XIX, pp. 191-192, and see Waddell’s comments in note 2.

15. Caesarius of Heisterbach, The Dialogue on Miracles, tr. H. Von E. Scott and C. C. Swinton Bland, 2 vols. (London, 1929), I, ch. XXXII (p. 230). Caesarius tells of another lay-brother whose eyes were closed by a cat when he was dozing off; this, he explains, was the demon of sleep, Casearius of Heisterbach, Dialogue on Miracles, I, ch. XXXIII (pp. 230-1).


16. Ch. XI ‘Clairvaux Breve’ in Cistercian Lay Brothers: Twelfth-century Usages with Related Texts, ed. C. Waddell (Brecht, 2000), p. 206.

17. Canivez, Statutes I, 1195: 66 (p. 191) and 1206: 23 (p. 324); see J. Sayers, ‘Violence in the medieval cloister’ , Journal of Ecclesiastical History 41: 4 (1990), pp. 533-42, at p. 539.


18. See Waddell, Usages, ch VIII, pp. 179-180.


19. Waddell, Usages, chapter XI, pp. 183-4.

20. Waddell, Usages, chapter XXI, p. 193.

21. Waddell, Usages, chapter X, p. 182.


22. Waddell, Usages, ch. VI, p. 178.

23. Waddell, Usages, ch VI, p. 178.

24. J. S. Fletcher, The Cistercians in Yorkshire (London, 1919), p. 154.

25. Waddell, Usages, ch VI, p. 178; ch VII, p. 179; Capitula of the General Chapter, clauses XVII and XVIII, in Waddell, Narrative and Legislative Texts, p. 412.


Cistercian Life Bibliography